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What is the current clinico-radiological diagnostic accuracy for intracranial tumours?

Acta Neurol Scand 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Neurosurgery, St. Olav's University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway.

Objective: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of routine clinico-radiological workup for a population-based selection of intracranial tumours.

Methods: In this prospective cohort study, we included consecutive adult patients who underwent a primary surgical intervention for a suspected intracranial tumour between 2015 and 2019 at a single-neurosurgical centre. The treating team estimated the expected diagnosis prior to surgery using predefined groups. Read More

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Voxel-Wise Feature Selection Method for CNN Binary Classification of Neuroimaging Data.

Front Neurosci 2021 20;15:630747. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

IRCCS SDN, Naples, Italy.

Voxel-wise group analysis is presented as a novel feature selection (FS) technique for a deep learning (DL) approach to brain imaging data classification. The method, based on a voxel-wise two-sample -test and denoted as -masking, is integrated into the learning procedure as a data-driven FS strategy. t-Masking has been introduced in a convolutional neural network (CNN) for the test bench of binary classification of very-mild Alzheimer's disease vs. Read More

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A nomogram for individualized prediction of overall survival in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma: a real-world retrospective cohort study.

BMC Surg 2021 May 6;21(1):238. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Neurosurgery, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: This study aimed to identify the most valuable predictors of prognosis in glioblastoma (GBM) patients and develop and validate a nomogram to estimate individualized survival probability.

Methods: We conducted a real-world retrospective cohort study of 987 GBM patients diagnosed between September 2010 and December 2018. Computer generated random numbers were used to assign patients into a training cohort (694 patients) and internal validation cohort (293 patients). Read More

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Brain functional connectivity analysis based on multi-graph fusion.

Med Image Anal 2021 Apr 9;71:102057. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA; Department of Computer Science, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.

In this paper, we propose a framework for functional connectivity network (FCN) analysis, which conducts the brain disease diagnosis on the resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data, aiming at reducing the influence of the noise, the inter-subject variability, and the heterogeneity across subjects. To this end, our proposed framework investigates a multi-graph fusion method to explore both the common and the complementary information between two FCNs, i.e. Read More

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Auditory Decisions in the Supplementary Motor Area.

Prog Neurobiol 2021 May 3:102053. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Institute of Cell Physiology, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), 04510, Mexico City, Mexico. Electronic address:

In human speech and communication across various species, recognizing and categorizing sounds is fundamental for the selection of appropriate behaviors. But how does the brain decide which action to perform based on sounds? We explored whether the premotor supplementary motor area (SMA), responsible for linking sensory information to motor programs, also accounts for auditory-driven decision making. To this end, we trained two rhesus monkeys to discriminate between numerous naturalistic sounds and words learned as target (T) or non-target (nT) categories. Read More

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Dismantling, optimising, and personalising internet cognitive behavioural therapy for depression: a systematic review and component network meta-analysis using individual participant data.

Lancet Psychiatry 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Clinical Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Background: Internet cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) is a viable delivery format of CBT for depression. However, iCBT programmes include training in a wide array of cognitive and behavioural skills via different delivery methods, and it remains unclear which of these components are more efficacious and for whom.

Methods: We did a systematic review and individual participant data component network meta-analysis (cNMA) of iCBT trials for depression. Read More

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Identifying new predictive factors for survival after surgery for spinal metastases: an exploratory in-depth retrospective analysis.

Acta Clin Belg 2021 May 6:1-10. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

: In selected patients with symptomatic spinal metastasis from solid tumors, surgery improves quality of life. Since selection is key, inaccurate survival prognostication may result in poor decisions and outcomes. However, most prognostic scores suffer from suboptimal external validation and subsequent mediocre performance. Read More

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Detecting Sensitive Mobility Features for Parkinson's Disease Stages Via Machine Learning.

Mov Disord 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Laboratory for Early Markers Of Neurodegeneration (LEMON), Center for the Study of Movement, Cognition and Mobility, Neurological Institute, Tel Aviv Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Background: It is not clear how specific gait measures reflect disease severity across the disease spectrum in Parkinson's disease (PD).

Objective: To identify the gait and mobility measures that are most sensitive and reflective of PD motor stages and determine the optimal sensor location in each disease stage.

