1,132,121 results match your criteria secretion system

Review: The development of the gastrointestinal tract microbiota and intervention in neonatal ruminants.

Animal 2021 Jul 19;15(8):100316. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Animal Science, College of Animal Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun 130062, China. Electronic address:

The complex microbiome colonizing the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of ruminants plays an important role in the development of the immune system, nutrient absorption and metabolism. Hence, understanding GIT microbiota colonization in neonatal ruminants has positive impacts on host health and productivity. Microbes rapidly colonize the GIT after birth and gradually develop into a complex microbial community, which allows the possibility of GIT microbiome manipulation to enhance newborn health and growth and perhaps induce lasting effects in adult ruminants. Read More

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Measuring Postprandial Metabolic Flexibility To Assess Metabolic Health and Disease.

J Nutr 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Hubert Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Metabolic abnormalities substantially increase the risk of noncommunicable diseases, which are among the leading causes of mortality globally. Mitigating and preventing these adverse consequences remains challenging due to a limited understanding of metabolic health. Metabolic flexibility, a key tenet of metabolic health, encompasses the responsiveness of interrelated pathways to maintain energy homeostasis throughout daily physiologic challenges, such as the response to meal challenges. Read More

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Catch-22 in Specialized Metabolism: Balancing Defense and Growth.

J Exp Bot 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel.

Plants are unsurpassed biochemists that synthesize a plethora of molecules in response to everchanging environment. The majority of these molecules considered as specialized metabolites, effectively protect the plant against pathogens and herbivores. However, this defense most likely comes at a high expense, leading to reduction of growth (known as the 'growth-defense tradeoff'). Read More

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Macrophage phenotype and function are dependent upon the composition and biomechanics of the local cardiac tissue microenvironment.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 05 17;13(13):16938-16956. Epub 2021 May 17.

McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA.

Macrophage accumulation and nitrosative stress are known mechanisms underlying age-related cardiovascular pathology and functional decline. The cardiac muscle microenvironment is known to change with age, yet the direct effects of these changes have yet to be studied in-depth. The present study sought to better elucidate the role that biochemical and biomechanical alterations in cardiac tissue have in the altered phenotype and functionality of cardiac resident macrophages observed with increasing age. Read More

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Modular Platform for the Development of Recombinant Hemoglobin Scavenger Biotherapeutics.

Mol Pharm 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Division of Internal Medicine, Universitätsspital and University of Zurich, Zurich 8091, Switzerland.

Cell-free hemoglobin (Hb) is a driver of disease progression in conditions with intravascular or localized hemolysis. Genetic and acquired anemias or emergency medical conditions such as aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage involve tissue Hb exposure. Haptoglobin (Hp) captures Hb in an irreversible protein complex and prevents its pathophysiological contributions to vascular nitric oxide depletion and tissue oxidation. Read More

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Molecular Biology and Genetic Tools to Investigate Functional Redundancy Among Fe-S Cluster Carriers in E. coli.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2353:3-36

Laboratoire de Chimie Bactérienne, Institut de Microbiologie de la Méditerranée, CNRS UMR 7283, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, France.

Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are among the oldest protein cofactors, and Fe-S cluster-based chemistry has shaped the cellular metabolism of all living organisms. Over the last 30 years, thanks to molecular biology and genetic approaches, numerous actors for Fe-S cluster assembly and delivery to apotargets have been uncovered. In prokaryotes, Escherichia coli is the best-studied for its convenience of growth and its genetic amenability. Read More

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January 2021

An integrated transcriptome and metabolome approach reveals the accumulation of taste-related metabolites and gene regulatory networks during watermelon fruit development.

Planta 2021 Jul 22;254(2):35. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Zhengzhou Fruit Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhengzhou, 450009, China.

Main Conclusion: Accumulation patterns and gene regulatory networks of sugars and cucurbitacins and related primary and secondary metabolites during cultivated watermelon 'Cheng Lan' and wild watermelon 'PI 632,751' fruit development were identified. Metabolites are the end products of cellular regulatory processes and play important roles in fruit taste formation. However, comprehensive studies on the accumulation patterns of watermelon fruit metabolites and transcriptional regulatory networks are still scarce. Read More

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Genomic characterization of species isolates from chronic and occasional lung infection in cystic fibrosis patients.

