2,266 results match your criteria segregating chromosomes

Mind the replication gap.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Jun 9;8(6):201932. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Chromosome Dynamics and Stability Group, Genome Damage and Stability Centre, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 7BG, UK.

Unlike bacteria, mammalian cells need to complete DNA replication before segregating their chromosomes for the maintenance of genome integrity. Thus, cells have evolved efficient pathways to restore stalled and/or collapsed replication forks during S-phase, and when necessary, also to delay cell cycle progression to ensure replication completion. However, strong evidence shows that cells can proceed to mitosis with incompletely replicated DNA when under mild replication stress (RS) conditions. Read More

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Genetic characterization of adult-plant resistance to tan spot (syn, yellow spot) in wheat.

Theor Appl Genet 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD, Australia.

Key Message: QTL mapping identified key genomic regions associated with adult-plant resistance to tan spot, which are effective even in the presence of the sensitivity gene Tsn1, thus serving as a new genetic solution to develop disease-resistant wheat cultivars. Improving resistance to tan spot (Pyrenophora tritici-repentis; Ptr) in wheat by eliminating race-specific susceptibility genes is a common breeding approach worldwide. The potential to exploit variation in quantitative forms of resistance, such as adult-plant resistance (APR), offers an alternative approach that could lead to broad-spectrum protection. Read More

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Characterizing the oligogenic architecture of plant growth phenotypes informs genomic selection approaches in a common wheat population.

BMC Genomics 2021 May 31;22(1):402. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, 27695, NC, United States.

Background: Genetic variation in growth over the course of the season is a major source of grain yield variation in wheat, and for this reason variants controlling heading date and plant height are among the best-characterized in wheat genetics. While the major variants for these traits have been cloned, the importance of these variants in contributing to genetic variation for plant growth over time is not fully understood. Here we develop a biparental population segregating for major variants for both plant height and flowering time to characterize the genetic architecture of the traits and identify additional novel QTL. Read More

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The multifunctional spindle midzone in vertebrate cells at a glance.

J Cell Sci 2021 May 27;134(10). Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Biology, Morrill Science Center, University of Massachusetts, 611 N. Pleasant Street, Amherst 01003, USA.

During anaphase, a microtubule-containing structure called the midzone forms between the segregating chromosomes. The midzone is composed of an antiparallel array of microtubules and numerous microtubule-associated proteins that contribute to midzone formation and function. In many cells, the midzone is an important source of signals that specify the location of contractile ring assembly and constriction. Read More

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Fine mapping of Ne1, the hybrid necrosis gene complementary to Ne2 in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

Theor Appl Genet 2021 May 22. Epub 2021 May 22.

Crop Genomics and Bioinformatics Center and National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

Key Message: Apart from confinement of Ne1 to a 4.45 Mb genomic segment, markers closely linked to Ne2 were identified and incomplete dominance of both genes in conditioning necrosis severity was shown. Hybrid necrosis in plants is characterized by premature death of leaves or plants in F hybrids. Read More

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Genome-wide association mapping reveals race-specific SNP markers associated with anthracnose resistance in carioca common beans.

PLoS One 2021 19;16(5):e0251745. Epub 2021 May 19.

Centro de Pesquisa em Recursos Genéticos Vegetais, Instituto Agronômico (IAC), Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil.

Brazil is the largest consumer of dry edible beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in the world, 70% of consumption is of the carioca variety. Although the variety has high yield, it is susceptible to several diseases, among them, anthracnose (ANT) can lead to losses of up to 100% of production. Read More

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Extreme Y chromosome polymorphism corresponds to five male reproductive morphs of a freshwater fish.

Nat Ecol Evol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Loss of recombination between sex chromosomes often depletes Y chromosomes of functional content and genetic variation, which might limit their potential to generate adaptive diversity. Males of the freshwater fish Poecilia parae occur as one of five discrete morphs, all of which shoal together in natural populations where morph frequency has been stable for over 50 years. Each morph uses a different complex reproductive strategy and morphs differ dramatically in colour, body size and mating behaviour. Read More

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Phylogenetic history of patrilineages rare in northern and eastern Europe from large-scale re-sequencing of human Y-chromosomes.

Eur J Hum Genet 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Estonian Biocentre, Institute of Genomics, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.

