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Danish dairy farmers' acceptance of and willingness to use semen from bulls produced by means of in vitro embryo production and genomic selection.

J Dairy Sci 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Food and Resource Economics, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg C 1958, Denmark; Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg C 1870, Denmark.

A novel technology combining in vitro production and genomic embryo selection is currently under development in dairy cattle breeding. Adoption of this technology will probably accelerate genetic progress toward the main breeding goals of economic interest, as well as allow selection for traits of societal concern such as decreased methane emissions and improved animal welfare. However, dairy farmers, and especially organic farmers, could find the technology morally questionable and reject its use. Read More

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MYD88 Detection in IgM Monoclonal Gammopathies: Methodological Considerations for Routine Implementation.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Apr 26;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Molecular Biotechnology and Health Sciences, Hematology Division, University of Torino, 10100 Torino, Italy.

In IgM monoclonal gammopathies MYD88 is a prognostic and predictive biomarker of therapy response. MYD88 detection is mainly performed by allele-specific quantitative PCR (ASqPCR), however recently, droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) has been proved to be suitable for MYD88 screening and minimal residual disease monitoring (MRD). This study compared ASqPCR and ddPCR to define the most sensitive method for MYD88 detection in bone marrow (BM), peripheral blood (PB) sorted or unsorted CD19+ cells, and in plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA). Read More

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Seeds and Seedlings in a Changing World: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis from High Altitude and High Latitude Ecosystems.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Apr 14;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Centre for Integrative Ecology, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, 221 Burwood Hwy, Burwood, VIC 3125, Australia.

The early life-history stages of plants, such as germination and seedling establishment, depend on favorable environmental conditions. Changes in the environment at high altitude and high latitude regions, as a consequence of climate change, will significantly affect these life stages and may have profound effects on species recruitment and survival. Here, we synthesize the current knowledge of climate change effects on treeline, tundra, and alpine plants' early life-history stages. Read More

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Dispersal Alters the Nature and Scope of Sexually Antagonistic Variation.

Am Nat 2021 05 7;197(5):543-559. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

AbstractIntralocus sexual conflict, or sexual antagonism, occurs when alleles have opposing fitness effects in the two sexes. Previous theory suggests that sexual antagonism is a driver of genetic variation by generating balancing selection. However, most of these studies assume that populations are well mixed, neglecting the effects of spatial subdivision. Read More

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Microbial diversity of co-occurring heterotrophs in cultures of marine picocyanobacteria.

Environ Microbiome 2021 Jan 6;16(1). Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 15 Vassar St, Cambridge, MA, 02139, USA.

Background: The cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus are responsible for around 10% of global net primary productivity, serving as part of the foundation of marine food webs. Heterotrophic bacteria are often co-isolated with these picocyanobacteria in seawater enrichment cultures that contain no added organic carbon; heterotrophs grow on organic carbon supplied by the photolithoautotrophs. For examining the selective pressures shaping autotroph/heterotroph interactions, we have made use of unialgal enrichment cultures of Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus maintained for hundreds to thousands of generations in the lab. Read More

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January 2021

Positive natural selection in primate genes of the type I interferon response.

BMC Ecol Evol 2021 Apr 26;21(1):65. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology; BioFrontiers Institute, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, USA.

Background: The Type I interferon response is an important first-line defense against viruses. In turn, viruses antagonize (i.e. Read More

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The evolution of sex along an environmental gradient.

Evolution 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

IRL 3614 Evolutionary Biology and Ecology of Algae, CNRS, Roscoff, 29688, France.

While temporally changing environments generally favor sex and recombination, the effects of spatial environmental heterogeneity have been less explored. In this paper, we use a classical model of adaptation along an environmental gradient to study the selective forces acting on reproductive mode evolution in the central and marginal parts of the distribution range of a species. The model considers a polygenic trait under stabilizing selection (the optimal trait value changing across space) and includes a demographic component imposing range limits. Read More

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A case of gene fragmentation in plant mitochondria fixed by the selection of a compensatory restorer of fertility-like PPR gene.

Mol Biol Evol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Institut Jean-Pierre Bourgin (IJPB), INRAE, AgroParisTech, Université Paris-Saclay, 78000, Versailles, France.