Methods: Cross-sectional wearable-sensor records were collected in 332 patients with PD (Hoehn and Yahr scale I-III) and 100 age-matched healthy controls. Read More

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The temperature-sensitivity of memory formation and persistence is altered by cold acclimation in a pond snail.

J Exp Biol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 4N1, Canada.

There are reports on the inability of inbred, laboratory reared Lymnaea stagnalis to perform feeding and aerial respiration in the cold. It has also been suggested that laboratory-bred snails have an inability to perform aerial respiration in winter months in the laboratory. Here we used an inbred, laboratory-reared strain of Lymnaea (the S-strain) to demonstrate that they are capable of performing those behaviours in a cold (4oC) environment after a 2-day acclimation period. Read More

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Drift and Directional Selection Are the Evolutionary Forces Driving Gene Expression Divergence in Eye and Brain Tissue of Heliconius Butterflies.

Genetics 2019 Oct;213(2):581-594

Division of Evolutionary Biology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Planegg-Martinsried 82152, Germany.

Characterization of gene expression patterns across species - and the evolutionary forces driving them - can reveal processes that have remained conserved across species, as well as those that have changed in a species- specific manner... Read More

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October 2019

Drift and Directional Selection Are the Evolutionary Forces Driving Gene Expression Divergence in Eye and Brain Tissue of Heliconius Butterflies.

Genetics 2019 Oct;213(2):581-594

Division of Evolutionary Biology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Planegg-Martinsried 82152, Germany.

Characterization of gene expression patterns across species - and the evolutionary forces driving them - can reveal processes that have remained conserved across species, as well as those that have changed in a species- specific manner... Read More

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October 2019

Reinforcement learning approaches to hippocampus-dependent flexible spatial navigation.

Brain Neurosci Adv 2021 Jan-Dec;5:2398212820975634. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

School of Psychology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.

Humans and non-human animals show great flexibility in spatial navigation, including the ability to return to specific locations based on as few as one single experience. To study spatial navigation in the laboratory, watermaze tasks, in which rats have to find a hidden platform in a pool of cloudy water surrounded by spatial cues, have long been used. Analogous tasks have been developed for human participants using virtual environments. Read More

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Response of the microbiome-gut-brain axis in Drosophila to amino acid deficit.

Nature 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

National Creative Research Initiative Center for Hologenomics and School of Biological Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

A balanced intake of macronutrients-protein, carbohydrate and fat-is essential for the well-being of organisms. An adequate calorific intake but with insufficient protein consumption can lead to several ailments, including kwashiorkor. Taste receptors (T1R1-T1R3) can detect amino acids in the environment, and cellular sensors (Gcn2 and Tor) monitor the levels of amino acids in the cell. Read More

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Attention differentially modulates multiunit activity in the LGN and V1 of macaque monkeys.

J Comp Neurol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Neuroscience Graduate Program, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA.

Attention promotes the selection of behaviorally relevant sensory signals from the barrage of sensory information available. Visual attention modulates the gain of neuronal activity in all visual brain areas examined, although magnitudes of gain modulations vary across areas. For example, attention gain magnitudes in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and primary visual cortex (V1) vary tremendously across fMRI measurements in humans and electrophysiological recordings in behaving monkeys. Read More

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How Representative are Neuroimaging Samples? Large-Scale Evidence for Trait Anxiety Differences Between fMRI and Behaviour-Only Research Participants.

Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Over the past three decades, functional MRI (fMRI) has become key to study how cognitive processes are implemented in the human brain. However, the question of whether participants recruited into fMRI studies differ from participants recruited into other study contexts has received little to no attention. This is particularly pertinent when effects fail to generalize across study contexts: for example, a behavioural effect discovered in a non-imaging context not replicating in a neuroimaging environment. Read More

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Genomic polymorphisms at the crhr2 locus improve feed conversion efficiency through alleviation of hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal axis activity in gibel carp (Carassius gibelio).

Sci China Life Sci 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430072, China.