The most frequent Y-chromosomal (chrY) haplogroups in northern and eastern Europe (NEE) are well-known and thoroughly characterised. Yet a considerable number of men in every population carry rare paternal lineages with estimated frequencies around 5%. So far, limited sample-sizes and insufficient resolution of genotyping have obstructed a truly comprehensive look into the variety of rare paternal lineages segregating within populations and potential signals of population history that such lineages might convey. Read More

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Sex chromosome transformation and the origin of a male-specific X chromosome in the creeping vole.

Science 2021 05;372(6542):592-600

Department of Evolution, Ecology, and Organismal Biology, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, USA.

The mammalian sex chromosome system (XX female/XY male) is ancient and highly conserved. The sex chromosome karyotype of the creeping vole () represents a long-standing anomaly, with an X chromosome that is unpaired in females (X0) and exclusively maternally transmitted. We produced a highly contiguous male genome assembly, together with short-read genomes and transcriptomes for both sexes. Read More

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Identification of homozygous haplotypes carrying putative recessive lethal mutations that compromise fertility traits in French Lacaune dairy sheep.

Genet Sel Evol 2021 May 1;53(1):41. Epub 2021 May 1.

GenPhySE, Université de Toulouse, INRAE, ENVT, 31326, Castanet-Tolosan, France.

Background: Homozygous recessive deleterious mutations can cause embryo/fetal or neonatal lethality, or genetic defects that affect female fertility and animal welfare. In livestock populations under selection, the frequency of such lethal mutations may increase due to inbreeding, genetic drift, and/or the positive pleiotropic effects of heterozygous carriers on selected traits.

Results: By scanning the genome of 19,102 Lacaune sheep using 50 k single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) phased genotypes and pedigree data, we identified 11 Lacaune deficient homozygous haplotypes (LDHH1 to LDHH11) showing a highly significant deficit of homozygous animals ranging from 79 to 100%. Read More

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Mapping of Genetic Locus for Leaf Trichome Formation in Chinese Cabbage Based on Bulked Segregant Analysis.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Apr 14;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement, College of Horticulture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China.

Chinese cabbage is a leafy vegetable, and its leaves are the main edible organs. The formation of trichomes on the leaves can significantly affect its taste, so studying this phenomenon is of great significance for improving the quality of Chinese cabbage. In this study, two varieties of Chinese cabbage, W30 with trichome leaves and 082 with glabrous leaves, were crossed to generate F and F plants, which were self-fertilized to develop segregating populations with trichome or glabrous morphotypes. Read More

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Genetic dissection of aroma biosynthesis in melon and its relationship with climacteric ripening.

Food Chem 2021 Aug 5;353:129484. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Centre for Research in Agricultural Genomics (CRAG) CSIC-IRTA-UAB-UB, Edifici CRAG, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain; Institut de Recerca i Tecnologia Agroalimentàries (IRTA), Edifici CRAG, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Aroma is an essential trait in melon fruit quality, but its complexity and genetic basis are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) underlying volatile organic compounds (VOCs) biosynthesis in melon rind and flesh, using a Recombinant Inbred Line (RIL) population from the cross 'Piel de Sapo' (PS) × 'Védrantais' (VED), two commercial varieties segregating for ripening behavior. A total of 82 VOCs were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and 166 QTLs were identified. Read More

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Identification and characterization of genes related to salt stress tolerance within segregation distortion regions of genetic map in F2 population of upland cotton.

PLoS One 2021 26;16(3):e0247593. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

State Key Laboratory of Cotton Biology, Institute of Cotton Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Anyang, Henan, P.R China.

Segregation distortion (SD) is a genetic mechanism commonly found in segregating or stable populations. The principle behind this puzzles many researchers. The F2 generation developed from wild Gossypium darwinii and G. Read More

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Molecular Mapping of Water-Stress Responsive Genomic Loci in Lettuce ( spp.) Using Kinetics Chlorophyll Fluorescence, Hyperspectral Imaging and Machine Learning.

Front Genet 2021 18;12:634554. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Crop Improvement and Protection Research Unit, USDA-ARS, Salinas, CA, United States.

Deep understanding of genetic architecture of water-stress tolerance is critical for efficient and optimal development of water-stress tolerant cultivars, which is the most economical and environmentally sound approach to maintain lettuce production with limited irrigation. Lettuce ( L.) production in areas with limited precipitation relies heavily on the use of ground water for irrigation. Read More

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February 2021

QTLs and candidate genes analyses for fruit size under domestication and differentiation in melon (Cucumis melo L.) based on high resolution maps.

BMC Plant Biol 2021 Mar 3;21(1):126. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Horticultural Crops of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Institute of Vegetables and Flowers, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 100081, Beijing, China.

