36,819 results match your criteria selective stimulation


Gastroparesis.

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Division of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This review highlights recent research advances regarding the pathophysiology and treatment of gastroparesis.

Recent Findings: Differences in brain activity have been identified on functional MRI imaging in gastroparesis patients with nausea. Abdominal pain is common in patients with gastroparesis and does not correlate with the severity of gastric emptying delay, though may be associated with depression and anxiety. Read More

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September 2021

Selective Glucocorticoid Replacement Following Unilateral Adrenalectomy for Hypercortisolism and Primary Aldosteronism.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Division of Surgical Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Background: An institutional study previously demonstrated that cosyntropin stimulation testing on postoperative day 1 (POD1-CST) identified patients at risk for adrenal insufficiency (AI) following unilateral adrenalectomy (UA) for adrenal-dependent hypercortisolism (HC) and primary aldosteronism (PA), allowing for selective glucocorticoid replacement (GR). This study reevaluates the need for GR following UA for patients with HC and PA in a larger cohort.

Methods: A prospective database identified 108 patients who underwent UA for mild autonomous cortisol excess (MACE) (n=47), overt hypercortisolism (OH) (n=27), PA (n=22), and concurrent PA/HC (n=12) from 9/2014-10/2020; all underwent preoperative evaluation for HC. Read More

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September 2021

Validation and Reliability of a Novel Vagus Nerve Neurodynamic Test and Its Effects on Heart Rate in Healthy Subjects: Little Differences Between Sexes.

Front Neurosci 2021 6;15:698470. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Mechanics, Politecnico di Milano, Lecco, Italy.

Background: The vagus nerve (VN), also called the pneumogastric nerve, connects the brainstem to organs contained in the chest and abdomen. Physiologically, VN stimulation can rapidly affect cardiac activity and heart rate (HR). VN neuropathy can increase the risk of arrhythmias and sudden death. Read More

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September 2021

Dopaminergic co-transmission with sonic hedgehog inhibits abnormal involuntary movements in models of Parkinson's disease and L-Dopa induced dyskinesia.

Commun Biol 2021 Sep 22;4(1):1071. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Molecular, Cellular and Biomedical Sciences, CUNY School of Medicine at City College of New York, City University of New York, New York, NY, USA.

L-Dopa induced dyskinesia (LID) is a debilitating side effect of dopamine replacement therapy for Parkinson's Disease. The mechanistic underpinnings of LID remain obscure. Here we report that diminished sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling in the basal ganglia caused by the degeneration of midbrain dopamine neurons facilitates the formation and expression of LID. Read More

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September 2021

The β Adrenergic Receptor Antagonist L-748,337 Attenuates Dobutamine-Induced Cardiac Inefficiency While Preserving Inotropy in Anesthetized Pigs.

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 2021 Sep 23:10742484211048762. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Cardiovascular Research Group, Institute of Medical Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, 8016UiT-The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

Excessive myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO) is considered a limitation for catecholamines, termed oxygen cost of contractility. We hypothesize that increased MVO induced by dobutamine is not directly related to contractility but linked to intermediary myocardial metabolism. Furthermore, we hypothesize that selective β adrenergic receptor (βAR) antagonism using L-748,337 prevents this. Read More

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September 2021

Release of endogenous dynorphin opioids in the prefrontal cortex disrupts cognition.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Center for Neurobiology of Addiction, Pain, and Emotion, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Following repeated opioid use, some dependent individuals experience persistent cognitive deficits that contribute to relapse of drug-taking behaviors, and one component of this response may be mediated by the endogenous dynorphin/kappa opioid system in neocortex. In C57BL/6 male mice, we find that acute morphine withdrawal evokes dynorphin release in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) and disrupts cognitive function by activation of local kappa opioid receptors (KORs). Immunohistochemical analyses using a phospho-KOR antibody confirmed that both withdrawal-induced and optically evoked dynorphin release activated KOR in PFC. Read More

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September 2021

Plant programmed cell death meets auxin signalling.

FEBS J 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

University College Dublin, School of Biology and Environmental Science, Science Centre, Belfield, Ireland.

Both auxin signalling and programmed cell death (PCD) are essential components of a normally functioning plant. Auxin underpins plant growth and development, as well as regulating plant defences against environmental stresses. PCD, a genetically controlled pathway for selective elimination of redundant, damaged, or infected cells, is also a key element of many developmental processes and stress response mechanisms in plants. Read More

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September 2021

ROCK1 Mediates Retinal Glial Cell Migration Promoted by Acrolein.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 3;8:717602. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Laboratory of Ocular Cell Biology and Visual Science, Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.

