130,397 results match your criteria seizures

Epilepsy in LAMA2-related muscular dystrophy: A systematic review of the literature.

Seizure 2021 Jul 21;91:425-436. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Developmental Neuroscience, IRCCS Fondazione Stella Maris, Calambrone, Pisa, Italy. Electronic address:

Epilepsy is a common, often severe, feature of LAMA2-related muscular dystrophy (LAMA2-RD) and could represent its onset and main manifestation, even in the absence of overt muscle involvement. To date, there is no systematic characterization of epilepsy in LAMA2-RD, and its impact on neurodevelopment and on the clinical course remains poorly established. In view of this knowledge gap, we conducted a systematic review of the literature and, as an illustrative example, reported the clinical case of a boy with late-onset LAMA2-related limb-girdle muscular dystrophy presenting with severe epilepsy. Read More

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Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on people with epilepsy: An interventional study using early physical consultation.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 Jul 10;122:108215. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Background: Telehealth use is limited in developing countries. Therefore, a modified approach with early physical consultation was designed and applied in our hospital. This study aimed to determine the efficacy of this early physical consultation in reducing the clinical and psychological impacts of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), which enabled insight into its global feasibility. Read More

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Quality by design (QbD) optimization of diazepam-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) for nose-to-brain delivery: toxicological effect of surface charge on human neuronal cells.

Int J Pharm 2021 Jul 26:120933. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

UCIBIO/REQUIMTE, MEDTECH, Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology, Department of Drug Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal; FP-ENAS (UFP Energy, Environment and Health Research Unit), CEBIMED (Biomedical Research Centre), Faculty of Health Sciences, University Fernando Pessoa, 4249-004 Porto, Portugal. Electronic address:

Diazepam is commonly used in the management of epileptic seizures, although it has limitations that can be overcome by using formulations that are easier to administer and capable of directing the drug to the brain. In this field, it has been reported that the use of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) via intranasal (or via nose-to-brain) promotes the targeting of drugs to the brain, improving the effectiveness of therapy. The aim of this work was to optimize two diazepam-loaded NLC formulations for nose-to-brain delivery, one with positive surface charge and one with negative surface charge. Read More

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Gut microbiota modulates seizure susceptibility.

Epilepsia 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Section of Anatomy and Histology, Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine, and Movement Science, School of Medicine, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.

A bulk of data suggest that the gut microbiota plays a role in a broad range of diseases, including those affecting the central nervous system. Recently, significant differences in the intestinal microbiota of patients with epilepsy, compared to healthy volunteers, have been reported in an observational study. However, an active role of the intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of epilepsy, through the so-called "gut-brain axis," has yet to be demonstrated. Read More

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Safety, Patient-Reported Well-Being, and Physician-Reported Assessment of Walking Ability in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis for Prolonged-Release Fampridine Treatment in Routine Clinical Practice: Results of the LIBERATE Study.

CNS Drugs 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Neurology, MS Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam UMC, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Prolonged-release fampridine (PR-FAM) 10-mg tablet twice daily is the only approved pharmacological treatment for improvement of walking ability in adults with multiple sclerosis (MS). LIBERATE assessed the safety/effectiveness of PR-FAM in the real-world.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to collect additional safety data, including the incidence rate of seizures and other adverse events (AEs) of interest, from patients with MS taking PR-FAM in routine clinical practice (including patients aged ≥ 65 years and those with pre-existing cardiovascular risk factors). Read More

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Evaluation of Seizure Risk in Infants After Cardiopulmonary Bypass in the Absence of Deep Hypothermic Cardiac Arrest.

Neurocrit Care 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Division of Child Neurology, Lucile Packard Children's Hospital at Stanford University, Dr Levy 750 Welch Road Suite 317, Palo Alto, CA, USA.

Background: Guidelines recommend evaluation for electrographic seizures in neonates and children at risk, including after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Although initial research using screening electroencephalograms (EEGs) in infants after CPB found a 21% seizure incidence, more recent work reports seizure incidences ranging 3-12%. Deep hypothermic cardiac arrest was associated with increased seizure risk in prior reports but is uncommon at our institution and less widely used in contemporary practice. Read More

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When the head is big, think this too: Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy in a toddler with only a large head. A case report.