Background: Melon is a very important horticultural crop produced worldwide with high phenotypic diversity. Fruit size is among the most important domestication and differentiation traits in melon. The molecular mechanisms of fruit size in melon are largely unknown. Read More

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Mapping and validation of a major QTL for primary root length of soybean seedlings grown in hydroponic conditions.

BMC Genomics 2021 Feb 23;22(1):132. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS), 1-1 Ohwashi, 305-8686, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.

Background: The root system provides nutrient absorption and is closely related to abiotic stress tolerance, but it is difficult to study the roots under field conditions. This study was conducted to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with primary root length (PRL) during soybean seedling growth in hydroponic conditions. A total of 103 F recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between K099 (short primary root) and Fendou 16 (long primary root) were used to identify QTL for PRL in soybean. Read More

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February 2021

How do small chromosomes know they are small? Maximizing meiotic break formation on the shortest yeast chromosomes.

Curr Genet 2021 Jun 18;67(3):431-437. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Molecular Biology Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, 10065, USA.

The programmed formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in meiotic prophase I initiates the homologous recombination process that yields crossovers between homologous chromosomes, a prerequisite to accurately segregating chromosomes during meiosis I (MI). In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, proteins required for meiotic DSB formation (DSB proteins) accumulate to higher levels specifically on short chromosomes to ensure that these chromosomes make DSBs. We previously demonstrated that as-yet undefined cis-acting elements preferentially recruit DSB proteins and promote higher levels of DSBs and recombination and that these intrinsic features are subject to selection pressure to maintain the hyperrecombinogenic properties of short chromosomes. Read More

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A new Cannabis genome assembly associates elevated cannabidiol (CBD) with hemp introgressed into marijuana.

New Phytol 2021 05 28;230(4):1665-1679. Epub 2021 Feb 28.

Sunrise Genetics Inc., Fort Collins, CO, 80525, USA.

Demand for cannabidiol (CBD), the predominant cannabinoid in hemp (Cannabis sativa), has favored cultivars producing unprecedented quantities of CBD. We investigated the ancestry of a new cultivar and cannabinoid synthase genes in relation to cannabinoid inheritance. A nanopore-based assembly anchored to a high-resolution linkage map provided a chromosome-resolved genome for CBDRx, a potent CBD-type cultivar. Read More

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A biallelic variant in CLRN2 causes non-syndromic hearing loss in humans.

Hum Genet 2021 Jun 26;140(6):915-931. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Genetics, Faculty of Science, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran.

Deafness, the most frequent sensory deficit in humans, is extremely heterogeneous with hundreds of genes involved. Clinical and genetic analyses of an extended consanguineous family with pre-lingual, moderate-to-profound autosomal recessive sensorineural hearing loss, allowed us to identify CLRN2, encoding a tetraspan protein, as a new deafness gene. Homozygosity mapping followed by exome sequencing identified a 14. Read More

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Spondylocarpotarsal synostosis syndrome due to a novel loss of function FLNB variant: a case report.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 Jan 6;22(1):31. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

School of Biological Sciences, University of the Punjab, Quaid-i-Azam Campus, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.

Background: Loss of function or gain of function variants of Filamin B (FLNB) cause recessive or dominant skeletal disorders respectively. Spondylocarpotarsal synostosis syndrome (SCT) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by short stature, fused vertebrae and fusion of carpal and tarsal bones. We present a novel FLNB homozygous pathogenic variant and present a carrier of the variant with short height. Read More

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January 2021

Mapping QTL hotspots associated with weed competitive traits in backcross population derived from Oryza sativa L. and O. glaberrima Steud.

Sci Rep 2020 12 16;10(1):22103. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

ICAR-Indian Institute of Rice Research, Hyderabad, 500030, India.

To improve grain yield under direct seeded and aerobic conditions, weed competitive ability of a rice genotype is a key desirable trait. Hence, understanding and dissecting weed competitive associated traits at both morphological and molecular level is important in developing weed competitive varieties. In the present investigation, the QTLs associated with weed competitive traits were identified in BCF population derived from weed competitive accession of O. Read More

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December 2020

Two Novel Cases of Autosomal Translocations in the Horse: Warmblood Family Segregating t(4;30) and a Cloned Arabian with a de novo t(12;25).