Microb Genom 2021 Jul;7(7)

Department of Diagnostics and Public Health, Microbiology Section, University of Verona, 37134 Verona, Italy.

species are increasingly being detected in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, where they can establish chronic infections by adapting to the lower airway environment. To better understand the mechanisms contributing to a successful colonization by species, we sequenced the whole genome of 54 isolates from 26 patients with occasional and early/late chronic lung infection. We performed a phylogenetic analysis and compared virulence and resistance genes, genetic variants and mutations, and hypermutability mechanisms between chronic and occasional isolates. Read More

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Elevated levels of cortisol, brain-derived neurotropic factor and tissue plasminogen activator in male children with autism spectrum disorder.

Autism Res 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Gaziosmanpasa University School of Medicine, Tokat, Turkey.

Several studies demonstrated biological effects of cortisol, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) on human metabolism and central nervous system. Our study investigated the serum levels of tPA along with BDNF and cortisol in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Thirty three male children with ASD ranging in age from 2 to 15 years were selected for the study group and 27 age-matched healthy male children were selected for the control group. Read More

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Fifty years of research on the brain renin-angiotensin system: what have we learned?

Clin Sci (Lond) 2021 Jul;135(14):1727-1731

Division of Vascular Medicine and Pharmacology, Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Although the existence of a brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) had been proposed five decades ago, we still struggle to understand how it functions. The main reason for this is the virtual lack of renin at brain tissue sites. Moreover, although renin's substrate, angiotensinogen, appears to be synthesized locally in the brain, brain angiotensin (Ang) II disappeared after selective silencing of hepatic angiotensinogen. Read More

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Cancer: An unknown territory; rethinking before going ahead.

Arun Upadhyay

Genes Dis 2021 Sep 18;8(5):655-661. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Department of Biochemistry, Central University of Rajasthan, Rajasthan, 305817, India.

Cancer is a disease of altered signaling and metabolism, causing uncontrolled division and survival of transformed cells. A host of molecules, factors, and conditions have been designated as underlying causes for the inception and progression of the disease. An enormous amount of data is available, system-wide interaction networks of the genes and proteins are generated over the years and have now reached up to a level of saturation, where we need to shift our focus to the more advanced and comprehensive methods and approaches of data analysis and visualization. Read More

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September 2021

An Autonomous Cannabinoid System in Islets of Langerhans.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 5;12:699661. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Laboratory of Clinical Investigation/Diabetes Section, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD, United States.

While endocannabinoids (ECs) and cannabis were primarily studied for their nervous system effects, it is now clear that ECs are also produced in the periphery where they regulate several physiological processes, including energy storage, glucose and lipid metabolism, insulin secretion and synthesis, and hepatocyte function. Within islet of Langerhans there is an autonomous EC system (ECS). Beta (β)-cells contain all the enzymes necessary for EC synthesis and degradation; ECs are generated in response to cellular depolarization; their paracrine influence on β-cells is mostly through the cannabinoid 1 receptor (CBR) that is present on all β-cells; they modulate basal and glucose- and incretin-induced insulin secretion, and β-cell responses to various stressors. Read More

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Knockdown of Dehydrodolichyl Diphosphate Synthase in the Retina Leads to a Unique Pattern of Retinal Degeneration.

Front Mol Neurosci 2021 5;14:693967. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Medical Neurobiology, Faculty of Medicine and The Edmond and Lily Safra Center for Brain Sciences (ELSC), The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel.

Dehydrodolichyl diphosphate synthase (DHDDS) is a ubiquitously expressed enzyme that catalyzes -prenyl chain elongation to produce the poly-prenyl backbone of dolichol. It appears in all tissues including the nervous system and it is a highly conserved enzyme that can be found in all animal species. Individuals who have biallelic missense mutations in the gene are presented with non-syndromic retinitis pigmentosa with unknown underlying mechanism. Read More

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IL-1B drives opposing responses in primary tumours and bone metastases; harnessing combination therapies to improve outcome in breast cancer.

NPJ Breast Cancer 2021 Jul 21;7(1):95. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Oncology and Metabolism, Weston Park Cancer Centre, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.

