53,143 results match your criteria sensory motor


Two-photon GCaMP6f imaging of infrared neural stimulation evoked calcium signals in mouse cortical neurons in vivo.

Sci Rep 2021 May 7;11(1):9775. Epub 2021 May 7.

Mines Saint-Etienne, Centre CMP, Département BEL, F - 13541, Gardanne, France.

Infrared neural stimulation is a promising tool for stimulating the brain because it can be used to excite with high spatial precision without the need of delivering or inserting any exogenous agent into the tissue. Very few studies have explored its use in the brain, as most investigations have focused on sensory or motor nerve stimulation. Using intravital calcium imaging with the genetically encoded calcium indicator GCaMP6f, here we show that the application of infrared neural stimulation induces intracellular calcium signals in Layer 2/3 neurons in mouse cortex in vivo. Read More

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Single dose perioperative intrathecal ketamine as an adjuvant to intrathecal bupivacaine: A systematic review and meta-analysis of adult human randomized controlled trials.

J Clin Anesth 2021 May 5;73:110331. Epub 2021 May 5.

Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell, Department of Anesthesiology, Northwell Health, New Hyde Park, NY, United States of America.

Study Objective: To identify whether adding intrathecal ketamine to intrathecal bupivacaine prolongs the time to first analgesic request in adult humans.

Design: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in humans.

Setting: The majority of data was obtained in an operating room and postoperative recovery area. Read More

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The effect of xenon on fetal neurodevelopment following maternal sevoflurane anesthesia and laparotomy in rabbits.

Neurotoxicol Teratol 2021 May 4:106994. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Anesthesiology, University Hospitals of the KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium; Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address:

Background: There is concern that maternal anesthesia during pregnancy impairs brain development of the human fetus. Xenon is neuroprotective in pre-clinical models of anesthesia-induced neurotoxicity in neonates. It is not known if xenon also protects the developing fetal brain when administered in addition to maternal sevoflurane-anesthesia during pregnancy. Read More

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Percutaneous Cryoneurolysis for Acute Pain Management: Current Status and Future Prospects.

Expert Rev Med Devices 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

University of California San Diego, Department of Anesthesiology, San Diego, California.

Introduction: Conventional nerve blocks utilize local anesthetic drugs to provide pain relief for hours or days following surgery or trauma. However, postoperative and trauma pain can last weeks or months. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous cryoneurolysis is an anesthetic modality that offers substantially longer pain relief compared to local anesthetic-based nerve blocks. Read More

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Functional motor phenotypes: to lump or to split?

J Neurol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

IRCCS Mondino Foundation, Pavia, Italy.

Introduction: Functional motor disorders (FMDs) are usually categorized according to the predominant phenomenology; however, it is unclear whether this phenotypic classification mirrors the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms.

Objective: To compare the characteristics of patients with different FMDs phenotypes and without co-morbid neurological disorders, aiming to answer the question of whether they represent different expressions of the same disorder or reflect distinct entities.

Methods: Consecutive outpatients with a clinically definite diagnosis of FMDs were included in the Italian registry of functional motor disorders (IRFMD), a multicenter data collection platform gathering several clinical and demographic variables. Read More

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The Neuropathy In Hereditary Transthyretin Amyloidosis (Attrv): A Narrative Review.

J Peripher Nerv Syst 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive and Odontostomatological Science, University of Naples "Federico II", Naples, Italy.

Hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTRv) is a condition with adult-onset caused by mutation of transthyretin (TTR) gene and characterized by extracellular deposition of amyloid fibrils in tissue, expecially in peripheral nervous system (PNS) and heart. The PNS involvement lead to a rapidly progressive and disabling sensory-motor axonal neuropathy. Although awareness among neurologist raised in last years thank to new treatment options, ATTRv is frequently misdiagnosed and thus correct diagnosis can be delayed by several years. Read More

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Effect of Hand Dominance on Functional Outcomes in Pediatric Patients with Flexor Tendon Injuries: A cross-sectional study.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 May 7:e14323. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Orthopedics, Marmara University Pendik Education and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.

Introduction: There are limited data in the literature about the short- to mid-term results of children with flexor tendon injuries. We aim to evaluate the short- to mid-term functional outcomes of children with flexor tendon injuries and to disclose whether the injured side affects the results.

Materials And Methods: Patients who had undergone primary flexor tendon repair were included into the study. Read More

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Generation of Cortical, Dopaminergic, Motor, and Sensory Neurons from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, A*STAR Research Entities, Singapore, Singapore.