The high mutational load of mitochondrial genomes combined with their uniparental inheritance and high polyploidy favor the maintenance of deleterious mutations within populations. How cells compose and adapt to the accumulation of disadvantageous mitochondrial alleles remains unclear. Most harmful changes are likely corrected by purifying selection, however, the intimate collaboration between mitochondria- and nuclear-encoded gene products offers theoretical potential for compensatory adaptive changes. Read More

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Phylogenetically diverse diets favor more complex venoms in North American pitvipers.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(17)

Department of Biological Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634;

The role of natural selection in the evolution of trait complexity can be characterized by testing hypothesized links between complex forms and their functions across species. Predatory venoms are composed of multiple proteins that collectively function to incapacitate prey. Venom complexity fluctuates over evolutionary timescales, with apparent increases and decreases in complexity, and yet the causes of this variation are unclear. Read More

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Association with a novel protective microbe facilitates host adaptation to a stressful environment.

Evol Lett 2021 Apr 17;5(2):118-129. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Biology Emory University Atlanta Georgia 30322 USA.

Protective symbionts can allow hosts to occupy otherwise uninhabitable niches. Despite the importance of symbionts in host evolution, we know little about how these associations arise. Encountering a microbe that can improve host fitness in a stressful environment may favor persistent interactions with that microbe, potentially facilitating a long-term association. Read More

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Biomechanical trade-offs in the pelvic floor constrain the evolution of the human birth canal.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(16)

Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria;

Compared with most other primates, humans are characterized by a tight fit between the maternal birth canal and the fetal head, leading to a relatively high risk of neonatal and maternal mortality and morbidities. Obstetric selection is thought to favor a spacious birth canal, whereas the source for opposing selection is frequently assumed to relate to bipedal locomotion. Another, yet underinvestigated, hypothesis is that a more expansive birth canal suspends the soft tissue of the pelvic floor across a larger area, which is disadvantageous for continence and support of the weight of the inner organs and fetus. Read More

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Evaluation of a polysaccharide-based chiral reversed-phase liquid chromatography screen strategy in pharmaceutical analysis.

J Chromatogr A 2021 May 22;1645:462085. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Bristol Myers Squibb Company, Chemical Process Development, 1 Squibb Drive, New Brunswick, NJ 08903, USA. Electronic address:

Chirality control plays a critical role in developing stereoisomeric drugs. Due to the complexity and lack of predictability in chiral separations, column screening remains the gold standard to initiate chiral method development for active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and synthetic intermediates. Chiral reversed-phase (RP) liquid chromatography (LC) has gained favor over other modes due to its versatility and compatibility in analyzing a wide range of chiral compounds in various matrices. Read More

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Population genomics and antimicrobial resistance dynamics of Escherichia coli in wastewater and river environments.

Commun Biol 2021 Apr 12;4(1):457. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Antimicrobial Resistance Unit (ARU), Animal Health Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and VISAVET Health Surveillance Centre, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Aquatic environments are key niches for the emergence, evolution and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance. However, the population diversity and the genetic elements that drive the dynamics of resistant bacteria in different aquatic environments are still largely unknown. The aim of this study was to understand the population genomics and evolutionary events of Escherichia coli resistant to clinically important antibiotics including aminoglycosides, in anthropogenic and natural water ecosystems. Read More

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Prospective KIR genotype evaluation of hematopoietic cell donors is feasible with potential to benefit patients with AML.

Blood Adv 2021 Apr;5(7):2003-2011

Adult Bone Marrow Transplant (BMT) Service, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

Donor KIR and recipient HLA combinations that minimize inhibition and favor activation of the NK repertoire are associated with improved outcomes after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in patients with myeloid neoplasia. We prospectively evaluated a weighted donor ranking algorithm designed to prioritize HLA-compatible unrelated donors (URDs) with weak inhibitory KIR3DL1/HLA-Bw4 interaction, followed by donors with nontolerized activating KIR2DS1, and finally those with KIR centromeric B haplotype. During donor evaluation, we performed KIR genotyping and ranked 2079 URDs for 527 subjects with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Read More

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Selected, Deselected, and Reselected: A Case Study Analysis of Attributes Associated With Player Reselection Following Closure of a Youth Soccer Academy.

Front Sports Act Living 2021 23;3:633124. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Division of Sport and Exercise, School of Health and Life Sciences, University of the West of Scotland, Hamilton, United Kingdom.