J Family Med Prim Care 2021 Jun 2;10(6):2416-2418. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.

We present a one-year old, developmentally normal toddler from a non Agarwal community, who presented to us with only a large head. The examination findings were unremarkable except a large head circumference. Neuroimaging confirmed the diagnosis of megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy (MLC). Read More

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Development and Validation of Predicting Nomograms for Craniopharyngioma: A Retrospective, Multiple-Center, Cohort Study.

Front Oncol 2021 12;11:691288. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Craniopharyngiomas (CPs) are benign tumors arising from the sellar region. However, little is known about their clinical features and long-term recurrence due to low morbidity and the lack of large cohort studies. Thus, we aimed to develop nomograms to accurately predict the extent of resection and tumor recurrence using clinical parameters. Read More

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The Good, the Bad, and the Deadly: Adenosinergic Mechanisms Underlying Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy.

Front Neurosci 2021 12;15:708304. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Neurosurgery, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ, United States.

Adenosine is an inhibitory modulator of neuronal excitability. Neuronal activity results in increased adenosine release, thereby constraining excessive excitation. The exceptionally high neuronal activity of a seizure results in a surge in extracellular adenosine to concentrations many-fold higher than would be observed under normal conditions. Read More

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Baicalin Rescues Cognitive Dysfunction, Mitigates Neurodegeneration, and Exerts Anti-Epileptic Effects Through Activating TLR4/MYD88/Caspase-3 Pathway in Rats.

Drug Des Devel Ther 2021 20;15:3163-3180. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Pediatrics, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, 050051, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: This study aims to evaluate the beneficial effects of anti-epileptic mechanisms of baicalin (BA) on cognitive dysfunction and neurodegeneration in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced epileptic rats.

Methods: First, PTZ-induced epileptic rats were administered intraperitoneally a sub-convulsive dose of PTZ (40 mg/kg) daily, and the seizure susceptibility (the degree of seizures and latency) was evaluated using Racine's criterion. Then, classical behavioral experiments were performed to test whether BA ameliorated cognitive dysfunction. Read More

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Delineating the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum of -related neurodevelopmental disorders.

J Med Genet 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

GeneDx, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA.

Background: Variants in have recently been reported to cause a neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, seizures and impaired language; however, only six variants have been reported and the clinical characteristics have only broadly been defined.

Methods: Molecular and clinical data were collected from clinical and research cohorts. Massive parallel sequencing was performed and identified individuals with a related neurodevelopmental disorder. Read More

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O'Donnell-Luria-Rodan syndrome: description of a second multinational cohort and refinement of the phenotypic spectrum.

J Med Genet 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: O'Donnell-Luria-Rodan syndrome (ODLURO) is an autosomal-dominant neurodevelopmental disorder caused by pathogenic, mostly truncating variants in . It was first described by O'Donnell-Luria in 2019 in a cohort of 38 patients. Clinical features encompass macrocephaly, mild intellectual disability (ID), autism spectrum disorder (ASD) susceptibility and seizure susceptibility. Read More

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Treatment of hyperammonemia using in-line renal replacement and hyperosmolar therapies within an extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuit.

Perfusion 2021 Jul 29:2676591211035939. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Division of Renal Electrolyte and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

After orthotopic lung transplantation, hyperammonemia can be a rare complication secondary to infection by organisms that produce urease or inhibit the urea cycle. This can cause neurotoxicity, cerebral edema, and seizures. Ammonia is unique in that it has a large volume of distribution. Read More

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A case of syncopal convulsions triggered by glossopharyngeal neuralgia.

Agri 2021 Jul;33(3):197-199

Department of Neurology, Malatya Training and Research Hospital, Malatya, Turkey.