The use of patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and their neural derivatives is becoming increasingly important in the study of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Lewy body dementia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, peripheral neuropathy, and so on. Increasingly, iPSC-derived neurons also reveal key pathways and signaling defects in psychiatric disorders such as autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. With recent advances in CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing technology, patient-derived iPSCs with disease-causing mutations can be corrected into "isogenic control lines," and these can be differentiated into neural derivatives with identical genetic background. Read More

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Simultaneous Cervical and Lumbar Spinal Cord Stimulation Induces Facilitation of Both Spinal and Corticospinal Circuitry in Humans.

Front Neurosci 2021 20;15:615103. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Neuroscience and Mental Health Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Coupling between cervical and lumbar spinal networks (cervico-lumbar coupling) is vital during human locomotion. Impaired cervico-lumbar coupling after neural injuries or diseases can be reengaged via simultaneous arm and leg cycling training. Sensorimotor circuitry including cervico-lumbar coupling may further be enhanced by non-invasive modulation of spinal circuity using transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation (tSCS). Read More

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Untangling the cortico-thalamo-cortical loop: cellular pieces of a knotty circuit puzzle.

Nat Rev Neurosci 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Physiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA.

Functions of the neocortex depend on its bidirectional communication with the thalamus, via cortico-thalamo-cortical (CTC) loops. Recent work dissecting the synaptic connectivity in these loops is generating a clearer picture of their cellular organization. Here, we review findings across sensory, motor and cognitive areas, focusing on patterns of cell type-specific synaptic connections between the major types of cortical and thalamic neurons. Read More

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Suppression of neuropathic pain and comorbidities by recurrent cycles of repetitive transcranial direct current motor cortex stimulation in mice.

Sci Rep 2021 May 6;11(1):9735. Epub 2021 May 6.

Institute of Pharmacology, Medical Faculty Heidelberg, Heidelberg University, Im Neuenheimer Feld 366, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany.

Transcranial, minimally-invasive stimulation of the primary motor cortex (M1) has recently emerged to show promise in treating clinically refractory neuropathic pain. However, there is a major need for improving efficacy, reducing variability and understanding mechanisms. Rodent models hold promise in helping to overcome these obstacles. Read More

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Evaluating the Reproducibility of the Walking Test for Intermittent Claudication Associated with Lumbar Spinal Stenosis.

Asian Spine J 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Division of Orthopedic Surgery, Department of Sensory of Motor Organs, School of Medicine, Tottori University Faculty of Medicine, Yonago, Japan.

Study Design: This is a multicenter, prospective study.

Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the reproducibility of the walking test for patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS).

Overview Of Literature: Walking test is one of the useful procedures to investigate cauda equina syndrome with lumbar spinal stenosis. Read More

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A proteomic analysis of urine biomarkers in autism spectrum disorder.

J Proteomics 2021 May 3:104259. Epub 2021 May 3.

Medical School of Chinese PLA, Beijing, China; Department of Laboratory Medicine, The First Medical Centre, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by early-onset social-communication challenges, restricted and repetitive behaviors, or unusual sensory-motor behaviors. A lack of specific biomarkers hinders the early diagnosis and treatment of this disease in many children. This study analyzes and validates potential urinary biomarkers using mass spectrometry proteomics. Read More

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Within-Subject Reaction Time Variability: Role of Cortical Networks and Underlying Neurophysiological Mechanisms.

Neuroimage 2021 May 3:118127. Epub 2021 May 3.

National Center for Adaptive Neurotechnologies, Albany, NY, USA; Dept. of Biomedical Science, State University of New York at Albany, Albany, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Variations in reaction time are a ubiquitous characteristic of human behavior. Extensively documented, they have been successfully modeled using parameters of the subject or the task, but the neural basis of behavioral reaction time that varies within the same subject and the same task has been minimally studied. In this paper, we investigate behavioral reaction time variance using 28 datasets of direct cortical recordings in humans who engaged in four different types of simple sensory-motor reaction time tasks. Read More

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Neuroanatomical organization of methionine-enkephalinergic system in the brain of the Mozambique tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus.

J Chem Neuroanat 2021 May 3;115:101963. Epub 2021 May 3.

Neuroendocrinology Research Laboratory, Department of Studies in Zoology, Karnatak University, Dharwad, 580 003, India.

Enkephalins are a class of opioid peptides implicated in several physiological and neuroendocrine responses in vertebrates. In this study, using immunocytochemical or immunofluorescence technique, we examined the neuroanatomical distribution of methionine enkephalin (M-ENK) immunoreactivity in the central nervous system (CNS) of the cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus. In the telencephalon, no M-ENK-like-immunoreactive (M-ENK-L-ir) perikarya, but sparsely distributed fibres were detected in the glomerular layer and the granule cell layer of the olfactory bulb. Read More

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Auditory Decisions in the Supplementary Motor Area.