Acrolein is a highly reactive aldehyde that covalently binds to cellular macromolecules and subsequently modulates cellular function. Our previous study demonstrated that acrolein induces glial cell migration, a pathological hallmark of diabetic retinopathy; however, the detailed cellular mechanism remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of acrolein in retinal glial cell migration by focusing on rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinases (ROCKs). Read More

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September 2021

Fast Optical Investigation of Cardiac Electrophysiology by Parallel Detection in Multiwell Plates.

Front Physiol 2021 3;12:692496. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

European Laboratory for Non-linear Spectroscopy, Sesto Fiorentino, Italy.

Current techniques for fast characterization of cardiac electrophysiology employ optical technologies to control and monitor action potential features of single cells or cellular monolayers placed in multiwell plates. High-speed investigation capacities are commonly achieved by serially analyzing well after well employing fully automated fluorescence microscopes. Here, we describe an alternative cost-effective optical approach (MULTIPLE) that exploits high-power LED arrays to globally illuminate a culture plate and an sCMOS sensor for parallel detection of the fluorescence coming from multiple wells. Read More

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September 2021

Acute Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Receptor Type 2 Agonism Results in Sustained Symptom Improvement in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

Front Syst Neurosci 2021 1;15:698240. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Bateman Horne Center, Salt Lake City, UT, United States.

Background: Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a complex multi-symptom disease with widespread evidence of disrupted systems. The authors hypothesize that it is caused by the upregulation of the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2 (CRFR2) in the raphé nuclei and limbic system, which impairs the ability to maintain homeostasis. The authors propose utilizing agonist-mediated receptor endocytosis to downregulate CRFR2. Read More

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September 2021

Curcumin Exerts Antinociceptive Effects in Cancer-Induced Bone Pain via an Endogenous Opioid Mechanism.

Front Neurosci 2021 3;15:696861. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Orthopedics, Lanzhou University Second Hospital, Lanzhou, China.

Cancer pain is one of the main complications in advanced cancer patients, and its management is still challenging. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop novel pharmacotherapy for cancer pain. Several natural products have attracted the interest of researchers. Read More

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September 2021

Platinized graphene fiber electrodes uncover direct spleen-vagus communication.

Commun Biol 2021 09 17;4(1):1097. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Biomedical Engineering and Biomedical Sciences, University of Houston, Health 2, 4849 Calhoun Rd., Room 6014, Houston, TX, 77204-6064, USA.

Neural interfacing nerve fascicles along the splenic neurovascular plexus (SNVP) is needed to better understand the spleen physiology, and for selective neuromodulation of this major organ. However, their small size and anatomical location have proven to be a significant challenge. Here, we use a reduced liquid crystalline graphene oxide (rGO) fiber coated with platinum (Pt) as a super-flexible suture-like electrode to interface multiple SNVP. Read More

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September 2021

Non-invasive and accurate readout of superoxide anion in biological systems by near-infrared light.

Anal Chim Acta 2021 Sep 5;1179:338827. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Graduate School of Bioresources, Mie University, 1577 Kurimamachiya, Tsu, Mie, 514-8507, Japan. Electronic address:

Infectious and inflammatory diseases involve superoxide anion (O) production. Real-time and non-invasive evaluation of O in intact biological systems has been a significant challenge in biology and medicine. Here, I report that an advanced near-infrared chemiluminescent probe, MCLA-800, enables reliable non-invasive optical readout of Oex vivo and in vivo. Read More

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September 2021

Reinterpreting the human ABR binaural interaction component: isolating attention from stimulus effects.

Hear Res 2021 Sep 4;410:108350. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Faculty of Information Technology and Communication Sciences, Tampere University, 33720 Tampere, Finland.

Subtracting the sum of left and right monaural auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) from the corresponding binaural ABR isolates the binaural interaction component (ABR-BIC). In a previous investigation (Ikeda, 2015), during auditory yet not visual tasks, tone-pips elicited a significant difference in amplitude between summed monaural and binaural ABRs. With click stimulation, this amplitude difference was task-independent. Read More

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September 2021

Vagus nerve bundle stimulation using 1505-nm laser irradiation in an in-vivo rat model.

J Biophotonics 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Izmir Biomedicine and Genome Center, Izmir, Turkey.

Laser nerve stimulation using near-infrared laser irradiation has recently been studied in the peripheral nervous system as an alternative method to conventional electrical nerve stimulation. Bringing this method to the vagus nerve model could leverage this emerging stimulation approach to be tested in broader preclinical applications. Here, we report the capability of the laser nerve stimulation method on the rat vagus nerve bundle with a 1505-nm diode laser operated in continuous-wave mode. Read More

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September 2021

Nucleus accumbens projections: Validity and reliability of fiber reconstructions based on high-resolution diffusion-weighted MRI.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany.