Improvement in fish feed conversion efficiency (FCE) is beneficial for sustaining global food fish supplies. Here, we show that a set of polymorphisms at locus of the corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 2 (crhr2), which is involved in hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis signaling, is associated with improved FCE in farmed allogynogenetic gibel carp strain CAS III compared with that in the wild gibel carp strain Dongting (DT). This set of polymorphisms downregulates the expression levels of crhr2 mRNA in the brain and pituitary tissues in gibel carp strain CAS III compared with those in strain DT. Read More

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A Meta-analysis of Gut Microbiota in Children with Autism.

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Developmental Psychology and Didactics, Faculty of Education, University of Alicante, Alicante, Spain.

Previous studies have reported dysbiosis in the gut microbiota (GM) of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), which may be a determining factor on child development through the microbiota-gut-brain axis. However, it is not clear if there is a specific group of dysbiotic bacteria in ASD. The aim of this study was to carry out a meta-analysis on the studies that analyze GM in children with ASD. Read More

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Metagenomic Analysis of Common Intestinal Diseases Reveals Relationships among Microbial Signatures and Powers Multidisease Diagnostic Models.

mSystems 2021 May 4;6(3). Epub 2021 May 4.

Key Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics of the Ministry of Education, Hubei Key Laboratory of Bioinformatics and Molecular-imaging, Center for Artificial Intelligence Biology, Department of Bioinformatics and Systems Biology, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China

Common intestinal diseases such as Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), and colorectal cancer (CRC) share clinical symptoms and altered gut microbes, necessitating cross-disease comparisons and the use of multidisease models. Here, we performed meta-analyses on 13 fecal metagenome data sets of the three diseases. We identified 87 species and 65 pathway markers that were consistently changed in multiple data sets of the same diseases. Read More

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Epidemiology of Chronic Effects of Traumatic Brain Injury.

J Neurotrauma 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

UCSF and San Francisco VA Medical Center, Neurology, Psychiatry, and Epidemiology, San Francisco, California, United States;

Although many patients diagnosed with traumatic brain injury (TBI), particularly mild TBI, recover from their symptoms within a few weeks, a small but meaningful subset experience symptoms that persist for months or years after injury and significantly impact quality of life for the individual and their family. The factors associated with an increased likelihood of negative TBI outcomes include not only characteristics of the injury and injury mechanism, but also the individual's age, pre-injury status, comorbid conditions, environment, and propensity for resilience. In this article, as part of the Brain Trauma Blueprint: TBI State of the Science framework, we examine the epidemiology of long-term outcomes of TBI, including incidence, prevalence, and risk factors. Read More

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Deferral of Consent: Recent Lessons From Canadian Acute Stroke Trials.

Stroke 2021 May 5:STROKEAHA121034655. Epub 2021 May 5.

Ottawa Hospital and Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. (M.S., D.D.).

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MetaFusion: A high-confidence metacaller for filtering and prioritizing RNA-seq gene fusion candidates.

Bioinformatics 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Centre for Computational Medicine, The Hospital For Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Motivation: Current fusion detection tools use diverse calling approaches and provide varying results, making selection of the appropriate tool challenging. Ensemble fusion calling techniques appear promising; however, current options have limited accessibility and function.

Results: MetaFusion is a flexible meta-calling tool that amalgamates outputs from any number of fusion callers. Read More

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Molecular and morphological findings in a sample of oral surgery patients: What can we learn for multivariate concepts for age estimation?

J Forensic Sci 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Institute of Legal Medicine, University Hospital Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf, Germany.

It has already been proposed that a combined use of different molecular and morphological markers of aging in multivariate models may result in a greater accuracy of age estimation. However, such an approach can be complex and expensive, and not every combination may be useful. The significance and usefulness of combined analyses of D-aspartic acid in dentine, pentosidine in dentine, DNA methylation in buccal swabs at five genomic regions (PDE4C, RPA2, ELOVL2, DDO, and EDARADD), and third molar mineralization were tested by investigating a sample of 90 oral surgery patients. Read More

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Diagnostic power of resting-state fMRI for detection of network connectivity in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment: A systematic review.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Computer and Communication System Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) detects functional connectivity (FC) abnormalities that occur in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). FC of the default mode network (DMN) is commonly impaired in AD and MCI. We conducted a systematic review aimed at determining the diagnostic power of rs-fMRI to identify FC abnormalities in the DMN of patients with AD or MCI compared with healthy controls (HCs) using machine learning (ML) methods. Read More

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Benchmarking deep learning splice prediction tools using functional splice assays.