Prog Neurobiol 2021 May 3:102053. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Institute of Cell Physiology, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), 04510, Mexico City, Mexico. Electronic address:

In human speech and communication across various species, recognizing and categorizing sounds is fundamental for the selection of appropriate behaviors. But how does the brain decide which action to perform based on sounds? We explored whether the premotor supplementary motor area (SMA), responsible for linking sensory information to motor programs, also accounts for auditory-driven decision making. To this end, we trained two rhesus monkeys to discriminate between numerous naturalistic sounds and words learned as target (T) or non-target (nT) categories. Read More

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Rhythm and groove as cognitive mechanisms of dance intervention in Parkinson's disease.

PLoS One 2021 6;16(5):e0249933. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Biology, Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut, United States of America.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with a loss of internal cueing systems, affecting rhythmic motor tasks such as walking and speech production. Music and dance encourage spontaneous rhythmic coupling between sensory and motor systems; this has inspired the development of dance programs for PD. Here we assessed the therapeutic outcome and some underlying cognitive mechanisms of dance classes for PD, as measured by neuropsychological assessments of disease severity as well as quantitative assessments of rhythmic ability and sensorimotor experience. Read More

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Relations of Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors to Social Skills in Toddlers with Autism.

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

University of Minnesota, 56 East River Road, Minneapolis, MN, 55455, USA.

We examined the relations of restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRB; insistence on sameness, repetitive sensory-motor, self-injurious behavior) to social skills overall and aspects that comprise social skills as measured by the VABS-II (coping skills, play/leisure time, interpersonal relationships) in 24- (n = 63) and 36-month old (n = 35), high-familial-risk toddlers with ASD. Hierarchical linear regression results indicated that repetitive sensory-motor was the best predictor of social skills overall. Secondary results indicated that all three RRB subtypes were associated with each subdomain of social skills; however, repetitive sensory-motor was the strongest and most consistent among these effects. Read More

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Innervation of digital joints: an anatomical overview.

Surg Radiol Anat 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Rouen University Hospital, Rouen, France.

Introduction: The innervation of the digital joints as well as the anatomical relationships of the articular branches is present in this anatomical work to determine the technical feasibility of a selective and efficient denervation of the digital joints.

Materials And Methods: A study of 40 distal interphalangeal (DIP), 40 proximal interphalangeal (PIP), 50 metacarpophalangeal (MCP), 10 interphalangeal (IP) of the thumb, and 10 trapezo-metacarpophalangeal (TMC) joints was performed on ten hands. Under magnification and a proper surgical approach, we collected the course, the source origin, the number of articular nerve branches, and their caliber. Read More

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Research progress on the regulatory role of microRNAs in spinal cord injury.

Regen Med 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

The Second Clinical Medical College, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000, PR China.

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a severe CNS injury that results in abnormalities in, or loss of, motor, sensory and autonomic nervous function. miRNAs belong to a new class of noncoding RNA that regulates the production of proteins and biological function of cells by silencing translation or interfering with the expression of target mRNAs. Following SCI, miRNAs related to oxidative stress, inflammation, autophagy, apoptosis and many other secondary injuries are differentially expressed, and these miRNAs play an important role in the progression of secondary injuries after SCI. Read More

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Instantaneous movement-unrelated midbrain activity modifies ongoing eye movements.

Elife 2021 May 6;10. Epub 2021 May 6.

Werner Reichardt Centre for Integrative Neuroscience, Tübingen University, Tübingen, Germany.

At any moment in time, new information is sampled from the environment and interacts with ongoing brain state. Often, such interaction takes place within individual circuits that are capable of both mediating the internally ongoing plan as well as representing exogenous sensory events. Here we investigated how sensory-driven neural activity can be integrated, very often in the same neuron types, into ongoing saccade motor commands. Read More

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Eye movement characteristics provide an objective measure of visual processing changes in patients with visual snow syndrome.

Sci Rep 2021 May 5;11(1):9607. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Neuroscience, Central Clinical School, Monash University, 6th Floor, The Alfred Centre, 99 Commercial Road, Melbourne, VIC, 3004, Australia.

Visual snow syndrome (VSS) is a poorly understood neurological disorder that features a range of disabling sensory changes. Visual processing changes revealed previously in VSS appear consistent with poor attentional control, specifically, with difficulty controlling environmentally driven shifts of attention. This study sought to confirm this proposal by determining whether these changes were similarly evident where attention is internally driven. Read More

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Anterior insula regulates brain network transitions that gate conscious access.

Cell Rep 2021 May;35(5):109081

Department of Anesthesiology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA; Center for Consciousness Science, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA; Neuroscience Graduate Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. Electronic address:

Conscious access to sensory information is likely gated at an intermediate site between primary sensory and transmodal association cortices, but the structure responsible remains unknown. We perform functional neuroimaging to determine the neural correlates of conscious access using a volitional mental imagery task, a report paradigm not confounded by motor behavior. Titrating propofol to loss of behavioral responsiveness in healthy volunteers creates dysfunction of the anterior insular cortex (AIC) in association with an impairment of dynamic transitions of default-mode and dorsal attention networks. Read More

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Hippotherapy in neurodevelopmental disorders: a narrative review focusing on cognitive and behavioral outcomes.