Cytogenet Genome Res 2020 16;160(11-12):688-697. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA,

We report 2 novel autosomal translocations in the horse. In Case 1, a breeding stallion with a balanced t(4p;30) had produced normal foals and those with congenital abnormalities. Of his 9 phenotypically normal offspring, 4 had normal karyotypes, 4 had balanced t(4p;30), and 1 carried an unbalanced translocation with tertiary trisomy of 4p. Read More

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Evaluating and Mapping Grape Color Using Image-Based Phenotyping.

Plant Phenomics 2020 24;2020:8086309. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Department of Horticultural Science, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, USA.

Grape berry color is an economically important trait that is controlled by two major genes influencing anthocyanin synthesis in the skin. Color is often described qualitatively using six major categories; however, this is a subjective rating that often fails to describe variation within these six classes. To investigate minor genes influencing berry color, image analysis was used to quantify berry color using different color spaces. Read More

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Chromosomal localization of Ewing sarcoma EWSR1/FLI1 protein promotes the induction of aneuploidy.

J Biol Chem 2020 Dec 7. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Molecular Biosciences, University of Kansas, United States.

Ewing sarcoma is a pediatric bone cancer that expresses the chimeric protein EWSR1/FLI1. We previously demonstrated that EWSR1/FLI1 impairs the localization of Aurora B kinase to the midzone (the midline structure located between segregating chromosomes) during anaphase. While localization of Aurora B is essential for faithful cell division, it is unknown whether interference with midzone organization by EWSR1/FLI1 induces aneuploidy. Read More

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December 2020

Functional Validation of and Genes in Durum Wheat near Isogenic Lines with QTL for High GPC.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Dec 4;21(23). Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Department of Agricultural and Environmental Science, University of Bari Aldo Moro, 70126 Bari, Italy.

Durum wheat ( L. ssp. ) is a minor crop grown on about 17 million hectares of land worldwide. Read More

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December 2020

A highly differentiated region of wheat chromosome 7AL encodes a Pm1a immune receptor that recognizes its corresponding AvrPm1a effector from Blumeria graminis.

New Phytol 2021 03 15;229(5):2812-2826. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Plant Breeding Institute, University of Sydney, 107 Cobbitty Road, Cobbitty, NSW, 2570, Australia.

Pm1a, the first powdery mildew resistance gene described in wheat, is part of a complex resistance (R) gene cluster located in a distal region of chromosome 7AL that has suppressed genetic recombination. A nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat (NLR) immune receptor gene was isolated using mutagenesis and R gene enrichment sequencing (MutRenSeq). Stable transformation confirmed Pm1a identity which induced a strong resistance phenotype in transgenic plants upon challenge with avirulent Blumeria graminis (wheat powdery mildew) pathogens. Read More

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Complex genomic alterations and intellectual disability: an interpretative challenge.

J Intellect Disabil Res 2021 Feb 2;65(2):113-124. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Laboratory of Medical Genetics, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy.

Background: Complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs) are structural rearrangements involving more than three chromosomes or having more than two breaks; approximately 70% are not associated with any clinical phenotype. Here, we describe a CCR segregating in a two-generation family.

Method: A 4-year-old male was evaluated for developmental delay, mild intellectual disability and epicanthus. Read More

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February 2021

Improvement of Stable Restorer Lines for Blast Resistance through Functional Marker in Rice ( L.).

Genes (Basel) 2020 10 27;11(11). Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Department of Rice, Centre for Plant Breeding and Genetics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore 641003, India.

Two popular stable restorer lines, CB 87 R and CB 174 R, were improved for blast resistance through marker-assisted back-cross breeding (MABB). The hybrid rice development program in South India extensively depends on these two restorer lines. However, these restorer lines are highly susceptible to blast disease. Read More

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October 2020

Evidence for anaphase pulling forces during C. elegans meiosis.

J Cell Biol 2020 12;219(12)

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA.

Anaphase chromosome movement is thought to be mediated by pulling forces generated by end-on attachment of microtubules to the outer face of kinetochores. However, it has been suggested that during C. elegans female meiosis, anaphase is mediated by a kinetochore-independent pushing mechanism with microtubules only attached to the inner face of segregating chromosomes. Read More

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December 2020

eQTL mapping of the 12S globulin cruciferin gene PGCRURSE5 as a novel candidate associated with starch content in potato tubers.

Sci Rep 2020 10 13;10(1):17168. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute-National Research Institute, Platanowa 19, 05-831, Młochów, Poland.

Tuber starch content (TSC) is a very important trait in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). This study is the first to use expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) mapping of transcript-derived markers for TSC in potato. Read More

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October 2020