Considering the perceived benefit of early recruitment and the time and resources spent developing youth players, individuals released from talent development programmes are often re-recruited by rival academies. However, due to the contractual nature of many talent development programmes, limited empirical data exists on players deselected from (or reselected to) youth soccer academies. Adopting a novel case study approach, differences in skill, psychological, and physical attributes associated with reselection following closure of a junior-elite soccer academy were explored. Read More

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Indirect Comparison of Darolutamide versus Apalutamide and Enzalutamide for Nonmetastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer.

J Urol 2021 Apr 5:101097JU0000000000001767. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Carolina Urologic Research Center, Myrtle Beach, South Carolina.

Purpose: No published head-to-head randomized trials have compared the safety and efficacy of darolutamide versus apalutamide or enzalutamide in nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. This study compares pre-specified adverse events and metastasis-free survival associated with darolutamide vs apalutamide, and darolutamide vs enzalutamide, via matching-adjusted indirect comparisons.

Materials And Methods: Individual patient data from the phase III ARAMIS trial (N=553; N=943) were selected and re-weighted to match the inclusion criteria and baseline characteristics published for the phase III SPARTAN (N=401; N=806) and PROSPER (N=468; N=933) trials. Read More

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Autologous BMAC Therapy Improves Spinal Degenerative Joint Disease in Lower Back Pain Patients.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 18;8:622573. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Canadian Centre for Regenerative Therapy, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Spinal degenerative joint disease (DJD) is associated with lower back pain (LBP) arising from the degeneration of intervertebral discs (IVD), facet joints, intertransversarii muscles, and interspinous ligaments among other anatomical structures. To circumvent the socioeconomic burdens and often-problematic surgical options imposed by DJD therapy, cell-based biologic modalities like bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC) have been investigated in pre-clinical and clinical settings, mostly for IVD degeneration (IDD), with encouraging outcomes. In this study, we evaluated the differences in therapeutic benefits of BMAC between IVD- and facet joint-originating chronic LBP. Read More

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Saudi Children's Perception of Strabismus: A Hospital-Based Study.

Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol 2020 Oct-Dec;27(4):218-223. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Purpose: Children with strabismus may face difficulties interacting with their peers in elementary school. This study investigates the psychosocial effect of different types of strabismus on Saudi children's selection of a playmate.

Methods: Photographs of orthotropic children were digitally modified to simulate various magnitudes of strabismus. Read More

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January 2021

Characterization of Environmental and Cultivable Antibiotic-Resistant Microbial Communities Associated with Wastewater Treatment.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2021 Mar 26;10(4). Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Bioinformatics and Genomics, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223, USA.

Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a growing global concern, threatening human and environmental health, particularly among urban populations. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are thought to be "hotspots" for antibiotic resistance dissemination. The conditions of WWTPs, in conjunction with the persistence of commonly used antibiotics, may favor the selection and transfer of resistance genes among bacterial populations. Read More

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Host-generalist fungal pathogens of seedlings may maintain forest diversity via host-specific impacts and differential susceptibility among tree species.

New Phytol 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama City.

Host-specialized pathogens are credited with the maintenance of tropical forest diversity under the Janzen-Connell hypothesis. Yet, in diverse forests, selection may favor pathogens with broad host ranges given their passive dispersal and the relative rarity of tree species. We surveyed the host associations of potential pathogens isolated from symptomatic seedlings in the forests in Panama and used inoculations to assess: (i) the pathogenicity and host ranges of 27 fungal isolates, and (ii) differences among tree species in susceptibility. Read More

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Extreme Duty Cycles in the Acoustic Signals of Tiger Moths: Sexual and Natural Selection Operating in Parallel.

Integr Org Biol 2020 5;2(1):obaa046. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of Biology, Wake Forest University, 1834 Wake Forest Road, Winston-Salem, NC 27109, USA.

Sound production in tiger moths (Erebidae: Arctiinae) plays a role in natural selection. Some species use tymbal sounds as jamming signals avoiding bat predation. High duty cycle signals have the greatest efficacy in this regard. Read More

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January 2021

Feeding habit of Brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) in upper parts of river Swat, Pakistan.