Syncopal convulsions and epileptic seizures are clinically hard to distinguish and differ in terms of treatment approaches. It is important to consider the cardiac arrhythmias that impair cerebral perfusion in the differential diagnosis of antiepileptic treatment-resistant convulsions. Here we offer a 72 year old male patient glossopharengial neuralgia after swallowing associated with recurrent episodes of syncopal convulsions. Read More

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Endoscopic Transcortical Selective Amygdalohippocampectomy for Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: 2-Dimensional Operative Video.

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, Osaka, Japan.

This surgical video shows a 19-yr-old woman with focal impaired awareness seizures. Seizure semiology showed no lateralizing signs. Ictal electroencephalography (EEG) failed to determine the seizure origin. Read More

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Multivariate Analysis Aided Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (MVA-SERS) Multiplex Quantitative Detection of Trace Fentanyl in Illicit Drug Mixtures Using a Handheld Raman Spectrometer.

Appl Spectrosc 2021 Jul 28:37028211032930. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, FL USA.

Recently there has been upsurge in reports that illicit seizures of cocaine and heroin have been adulterated with fentanyl. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) provides a useful alternative to current screening procedures that permits detection of trace levels of fentanyl in mixtures. Samples are solubilized and allowed to interact with aggregated colloidal nanostars to produce a rapid and sensitive assay. Read More

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The Longer the Block, the Harder You Fall: Extrinsic Idiopathic Atrioventricular Block Masquerading as Seizures.

JACC Case Rep 2021 Jul 9;3(8):1086-1090. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Section of Cardiac Electrophysiology, Lewis Katz School of Medicine at the Temple University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

History and physical examination are the diagnostic cornerstones of transient loss of consciousness (TLOC). However, details can be scarce and examination unrevealing, thus making the diagnosis elusive. In a case of convulsive TLOC, the initial diagnosis was incorrect, but a fortuitously captured event on telemetry yielded the diagnosis: extrinsic idiopathic atrioventricular block. Read More

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Intraparenchymal Brain Abscess in an Adult Male With Underlying Ebstein Anomaly and Cor Triatriatum Dexter.

JACC Case Rep 2021 Feb 27;3(2):194-197. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Inova Fairfax Medical Campus, Falls Church, Virginia, USA.

A 21-year-old man presented with new-onset seizures and brain abscess. Echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging revealed underlying Ebstein anomaly, secundum atrial septal defect, and cor triatriatum dexter. The elevated right heart pressures shunting through the septal defect and transient bacteremia were the likely mechanisms for his presentation. Read More

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February 2021

Predictive modeling in neurocritical care using causal artificial intelligence.

World J Crit Care Med 2021 Jul 9;10(4):112-119. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN 55905, United States.

Artificial intelligence (AI) and digital twin models of various systems have long been used in industry to test products quickly and efficiently. Use of digital twins in clinical medicine caught attention with the development of Archimedes, an AI model of diabetes, in 2003. More recently, AI models have been applied to the fields of cardiology, endocrinology, and undergraduate medical education. Read More

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Loxapine in patient with clozapine-resistant psychosis.

Ment Health Clin 2021 Jul 16;11(4):263-266. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Psychiatry Resident, Michigan Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Clozapine is recognized as the drug of choice for treatment-refractory schizophrenia, but use may be limited because of strict monitoring requirements and adverse effects including severe neutropenia, seizures, and myocarditis. Loxapine is a first-generation antipsychotic with similarities to clozapine in both structure and receptor binding. This case describes a 57-year-old male with a history of severe paranoid schizophrenia despite treatment with clozapine and other psychotropic agents, who experienced clinical improvement after a cross titration from clozapine to loxapine. Read More

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A Young Child with Recurrent Episodes of Headaches and Vision Loss: Diagnostic Clues?

J Pediatr Neurosci 2021 Jan-Mar;16(1):82-84. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India.

MELAS is a mitochondrial cytopathy, with maternal inheritance and variable phenotype expression and severity depending on the degree of heteroplasmy. It presents with waxing and waning symptoms, in form of recurrent migrainous headache, transient loss of sight, hemianopsia, transient ischemic attack, or stroke-like episodes, focal seizures and even periods of altered sensorium. Here we present an 8-year-old boy presented with recurrent episodes of migrainous headache associated with vomiting sometimes and recurrent episodes of loss of vision for the past one year. Read More

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Treatable Cause of Refractory Seizures in an Infant with a Novel Mutation.