Appl Neuropsychol Child 2020 Dec 1:1-8. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

IRCCS Centro Neurolesi "Bonino-Pulejo", Messina, Italy.

Hippotherapy (HT) is a rehabilitative tool inducing psychological and motor improvements using human-horse interaction. HT provides sensory stimulation to the rider through the rhythmic and repetitive movements of the horse, facilitating communication between patients and healthcare professionals, favoring the establishment of a therapeutic alliance. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the effects of HT treatment on cognitive-behavioral processes in neurodevelopmental disorders. Read More

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December 2020

Identification of First-in-Class Inhibitors of Kallikrein-Related Peptidase 6 That Promote Oligodendrocyte Differentiation.

J Med Chem 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Faculty of Sciences and Engineering, IBPS, UMR 8256 CNRS-UPMC, ERL INSERM U1164, Biological Adaptation and Ageing, Sorbonne Université, F-75252 Paris, France.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that causes severe motor, sensory, and cognitive impairments. Kallikrein-related peptidase (KLK)6 is the most abundant serine protease secreted in the CNS, mainly by oligodendrocytes, the myelin-producing cells of the CNS, and KLK6 is assumed to be a robust biomarker of MS, since it is highly increased in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of MS patients. Here, we report the design and biological evaluation of KLK6's low-molecular-weight inhibitors, -aminobenzyl derivatives. Read More

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Examining the neural antecedents of tics in Tourette syndrome using electroencephalography.

J Neuropsychol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

School of Psychology, University of Nottingham, UK.

Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by the occurrence of motor and vocal tics. TS is associated with cortical-striatal-thalamic-cortical circuit dysfunction and hyper-excitability of cortical limbic and motor regions that lead to the occurrence of tics. Importantly, individuals with TS often report that their tics are preceded by premonitory sensory/urge phenomena (PU) that are described as uncomfortable bodily sensations that precede the execution of a tic and are experienced as an urge for motor discharge. Read More

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Guillain-Barré syndrome in Local Eastern China: a study of 595 patients.

Eur J Neurol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Neurology, Affiliated Hospital of Jining Medical University, Jining, Shandong Province, China.

Background: To investigate geographical differences in clinical features of patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) from local Eastern China and other areas.

Methods: A total of 595 patients fulfilling GBS and variants were included from two large hospitals located in Eastern China. Data collection included demographics, antecedent events, clinical presentation and signs, electrophysiological subtypes, treatment, complications during hospitalization, clinical severity at nadir and outcome at 12 months and were compared to the Southern China study and the Europe/Americas part of International GBS Outcome Study. Read More

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Identifying bidirectional total and non-linear information flow in functional corticomuscular coupling during a dorsiflexion task: a pilot study.

J Neuroeng Rehabil 2021 May 4;18(1):74. Epub 2021 May 4.

Institute of Electric Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, 066004, Hebei, China.

Background: The key challenge to constructing functional corticomuscular coupling (FCMC) is to accurately identify the direction and strength of the information flow between scalp electroencephalography (EEG) and surface electromyography (SEMG). Traditional TE and TDMI methods have difficulty in identifying the information interaction for short time series as they tend to rely on long and stable data, so we propose a time-delayed maximal information coefficient (TDMIC) method. With this method, we aim to investigate the directional specificity of bidirectional total and nonlinear information flow on FCMC, and to explore the neural mechanisms underlying motor dysfunction in stroke patients. Read More

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Sensory Attenuation in Sport and Rehabilitation: Perspective from Research in Parkinson's Disease.

Brain Sci 2021 Apr 30;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Centre for Human Brain Health, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK.

People with Parkinson's disease (PD) experience motor symptoms that are affected by sensory information in the environment. Sensory attenuation describes the modulation of sensory input caused by motor intent. This appears to be altered in PD and may index important sensorimotor processes underpinning PD symptoms. Read More

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Delayed manipulation of regeneration within injured peripheral axons.

Neurobiol Dis 2021 May 1:105383. Epub 2021 May 1.

Peripheral Nerve Research Laboratory, Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine and the Neurosciences and Mental Health Institute, University of Alberta, Canada. Electronic address:

While several new translational strategies to enhance regrowth of peripheral axons have been identified, combined approaches with different targets are rare. Moreover, few have been studied after a significant delay when growth programs are already well established and regeneration-related protein expression has waned. Here we study two approaches, Rb1 (Retinoblastoma 1) knockdown that targets overall neuron plasticity, and near nerve insulin acting as a growth factor. Read More

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