Braz J Biol 2021 26;82:e239219. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

University of Malakand, Department of Zoology, Lower Dir, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

Salmo trutta fario is the most important fish species of family Salmonidae inhibited in cool waters all over the world including the nortern parts of Pakistan. This study was aimed to find out the prey selection and feeding habits of the species. One hundred and eighty five Salmo trutta fario were captured from March 2016 to April 2017. Read More

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Effective Automatic Method Selection for Nonlinear Regression Modeling.

Int J Neural Syst 2021 Mar 29:2150020. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

The Czech Academy of Sciences, Institute of Computer Science, Pod Vodárenskou věží 2, 182 07 Prague 8, Czech Republic.

Metalearning, an important part of artificial intelligence, represents a promising approach for the task of automatic selection of appropriate methods or algorithms. This paper is interested in recommending a suitable estimator for nonlinear regression modeling, particularly in recommending either the standard nonlinear least squares estimator or one of such available alternative estimators, which is highly robust with respect to the presence of outliers in the data. The authors hold the opinion that theoretical considerations will never be able to formulate such recommendations for the nonlinear regression context. Read More

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[Patient in the otolaryngology office in the time of the COVID-19 pandemic in the light of current recommendations, legal regulations and authors' own experience].

Med Pr 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Gdański Uniwersytet Medyczny / Medical University of Gdansk, Gdańsk, Poland (Katedra i Klinika Otolaryngologii / Department of Otolaryngology).

Generally, COVID-19 is an acute contagious disease caused by the SARS‑‑CoV-2 virus. The main route of human-to-human transmission is through contact with infectious secretions from the respiratory tract. Clinical manifestations vary from mild non-specific symptoms to life-threatening conditions. Read More

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Variable pronunciations reveal dynamic intra-speaker variation in speech planning.

Psychon Bull Rev 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Linguistics, Northwestern University, 2016 Sheridan Rd., Evanston, IL, 60208, USA.

In two speech production experiments, we investigated the link between phonetic variation and the scope of advance planning at the word form encoding stage. We examined cases where a word has, in addition to the pronunciation of the word in isolation, a context-specific pronunciation variant that appears only when the following word includes specific sounds. To the extent that the speaker uses the variant specific to the following context, we can infer that the phonological content of the upcoming word is included in the current planning scope. Read More

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The effects of GC-biased gene conversion on patterns of genetic diversity among and across butterfly genomes.

Genome Biol Evol 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Evolutionary Biology Program, Department of Ecology and Genetics (IEG), Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18D, SE-752 36 Uppsala, Sweden.

Recombination reshuffles the alleles of a population through crossover and gene conversion. These mechanisms have considerable consequences on the evolution and maintenance of genetic diversity. Crossover, for example, can increase genetic diversity by breaking the linkage between selected and nearby neutral variants. Read More

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Whole-Genome Transformation Promotes tRNA Anticodon Suppressor Mutations under Stress.

mBio 2021 03 23;12(2). Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute of Botany and Microbiology, KU Leuven, Belgium

tRNAs are encoded by a large gene family, usually with several isogenic tRNAs interacting with the same codon. Mutations in the anticodon region of other tRNAs can overcome specific tRNA deficiencies. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that such mutations have occurred in evolution, but the driving force is unclear. Read More

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Magnitude and Predictability of pH Fluctuations Shape Plastic Responses to Ocean Acidification.

Am Nat 2021 04 26;197(4):486-501. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

AbstractPhenotypic plasticity is expected to facilitate the persistence of natural populations as global change progresses. The attributes of fluctuating environments that favor the evolution of plasticity have received extensive theoretical investigation, yet empirical validation of these findings is still in its infancy. Here, we combine high-resolution environmental data with a laboratory-based experiment to explore the influence of habitat pH fluctuation dynamics on the plasticity of gene expression in two populations of the Mediterranean mussel, . Read More

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Comparison of the Conventional and Ultra-Rapid Freezing Techniques in Gabon Bucks Throughout the Year.

Biopreserv Biobank 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Departamento de Biociencias Veterinarias, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay.

The aim of this work was to compare the effectiveness of ultra-rapid freezing (UF) and conventional slow freezing (CF) to cryopreserve buck sperm throughout the year. During 1 year, semen from 10 adult Gabon bucks was collected by electroejaculation every 2 weeks. Before and after freezing, samples were selected by density gradient centrifugation, and after sperm selection, the sample was divided into two aliquots. Read More

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