Breast cancer bone metastasis is currently incurable, ~75% of patients with late-stage breast cancer develop disease recurrence in bone and available treatments are only palliative. We have previously shown that production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1B (IL-1B) by breast cancer cells drives bone metastasis in patients and in preclinical in vivo models. In the current study, we have investigated how IL-1B from tumour cells and the microenvironment interact to affect primary tumour growth and bone metastasis through regulation of the immune system, and whether targeting IL-1 driven changes to the immune response improves standard of care therapy for breast cancer bone metastasis. Read More

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Inhibition of metabotropic glutamate receptor III facilitates sensitization to alkylating chemotherapeutics in glioblastoma.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Jul 21;12(8):723. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Microenvironment and Immunology Research Laboratory, Medical Center-University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Glioblastoma (GBM), the most malignant tumor of the central nervous system, is marked by its dynamic response to microenvironmental niches. In particular, this cellular plasticity contributes to the development of an immediate resistance during tumor treatment. Novel insights into the developmental trajectory exhibited by GBM show a strong capability to respond to its microenvironment by clonal selection of specific phenotypes. Read More

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TRANVIA (TVA) facilitates cellulose synthase trafficking and delivery to the plasma membrane.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Jul;118(30)

Department of Plant Biology, Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA 94305;

Cellulose is synthesized at the plasma membrane by cellulose synthase (CESA) complexes (CSCs), which are assembled in the Golgi and secreted to the plasma membrane through the -Golgi network (TGN) compartment. However, the molecular mechanisms that guide CSCs through the secretory system and deliver them to the plasma membrane are poorly understood. Here, we identified an uncharacterized gene, (), that is transcriptionally coregulated with the genes required for primary cell wall synthesis. Read More

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Disorganization and degeneration of liver sympathetic innervations in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease revealed by 3D imaging.

Sci Adv 2021 Jul 21;7(30). Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Stockholm, Sweden.

Hepatic nerves have a complex role in synchronizing liver metabolism. Here, we used three-dimensional (3D) immunoimaging to explore the integrity of the hepatic nervous system in experimental and human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We demonstrate parallel signs of mild degeneration and axonal sprouting of sympathetic innervations in early stages of experimental NAFLD and a collapse of sympathetic arborization in steatohepatitis. Read More

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Preparing for the NASH epidemic: A call to action.

Metabolism 2021 Jul 6:154822. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

University of Florida and Malcom Randall Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Gainesville, FL, United States of America. Electronic address:

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are common conditions with a rising burden. Yet there are significant management gaps between clinical guidelines and practice in patients with NAFLD and NASH. Further, there is no single global guiding strategy for the management of NAFLD and NASH. Read More

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Asymptomatic meningitis diagnosed by positron emission tomography in a patient with syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2021 Jul 22;15(1):390. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama City University, Yokohama, Japan.

Background: Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion can be caused by arginine-vasopressin-producing tumors or enhanced arginine vasopressin secretion from the posterior pituitary gland due to central nervous system disorders and intrathoracic diseases.

Case Presentation: A 53-year-old Asian man was hospitalized with complaints of tremor and hiccups. Laboratory examination revealed findings suggestive of hypotonic hyponatremia due to syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion. Read More

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Tryptophan metabolites modulate inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer by affecting immune system.

Moein Ala

Int Rev Immunol 2021 Jul 22:1-20. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran, Iran.

Tryptophan is an essential amino acid, going through three different metabolic pathways in the intestines. Indole pathway in the gut microbiota, serotonin system in the enterochromaffin cells and kynurenine pathway in the immune cells and intestinal lining are the three arms of tryptophan metabolism in the intestines. Clinical, in vivo and in vitro studies showed that each one of these arms has a significant impact on IBD. Read More

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Rodent Genetic Models of Ah Receptor Signaling.

Drug Metab Rev 2021 Jul 21:1-64. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Molecular and Environmental Toxicology Center, University of Wisconsin- Madison, Madison, WI.

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand activated transcription factor that is a member of the PER-ARNT-SIM superfamily of environmental sensors. This receptor has been a molecule of interest for many years in the field of toxicology, as it was originally discovered to mediate the toxic effects of certain environmental pollutants like benzo()pyrene and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo--dioxin. While all animals express this protein, there is naturally occurring variability in receptor size and responsiveness to ligand. Read More

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Improving common bacterial blight phenotyping by using rub-inoculation and machine learning: cheaper, better, faster, stronger.

Phytopathology 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

IRHS, 98754, Angers, Pays de la Loire, France;

Accurate assessment of plant symptoms plays a key role for measuring the impact of pathogens during plant-pathogen interaction. Common bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas phaseoli pv. phaseoli and Xanthomonas citri pv. Read More

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The association between expression of lncRNAs in patients with GDM.

Endocr Connect 2021 Jul 1. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

C Xingbo, Department of Endocrinology, First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Objective: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is common worldwide and seriously threatens maternal and infant health. The expression of non-coding RNA is tissue-specific and highly stable in eukaryotic cells and the circulatory system, which can act as an early molecular marker of GDM.

