33,156 results match your criteria sensory ganglia


Cerebellar ataxia and myeloradiculopathy associated with AP3B2 antibody: a case report and literature review.

J Neurol 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Neurology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing and Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, 100730, China.

Background: AP3B2 is one of the subunits of vesicle coat protein AP3 and is specifically expressed in central nervous system neurons. AP3B2 antibody has been reported in patients with autoimmune cerebellar ataxia and various extracerebellar symptoms. However, there have been few reports on its clinical features and treatment response. Read More

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Modeling chemotherapy induced neurotoxicity with human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) -derived sensory neurons.

Neurobiol Dis 2021 May 10:105391. Epub 2021 May 10.

Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin and Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Klinik und Hochschulambulanz für Neurologie, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin, Germany; Berlin Institute of Health at Charité, Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Anna-Louisa-Karsch Straße 2, 10178 Berlin, Germany; Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, NeuroCure Cluster of Excellence, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin, Germany; Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Center for Stroke Research Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin, Germany; German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), partner site Berlin, Germany; German Center for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK), partner site Berlin, Germany.

Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a frequent, potentially irreversible adverse effect of cytotoxic chemotherapy often leading to a reduction or discontinuation of treatment which negatively impacts patients' prognosis. To date, however, neither predictive biomarkers nor preventive treatments for CIPN are available, which is partially due to a lack of suitable experimental models. We therefore aimed to evaluate whether sensory neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC-DSN) can serve as human disease model system for CIPN. Read More

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Sensory neuron-associated macrophages as novel modulators of neuropathic pain.

Pain Rep 2021 9;6(1):e873. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Center for Research in Inflammatory Diseases (CRID), University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

The peripheral nervous system comprises an infinity of neural networks that act in the communication between the central nervous system and the most diverse tissues of the body. Along with the extension of the primary sensory neurons (axons and cell bodies), a population of resident macrophages has been described. These newly called sensory neuron-associated macrophages (sNAMs) seem to play an essential role in physiological and pathophysiological processes, including infection, autoimmunity, nerve degeneration/regeneration, and chronic neuropathic pain. Read More

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Blind Visualization of Task-Related Networks From Visual Oddball Simultaneous EEG-fMRI Data: Spectral or Spatiospectral Model?

Front Neurol 2021 26;12:644874. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Division of Clinical Behavioral Neuroscience, Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States.

Various disease conditions can alter EEG event-related responses and fMRI-BOLD signals. We hypothesized that event-related responses and their clinical alterations are imprinted in the EEG spectral domain as event-related (spatio)spectral patterns (ERSPat). We tested four EEG-fMRI fusion models utilizing EEG power spectra fluctuations (i. Read More

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Mapping Reward Mechanisms by Intracerebral Self Stimulation in the Rhesus Monkey (Macaca mulatta).

J Comp Neurol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences and National Primate Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

The objective of the study was to identify brain structures that mediate reward as evidenced by positive reinforcing effects of stimuli on behavior. Testing by intracerebral self-stimulation enabled monkeys to inform whether activation of ~2900 sites in 74 structures of four sensorimotor pathways and four modulatory loop pathways was positive, negative or neutral. Stimulation was rewarding at 30% of sites, negative at 17%, neutral at 52%. Read More

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Comparative anatomical studies on the cranial nerves of the fully formed embryos of the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Ostiechthyes-Cichlidae). I. Nervus glossopharyngeus.

Braz J Biol 2021 10;82:e245509. Epub 2021 May 10.

Taif University, College of Sciences, Department of Biology, Taif, Saudi Arabia.

The organization of the roots, ganglia and the peripheral distribution of the cranial nerves of the fully formed embryos of Oreochromis niloticus are examined in the transverse serial sections. These nerves carry fibers, which were also analyzed. The results of this study demonstrated that the glossopharyngeal nerve originates by means of only one root, which leaves the cranium through the glossopharyngeal foramen. Read More

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Prodromal sensory neuropathy in Pink1 SNCA double mutant Parkinson mice.

Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Institute for Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Goethe-University, Frankfurt, Germany.

Aims: Parkinson's Disease (PD) is frequently associated with a prodromal sensory neuropathy manifesting with sensory loss and chronic pain. We have recently shown that PD-associated sensory neuropathy in patients is associated with high levels of glucosylceramides. Here, we assessed the underlying pathology and mechanisms in Pink1 SNCA double mutant mice. Read More

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RFC1 expansions are a common cause of idiopathic sensory neuropathy.

Brain 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Neurosciences, Rehabilitation, Ophthalmology, Genetics, Maternal and Child Health (DINOGMI), University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy.