J Pediatr Neurosci 2021 Jan-Mar;16(1):69-70. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Paediatrics, Sri Ramachandra Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy is a treatable cause of epilepsy, which is very well known. It is most commonly caused by mutations in and genes. A 5-month-old infant presented with refractory seizures. Read More

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Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Neonates: Has the Brain Taken a Hit 10 Years Later?

J Pediatr Neurosci 2021 Jan-Mar;16(1):30-34. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Royal London Hospital, London, UK.

Background: The neonate with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is at risk of developing poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. There is a dearth of long-term follow-up studies in this field, with a majority of studies reporting a follow-up duration of 2 years. The aim of this study was to assess neurodevelopment of babies diagnosed with NEC more than a decade ago. Read More

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Magnetic Resonance Imaging Characterization of the Hippocampi in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Correlation of Volumetry and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient with Laterality and Duration of Seizures.

Indian J Radiol Imaging 2021 Jan 31;31(1):109-115. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Radio-diagnosis, M. S. Ramaiah Medical College, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

It is estimated that hippocampal damage is seen in 50 to 70% of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Although most magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies are adequate to detect gross hippocampal atrophy, subtle changes that may characterize early disease in TLE, such as visually nonappreciable volume loss, may often be missed if objective volumetric analysis is not undertaken. We conducted a hospital-based prospective analytical study in which 40 patients with partial seizures of temporal lobe origin were included and their hippocampal volumes (HVs) were determined by manual volumetric analysis. Read More

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January 2021

Rare paraneoplastic syndrome of prostatic cancer: limbic encephalitis: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2021 Jul 28;15(1):405. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Urology Department, René Dubos Hospital, 6, Avenue de l'Ile-de-France, 95300, Pontoise, France.

Introduction: Limbic encephalitis is an autoimmune neurologic disorder, often of paraneoplastic origin, that seldom complicates prostatic tumors. The nonspecificity of symptoms makes the diagnosis sometimes difficult to establish. Prognosis is essentially determined by comorbidities and sensorineural and cognitive sequelae. Read More

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Development and Evaluation of Computable Phenotypes in Pediatric Epilepsy:3 Cases.

J Child Neurol 2021 Jul 28:8830738211019578. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Population Health Sciences, Weill Cornell Medicine/New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY, USA.

Introduction: Computable phenotypes allow identification of well-defined patient cohorts from electronic health record data. Little is known about the accuracy of diagnostic codes for important clinical concepts in pediatric epilepsy, such as (1) risk factors like neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy; (2) clinical concepts like treatment resistance; (3) and syndromes like juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. We developed and evaluated the performance of computable phenotypes for these examples using electronic health record data at one center. Read More

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Children With Trisomy 21 and Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome With Predominant Myoclonic Seizures.

J Child Neurol 2021 Jul 27:8830738211026072. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Division of Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, BC Children's Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Introduction: Lennox-Gastaut syndrome is a severe form of pediatric epilepsy that is classically defined by a triad of drug-resistant seizures, including atonic, tonic, and atypical absence seizures; slow spike-and-wave discharges and paroxysmal fast activity on electroencephalography (EEG); and cognitive and behavioral dysfunction. In the vast majority, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome develops in patients with an identified etiology, including genetic or structural brain abnormalities. Long-term prognosis is generally poor with progressive intellectual deterioration and persistent seizures. Read More

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EEG-Based Seizure detection using linear graph convolution network with focal loss.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2021 Jul 13;208:106277. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

School of Information Science and Engineering, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250358, P.R. China.

Background And Objectives: Epilepsy is a clinical phenomenon caused by sudden abnormal and excessive discharge of brain neurons. It affects around 70 million people all over the world. Seizure detection from Electroencephalography (EEG) has achieved rapid development. Read More

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