Clinical effects of deep brain stimulation are largely mediated by the activation of myelinated axons. Hence, increasing attention has been paid in the past on targeting white matter tracts in addition to gray matter. Aims of the present study were: (i) visualization of discrete afferences and efferences of the nucleus accumbens (NAc), supposed to be a major hub of neural networks relating to mental disorders, using probabilistic fiber tractography and a data driven approach, and (ii) validation of the applied methodology for standardized routine clinical applications. Read More

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September 2021

Requirement of Histone Deacetylase 6 for Interleukin-6 Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, Proliferation, and Migration of Peritoneal Mesothelial Cells.

Front Pharmacol 2021 30;12:722638. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Department of Nephrology, Shanghai East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Influenced by microenvironment, human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs) acquired fibrotic phenotype, which was identified as the protagonist for peritoneal fibrosis. In this study, we examined the role of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) for interleukin-6 (IL-6) induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), proliferation, and migration of HPMCs. The role of HDAC6 in IL-6-elicited EMT of HPMCs was tested by morphological observation of light microscope, immunoblotting, and immune-fluorescence assay; and the function of HDAC6 in proliferation and migration of HPMCs was examined by CCK-8 assay, wound healing experiment, and immunoblotting. Read More

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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor produced long-term synaptic enhancement in the anterior cingulate cortex of adult mice.

Mol Brain 2021 Sep 15;14(1):140. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Medical Science Building, 1 King's College Circle, Toronto, ON, M5S 1A8, Canada.

Previous studies have demonstrated that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of the diffusible messengers for enhancing synaptic transmission in the hippocampus. Less information is available about the possible roles of BDNF in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). In the present study, we used 64-electrode array field recording system to investigate the effect of BDNF on ACC excitatory transmission. Read More

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September 2021

PDE1 Inhibition Modulates Ca1.2 Channel to Stimulate Cardiomyocyte Contraction.

Circ Res 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Cardiology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, UNITED STATES.

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) activation of protein kinase A (PKA) stimulates excitation-contraction coupling, increasing cardiac contractility. This is clinically achieved by beta-adrenergic receptor stimulation (b-ARs) or inhibition of phosphodiesterase type-3 (PDE3i), though both approaches are limited by arrhythmia and chronic myocardial toxicity. Phosphodiesterase type-1 inhibition (PDE1i) also augments cAMP and enhances contractility in intact dogs and rabbits. Read More

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September 2021

Adjuvant Priming Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Treatment-Resistant Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: In Search of a New Paradigm!

J ECT 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

From the Geriatric Mental Health, King George Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh Asha Hospital, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad, Telangana Central Institute of Psychiatry, Kanke, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India.

Objectives: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is used as a therapeutic option for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in both clinical and research settings. There has been no consensus with regard to target area and other parameters, although 1-Hz rTMS over the supplementary motor area (SMA) is found to be promising. Priming stimulation, which involves high-frequency followed by low-frequency rTMS, has been shown to enhance neural response to low-frequency rTMS. Read More

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September 2021

Short-Term Facilitation of Long-Range Corticocortical Synapses Revealed by Selective Optical Stimulation.

Cereb Cortex 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Neuroscience Program, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA.

Short-term plasticity regulates the strength of central synapses as a function of previous activity. In the neocortex, direct synaptic interactions between areas play a central role in cognitive function, but the activity-dependent regulation of these long-range corticocortical connections and their impact on a postsynaptic target neuron is unclear. Here, we use an optogenetic strategy to study the connections between mouse primary somatosensory and motor cortex. Read More

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September 2021

High-resolution computational modelling of the current flow in the outer ear during transcutaneous auricular Vagus Nerve Stimulation (taVNS).

Brain Stimul 2021 Sep 10. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, The City College of New York, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Transcutaneous auricular Vagus Nerve Stimulation (taVNS) applies low-intensity electrical current to the ear with the intention of activating the auricular branch of the Vagus nerve. The sensitivity and selectivity of stimulation applied to the ear depends on current flow pattern produced by a given electrode montage (size and placement).