After extensive evaluation, one-third of patients affected by polyneuropathy remain undiagnosed and are labelled as having chronic idiopathic axonal polyneuropathy, which refers to a sensory or sensory-motor, axonal, slowly progressive neuropathy of unknown origin. Since a sensory neuropathy/neuronopathy is identified in all patients with genetically confirmed RFC1 cerebellar ataxia, neuropathy, vestibular areflexia syndrome, we speculated that RFC1 expansions could underlie a fraction of idiopathic sensory neuropathies also diagnosed as chronic idiopathic axonal polyneuropathy. We retrospectively identified 225 patients diagnosed with chronic idiopathic axonal polyneuropathy (125 sensory neuropathy, 100 sensory-motor neuropathy) from our general neuropathy clinics in Italy and the UK. Read More

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Editorial: Cranial Placodes and Neural Crest Interactions in Craniofacial Development.

Front Physiol 2021 22;12:681397. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Animal and Avian Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, United States.

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Altered Sensory Representations in Parkinsonian Cortical and Basal Ganglia Networks.

Neuroscience 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Departamento de Neurobiología del Desarrollo y Neurofisiología, Instituto de Neurobiología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Querétaro 76230, Mexico. Electronic address:

In parkinsonian conditions, network dynamics in the cortical and basal ganglia circuits present abnormal oscillations and periods of high synchrony, affecting the functionality of multiple striatal regions including the sensorimotor striatum. However, it is still unclear how these altered dynamics impact on sensory processing, a key feature for motor control that is severely impaired in parkinsonian patients. A major confound is that pathological dynamics in sensorimotor networks may elicit unspecific motor responses that may alter sensory representations through sensory feedback, making it difficult to disentangle motor and sensory components. Read More

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Wnt antagonists suppress herpes simplex virus type 1 productive infection.

Antiviral Res 2021 May 4:105082. Epub 2021 May 4.

Oklahoma State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Stillwater, OK 74078. Electronic address:

Following acute infection of mucosal surfaces, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) establishes life-long latent infections within neurons, including sensory neurons in trigeminal ganglia (TG). Periodically, reactivation from latency occurs resulting in virus transmission and recurrent disease. In the absence of lytic cycle viral transcriptional proteins, host factors are predicted to mediate early stages of reactivation from latency. Read More

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The neuropathy in hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis: A narrative review.

J Peripher Nerv Syst 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive and Odontostomatological Science, University of Naples "Federico II", Naples, Italy.

Hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTRv) is a condition with adult-onset caused by mutation of transthyretin (TTR) gene and characterized by extracellular deposition of amyloid fibrils in tissue, expecially in peripheral nervous system (PNS) and heart. The PNS involvement lead to a rapidly progressive and disabling sensory-motor axonal neuropathy. Although awareness among neurologist raised in last years thank to new treatment options, ATTRv is frequently misdiagnosed and thus correct diagnosis can be delayed by several years. Read More

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Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced nociceptor activation increases susceptibility to infection.

PLoS Pathog 2021 May 6;17(5):e1009557. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.

We report a rapid reduction in blink reflexes during in vivo ocular Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, which is commonly attributed and indicative of functional neuronal damage. Sensory neurons derived in vitro from trigeminal ganglia (TG) were able to directly respond to P. aeruginosa but reacted significantly less to strains of P. Read More

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Examining the neural antecedents of tics in Tourette syndrome using electroencephalography.

J Neuropsychol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

School of Psychology, University of Nottingham, UK.

Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by the occurrence of motor and vocal tics. TS is associated with cortical-striatal-thalamic-cortical circuit dysfunction and hyper-excitability of cortical limbic and motor regions that lead to the occurrence of tics. Importantly, individuals with TS often report that their tics are preceded by premonitory sensory/urge phenomena (PU) that are described as uncomfortable bodily sensations that precede the execution of a tic and are experienced as an urge for motor discharge. Read More

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Sensory Attenuation in Sport and Rehabilitation: Perspective from Research in Parkinson's Disease.

Brain Sci 2021 Apr 30;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Centre for Human Brain Health, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK.

People with Parkinson's disease (PD) experience motor symptoms that are affected by sensory information in the environment. Sensory attenuation describes the modulation of sensory input caused by motor intent. This appears to be altered in PD and may index important sensorimotor processes underpinning PD symptoms. Read More

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Delayed manipulation of regeneration within injured peripheral axons.

Neurobiol Dis 2021 May 1;155:105383. Epub 2021 May 1.