Hum Mutat 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Centre for Molecular and Biomolecular Informatics, Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Hereditary disorders are frequently caused by genetic variants that affect pre-mRNA splicing. Whilst genetic variants in the canonical splice motifs are almost always disrupting splicing, the pathogenicity of variants in the non-canonical splice sites (NCSS) and deep intronic (DI) regions are difficult to predict. Multiple splice prediction tools have been developed for this purpose, with the latest tools employing deep learning algorithms. Read More

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Determination of the sleep-wake pattern and feasibility of NREM/REM discrimination using the non-invasive piezoelectric system in rats.

J Sleep Res 2021 May 3:e13373. Epub 2021 May 3.

Unité Fatigue et Vigilance, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées (IRBA), Brétigny-sur-Orge, France.

The piezoelectric cage-floor sensors have been used to successfully dissect sleep patterns in mice based on signal features related to respiration and body movements. We studied performance of the piezoelectric system to quantify the sleep-wake pattern in the rat over 7 days of recording compared with a visual electroencephalogram/electromyogram scoring, and under two light/dark (LD12:12 and LD16:8) photoperiods leading to change in the 24-hr sleep characteristics (N = 7 per group). The total sleep time (%/24 hr) over the 7 days recording and hourly sleep time over the last 24-hr recording were not statistically different between methods under the two photoperiods. Read More

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Author Correction: Linking human male vocal parameters to perceptions, body morphology, strength and hormonal profiles in contexts of sexual selection.

Sci Rep 2021 May 3;11(1):9780. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Psychology and Leibniz ScienceCampus Primate Cognition, University of Goettingen, Gosslerstrasse 14, 37073, Göttingen, Germany.

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Is There a Role for Perioperative Pelvic Radiotherapy in Surgically Resected Stage IV Rectal Cancer?: A Propensity Score-matched Analysis.

Am J Clin Oncol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Chungnam National University School of Medicine, Daejeon Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul Metropolitan Government Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, 20, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Objectives: This study aimed to determine whether perioperative pelvic radiotherapy (RT) improves outcomes in stage IV rectal cancer patients treated with primary surgical resection and systemic chemotherapy and to identify predictive factors for selection of patients for these approaches.

Materials And Methods: We searched the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database for patients diagnosed between 2010 and 2015 with stage IV rectal cancer, but without brain or bone metastases. After applying the exclusion criteria, a total of 26,132 patients were included in the analysis; propensity score matching was used to balance their individual characteristics. Read More

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Molecular evolutionary analysis of human primary microcephaly genes.

BMC Ecol Evol 2021 May 3;21(1):76. Epub 2021 May 3.

National Center for Bioinformatics, Program of Comparative and Evolutionary Genomics, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, 45320, Pakistan.

Background: There has been a rapid increase in the brain size relative to body size during mammalian evolutionary history. In particular, the enlarged and globular brain is the most distinctive anatomical feature of modern humans that set us apart from other extinct and extant primate species. Genetic basis of large brain size in modern humans has largely remained enigmatic. Read More

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Healthy Life-Year Costs of Treatment Speed From Arrival to Endovascular Thrombectomy in Patients With Ischemic Stroke: A Meta-analysis of Individual Patient Data From 7 Randomized Clinical Trials.

JAMA Neurol 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Neurology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles.

Importance: The benefits of endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) are time dependent. Prior studies may have underestimated the time-benefit association because time of onset is imprecisely known.

Objective: To assess the lifetime outcomes associated with speed of endovascular thrombectomy in patients with acute ischemic stroke due to large-vessel occlusion (LVO). Read More

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Utility of Multi-Modal MRI for Differentiating of Parkinson's Disease and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy Using Machine Learning.

Front Neurol 2021 14;12:648548. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Radiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.

Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and progressive supranuclear palsy Richardson's syndrome (PSP-RS) often show overlapping clinical features, leading to misdiagnoses. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility and utility of using multi-modal MRI datasets for an automatic differentiation of PD patients, PSP-RS patients, and healthy control (HC) subjects. T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and diffusion-tensor (DTI) MRI datasets from 45 PD patients, 20 PSP-RS patients, and 38 HC subjects were available for this study. Read More

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