Methods: The differential expression of lncRNA and mRNA in the peripheral blood of patients with GDM (experimental group) and healthy pregnant women (control group) was analysed via lncRNA gene chip. Read More

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Co-delivery of paclitaxel and STAT3 siRNA by a multifunctional nanocomplex for targeted treatment of metastatic breast cancer.

Acta Biomater 2021 Jul 18. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, China; NMPA Key Laboratory for Research and Evaluation of Pharmaceutical Preparations and Excipients, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, China. Electronic address:

Metastasis is one of the major causes of mortality in patients suffering from breast cancer. The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is closely related to cancer metastasis. Herein, a multifunctional nanocomplex was developed to simultaneously deliver paclitaxel (PTX) and STAT3 siRNA (siSTAT3) to inhibit tumor growth and prevent metastasis of breast tumor cells. Read More

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The photodynamic and intrinsic effects of Azure B on mitochondrial bioenergetics and the consequences of its intrinsic effects on hepatic energy metabolism.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2021 Jul 18:102446. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Department of Biochemistry, Laboratory of Biological Oxidations, State University of Maringá, Maringá 87020-900, Paraná, Brazil; Department of Biochemistry, Laboratory of Plant Biochemistry, State University of Maringá, Maringá 87020-900, Paraná, Brazil. Electronic address:

Background: The present study aimed to characterize the intrinsic and photodynamic effects of azure B (AB) on mitochondrial bioenergetics, as well as the consequences of its intrinsic effects on hepatic energy metabolism.

Methods: Two experimental systems were utilized: (a) isolated rat liver mitochondria and (b) isolated perfused rat liver.

Results: AB interacted with mitochondria regardless of photostimulation, but its binding degree was reduced by mitochondrial energization. Read More

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defence mechanims against biological aggressors and their use as alternative therapeutic applications.

Crit Rev Microbiol 2021 Jul 21:1-21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Rosario (IBR, CONICET), Departamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Rosario, Argentina.

Several strains are important nosocomial pathogens, with being the species of greatest worldwide concern due to its multi-drug resistance and the recent appearance of hyper-virulent strains in the clinical setting. Colonisation of this environment is associated with a multitude of bacterial factors, and the molecular features that promote environmental persistence in abiotic surfaces, including intrinsic desiccation resistance, biofilm formation and motility, have been previously addressed. On the contrary, mechanisms enabling . Read More

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Sphingolipid metabolism in the development and progression of cancer: one cancer's help is another's hindrance.

Mol Oncol 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

LIMES Institute for Membrane Biology and Lipid Biochemistry, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

Cancer development is a multistep process in which cells must overcome a series of obstacles before they can become fully developed tumors. First, cells must develop the ability to proliferate unchecked. Once this is accomplished, they must be able to invade the neighboring tissue, as well as provide themselves with oxygen and nutrients. Read More

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Recanalization of portal axis after cavoportal hemitransposition in a liver transplant recipient with complete splanchnic thrombosis.

Pediatr Transplant 2021 Jul 21:e14097. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Abdominal Transplant Surgery and Transplant Coordination, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Background: Diffuse splanchnic thrombosis may render standard LTx difficult or even technically impossible. A 19-year-old woman with acute-on-chronic Budd-Chiari syndrome and complete splanchnic thrombosis underwent conventional LTx. Only limited anatomical portal inflow could be restored, and urgent re-transplantation for recurrent splanchnic vein thrombosis became necessary. Read More

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Biallelic TRAF3IP2 variants causing chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis in a child harboring a STAT1 variant.

Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Rheumatology and Immunology Unit, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío, Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla, IBiS/ Universidad de Sevilla/CSIC, Red de Investigación Traslacional en Infectología Pediátrica RITIP, Seville, Spain.

Background: Inherited chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) is often caused by inborn errors of immunity, impairing the response to, or the production of IL-17A and IL-17F. About half of the cases carry STAT1 gain-of-function (GOF) mutations. Only few patients have been reported with mutations of TRAF3IP2, a gene encoding the adaptor ACT1 essential for IL-17-receptor(R) -signaling. Read More

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Glyoxylate reductase/hydroxypyruvate reductase regulates the free d-aspartate level in mammalian cells.

J Cell Biochem 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kitasato University, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Multiple d-amino acids are present in mammalian cells, and these compounds have distinctive physiological functions. Among the free d-amino acids identified in mammals, d-aspartate plays critical roles in the neuroendocrine and endocrine systems, as well as in the central nervous system. Mammalian cells have the molecular apparatus necessary to take up, degrade, synthesize, and release d-aspartate. Read More

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