Peripheral Nerve Research Laboratory, Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine and the Neuroscience and Mental Health Institute, University of Alberta, Canada. Electronic address:

While several new translational strategies to enhance regrowth of peripheral axons have been identified, combined approaches with different targets are rare. Moreover, few have been studied after a significant delay when growth programs are already well established and regeneration-related protein expression has waned. Here we study two approaches, Rb1 (Retinoblastoma 1) knockdown that targets overall neuron plasticity, and near nerve insulin acting as a growth factor. Read More

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β2 adrenergic receptor mediates noradrenergic action to induce CREB phosphorylation in satellite glial cells of dorsal root ganglia to regulate visceral hypersensitivity.

Pain 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, School of Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298-0551, USA.

Abstract: Sympathoneuronal outflow into dorsal root ganglia (DRG) is suggested to be involved in sympathetically maintained chronic pain, which is mediated by norepinephrine (NE) action on DRG cells. The present study combined in vitro and in vivo approaches to identify the cell types of DRG that received NE action and examined cell-type specific expression of adrenergic receptors (ARs) in DRG. Using DRG explants, we identified that NE acted on satellite glial cells (SGCs) to induce the phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding (CREB). Read More

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Sympathectomy decreases pain behaviors and nerve regeneration by downregulating monocyte chemokine CCL2 in dorsal root ganglia in the rat tibial nerve crush model.

Pain 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Pain Research Center, Department of Anesthesiology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267, U.S.A. Department of Anesthesiology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008, China. *Present address.

Abstract: Peripheral nerve regeneration is associated with pain in several preclinical models of neuropathic pain. Some neuropathic pain conditions and preclinical neuropathic pain behaviors are improved by sympathetic blockade. In this study we examined the effect of a localized "microsympathectomy," i. Read More

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cGMP signalling in dorsal root ganglia and the spinal cord: Various functions in development and adulthood.

Br J Pharmacol 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Institute of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

Cyclic GMP (cGMP) is a second messenger that regulates numerous physiological and pathophysiological processes. In recent years, more and more studies have uncovered multiple roles of cGMP signalling pathways in the somatosensory system. Accumulating evidence suggests that cGMP regulates different cellular processes from embryonic development through adulthood. Read More

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Tau phosphorylation and cochlear apoptosis cause hearing loss in 3×Tg-AD Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

Chin J Physiol 2021 Mar-Apr;64(2):61-71

School of Life Sciences, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Clinically typical dementia Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with abnormal auditory processing. However, possible molecular mechanisms responsible for the auditory pathology of AD patients are not known. According to our past research findings that the thresholds of auditory brainstem response, but not distortion product otoacoustic emissions, were significantly increased in AD mice from 9 months of age and thereafter. Read More

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Rostral Intralaminar Thalamus Engagement in Cognition and Behavior.

Front Behav Neurosci 2021 15;15:652764. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States.

The thalamic rostral intralaminar nuclei (rILN) are a contiguous band of neurons that include the central medial, paracentral, and central lateral nuclei. The rILN differ from both thalamic relay nuclei, such as the lateral geniculate nucleus, and caudal intralaminar nuclei, such as the parafascicular nucleus, in afferent and efferent connectivity as well as physiological and synaptic properties. rILN activity is associated with a range of neural functions and behaviors, including arousal, pain, executive function, and action control. Read More

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Acupuncture modulates extracellular ATP levels in peripheral sensory nervous system during analgesia of ankle arthritis in rats.

Purinergic Signal 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

School of Acupuncture-Moxibustion and Tuina, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 1200 Cailun Road, Shanghai, 201203, China.

As an ancient analgesia therapy, acupuncture has been practiced worldwide nowadays. A good understanding of its mechanisms will offer a promise for its rational and wider application. As the first station of pain sensation, peripheral sensory ganglia express pain-related P2X receptors that are involved in the acupuncture analgesia mechanisms transduction pathway. Read More

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Input of Sensory, Limbic, Basal Ganglia and Pallial/Cortical Information into the Ventral/Lateral Habenula: Functional Principles in Anuran Amphibians.

Brain Res 2021 Apr 27:147506. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Institute for Zoology, University of Cologne, Zülpicher Str. 47b, 50674 Cologne, Germany.