Objective: We compare different electrodes designs for taVNS considering both the predicted peak electric fields (sensitivity) and their spatial distribution (selectivity). Read More

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September 2021

PEX13 is required for thermogenesis of white adipose tissue in cold-induced mice.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids 2021 Sep 10:159046. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Science in Korean Medicine, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-Gu, Seoul 02447, Korea; Department of Pharmacology, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea; Basic Research Laboratory for Comorbidity Research, Department of Comorbidity Research, The Institute of Oriental Medicine, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-Gu, Seoul 02447, Korea. Electronic address:

Non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) is a heat generating process controlled by the mitochondria of brown adipose tissue (BAT). In the recent decade, 'functionally' acting brown adipocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT) has been identified as well: the so-called process of the 'browning' of WAT. While the importance of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-oriented mitochondrial activation has been intensely studied, the role of peroxisomes during the browning of white adipocytes is poorly understood. Read More

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September 2021

Reversibly Modulating the Blood-Brain Barrier by Laser Stimulation of Molecular-Targeted Nanoparticles.

Nano Lett 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Bioengineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080, United States.

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is highly selective and acts as the interface between the central nervous system and circulation. While the BBB is critical for maintaining brain homeostasis, it represents a formidable challenge for drug delivery. Here we synthesized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for targeting the tight junction specifically and demonstrated that transcranial picosecond laser stimulation of these AuNPs post intravenous injection increases the BBB permeability. Read More

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September 2021

Stimulation of the Epithelial Na Channel in Renal Principal Cells by Gs-Coupled Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs.

Front Physiol 2021 25;12:725782. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Department of Cellular and Integrative Physiology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, United States.

The activity of the Epithelial Na Channel (ENaC) in renal principal cells (PC) fine-tunes sodium excretion and consequently, affects blood pressure. The Gs-adenylyl cyclase-cAMP signal transduction pathway is believed to play a central role in the normal control of ENaC activity in PCs. The current study quantifies the importance of this signaling pathway to the regulation of ENaC activity using a knock-in mouse that has conditional expression of Gs-DREADD (designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs; GsD) in renal PCs. Read More

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Metabolic control of sensory neuron survival by the p75 neurotrophin receptor in Schwann cells.

J Neurosci 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Biological Chemistry and Pharmacology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA

We report that the neurotrophin receptor p75 contributes to sensory neuron survival through the regulation of cholesterol metabolism in Schwann cells. Selective deletion of p75 in mouse Schwann cells of either sex resulted in a 30% loss of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and diminished thermal sensitivity. P75 regulates Schwann cell cholesterol biosynthesis in response to BDNF, forming a co-receptor complex with ErbB2 and activating ErbB2-mediated stimulation of SREBP2, a master regulator of cholesterol synthesis. Read More

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September 2021

Functionally homologous representation of vocalizations in the auditory cortex of humans and macaques.

Curr Biol 2021 Sep 2. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

La Timone Neuroscience Institute, CNRS and Aix-Marseille University, UMR 7289, 27 bd Jean Moulin, 13005 Marseille, France; Psychology Department, Montreal University, C.P. 6128, succ. Centre-ville, Montreal, QC H3C 3J7, Canada. Electronic address:

How the evolution of speech has transformed the human auditory cortex compared to other primates remains largely unknown. While primary auditory cortex is organized largely similarly in humans and macaques, the picture is much less clear at higher levels of the anterior auditory pathway, particularly regarding the processing of conspecific vocalizations (CVs). A "voice region" similar to the human voice-selective areas has been identified in the macaque right anterior temporal lobe with functional MRI; however, its anatomical localization, seemingly inconsistent with that of the human temporal voice areas (TVAs), has suggested a "repositioning of the voice area" in recent human evolution. Read More

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September 2021

Systematic analysis of CD39, CD103, CD137, and PD-1 as biomarkers for naturally occurring tumor antigen-specific TILs.

Eur J Immunol 2021 Sep 10. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Ovarian Cancer Research Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

The detection of tumor-specific T cells in solid tumors is integral to interrogate endogenous antitumor responses and to advance downstream therapeutic applications. Multiple biomarkers are reported to identify endogenous tumor-specific tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), namely CD137, PD-1, CD103, and CD39; however, a direct comparison of these molecules has yet to be performed. We evaluated these biomarkers in primary human ovarian tumor samples using single-cell mass cytometry to compare their relative phenotypic profiles, and examined their response to autologous tumor cells ex vivo. Read More

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September 2021

Enhanced CXCR4 Expression of Human CD8 T Lymphocytes Is Driven by S1P.

Front Immunol 2021 24;12:668884. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

pharmazentrum Frankfurt/ZAFES, Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Hospital of the Goethe University, Frankfurt/Main, Germany.

Although the human immune response to cancer is naturally potent, it can be severely disrupted as a result of an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Infiltrating regulatory T lymphocytes contribute to this immunosuppression by inhibiting proliferation of cytotoxic CD8 T lymphocytes, which are key to an effective anti-cancer immune response. Other important contributory factors are thought to include metabolic stress caused by the local nutrient deprivation common to many solid tumors. Read More

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