The habenula - a phylogenetically old brain structure present in all vertebrates - is involved in pain processing, reproductive behaviors, sleep-wake cycles, stress responses, reward, and learning. We performed intra- and extracellular recordings of ventral habenula (VHb) neurons in the isolated brain of anurans and revealed similar cell and response properties to those reported for the lateral habenula of mammals. We identified tonic regular, tonic irregular, rhythmic firing, and silent VHb neurons. Read More

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Mechanism of White Matter Injury and Promising Therapeutic Strategies of MSCs After Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 13;13:632054. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Neurosurgery Center, The National Key Clinical Specialty, The Engineering Technology Research Center of Education Ministry of China on Diagnosis and Treatment of Cerebrovascular Disease, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory on Brain Function Repair and Regeneration, The Neurosurgery Institute of Guangdong Province, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is the most fatal subtype of stroke with high disability and high mortality rates, and there is no effective treatment. The predilection site of ICH is in the area of the basal ganglia and internal capsule (IC), where exist abundant white matter (WM) fiber tracts, such as the corticospinal tract (CST) in the IC. Proximal or distal white matter injury (WMI) caused by intracerebral parenchymal hemorrhage is closely associated with poor prognosis after ICH, especially motor and sensory dysfunction. Read More

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The Human Basal Ganglia Mediate the Interplay between Reactive and Proactive Control of Response through Both Motor Inhibition and Sensory Modulation.

Brain Sci 2021 Apr 28;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Université de Lyon, 69622 Lyon, France.

The basal ganglia (BG) have long been known for contributing to the regulation of motor behaviour by means of a complex interplay between tonic and phasic inhibitory mechanisms. However, after having focused for a long time on phasic reactive mechanisms, it is only recently that psychological research in healthy humans has modelled tonic proactive mechanisms of control. Mutual calibration between anatomo-functional and psychological models is still needed to better understand the unclear role of the BG in the interplay between proactive and reactive mechanisms of control. Read More

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PEA-OXA Mitigates Oxaliplatin-Induced Painful Neuropathy through NF-κB/Nrf-2 Axis.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 10;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, Viale Ferdinando Stagno D'Alcontres, 98166 Messina, Italy.

Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy is a common, dose-dependent adverse effect of several antineoplastics, such as oxaliplatin (L-OHP). The aim of the present work was to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of 2-pentadecyl-2-oxazoline (PEA-OXA) in a murine model of oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy (OIPN). OIPN was induced by an intraperitoneally injection of L-OHP in rats on five consecutive days (D0-4) for a final cumulative dose of 10 mg/kg. Read More

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Basal ganglia and cortical control of thalamic rebound spikes.

Eur J Neurosci 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Psychology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.

Movement-related decreases in firing rate have been observed in basal ganglia output neurons. They may transmit motor signals to the thalamus, but the effect of these firing rate decreases on downstream neurons in the motor thalamus is not known. One possibility is that they lead to thalamic post-inhibitory rebound spikes. Read More

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Acrolein scavenger dimercaprol offers neuroprotection in an animal model of Parkinson's disease: implication of acrolein and TRPA1.

Transl Neurodegener 2021 Apr 28;10(1):13. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Center for Paralysis Research & Department of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, 47907, USA.

Background: The mechanisms underlying lesions of dopaminergic (DA) neurons, an essential pathology of Parkinson's disease (PD), are largely unknown, although oxidative stress is recognized as a key factor. We have previously shown that the pro-oxidative aldehyde acrolein is a critical factor in PD pathology, and that acrolein scavenger hydralazine can reduce the elevated acrolein, mitigate DA neuron death, and alleviate motor deficits in a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat model. As such, we hypothesize that a structurally distinct acrolein scavenger, dimercaprol (DP), can also offer neuroprotection and behavioral benefits. Read More

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P2X receptor upregulation in trigeminal ganglion neurons through TNFα production in macrophages contributes to trigeminal neuropathic pain in rats.

J Headache Pain 2021 Apr 26;22(1):31. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Physiology, Nihon University School of Dentistry, 1-8-13 Kandasurugadai Chiyoda-ku, 101-8310, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Trigeminal neuralgia is a characteristic disease that manifests as orofacial phasic or continuous severe pain triggered by innocuous orofacial stimulation; its mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we established a new animal model of trigeminal neuralgia and investigated the role of P2X receptor (P2XR) alteration in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) via tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) signaling in persistent orofacial pain.

Methods: Trigeminal nerve root compression (TNC) was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Read More

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Culture media optimization for Chinese hamster ovary cell growth and expression of recombinant varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E.

Cytotechnology 2021 Apr 20:1-13. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Integrated Bioscience & Biotechnology, Sejong University, 209 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 05006 Republic of Korea.

Herpes zoster (HZ) is caused by reactivation of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) latent in the sensory ganglia and causes severe pain, often leading to postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). Two prophylactic vaccines against HZ are currently licensed for human use, a live attenuated vaccine and a subunit vaccine containing recombinant VZV glycoprotein E (gE) as antigen. The latter has superior protective efficacy against HZ and PHN. Read More

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