198,744 results match your criteria secretion subsequent

Vasovagal reactions following venepuncture result in aberrant stress-induced cortisol levels.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2021 Apr 3;128:105220. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Translational Research in GastroIntestinal Disorders (TARGID), Department of chronic diseases, metabolism, and ageing, Faculty of Medicine, KU Leuven, Belgium; Leuven Brain Institute, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience Lab, Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH, USA.

Venepuncture is recognized as a potent stressor and, by activating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, can interfere with measuring subsequent HPA axis indices such as cortisol. A resting period of 110 min is recommended between venepuncture and the commencement of psychosocial stress induction or cortisol measurement to allow cortisol levels to return to baseline first. In experiment 1 (n = 65), in which stress induction occurred 120 min after venepuncture, we observed three cortisol stress response patterns: conventional response ("responders", 77%), conventional non-response ("non-responders", 6. Read More

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Bacterial detection by NAIP/NLRC4 elicits prompt contractions of intestinal epithelial cell layers.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(16)

Science for Life Laboratory, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University, 75123 Uppsala, Sweden;

The gut epithelium serves to maximize the surface for nutrient and fluid uptake, but at the same time must provide a tight barrier to pathogens and remove damaged intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) without jeopardizing barrier integrity. How the epithelium coordinates these tasks remains a question of significant interest. We used imaging and an optical flow analysis pipeline to study the dynamicity of untransformed murine and human intestinal epithelia, cultured atop flexible hydrogel supports. Read More

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An undiagnosed TSH-secreting pituitary macroadenoma found during pregnancy.

Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2021 Mar 16;2021. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Summary: Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)-secreting pituitary adenoma (TSHoma) is an uncommon cause of thyrotoxicosis, and is even rarer when found during pregnancy. Our patient presented with thyrotoxicosis accompanied by an inappropriately normal TSH level at 10 weeks of gestation during work-up of surgical termination of pregnancy (STOP). Subsequent investigations performed after STOP confirmed the presence of a TSH-secreting pituitary macroadenoma. Read More

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Peroxiredoxin alleviates the fitness costs of imidacloprid resistance in an insect pest of rice.

PLoS Biol 2021 Apr 12;19(4):e3001190. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

Chemical insecticides have been heavily employed as the most effective measure for control of agricultural and medical pests, but evolution of resistance by pests threatens the sustainability of this approach. Resistance-conferring mutations sometimes impose fitness costs, which may drive subsequent evolution of compensatory modifier mutations alleviating the costs of resistance. However, how modifier mutations evolve and function to overcome the fitness cost of resistance still remains unknown. Read More

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Pathogenicity and Virulence of : Intracellular replication and host response.

Virulence 2021 Dec;12(1):1122-1144

Division of Biology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, USA.

Bacteria of the genus are natural pathogens of amoebae that can cause a severe pneumonia in humans called Legionnaires' Disease. Human disease results from inhalation of -contaminated aerosols and subsequent bacterial replication within alveolar macrophages. pathogenicity in humans has resulted from extensive co-evolution with diverse genera of amoebae. Read More

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December 2021

Weight loss with or without intragastric balloon causes divergent effects on ghrelin cell expression.

Obes Sci Pract 2021 Apr 13;7(2):199-207. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences Division of Molecular Medicine and Virology Medical Faculty Linköping University Linköping Sweden.

Objective: The mechanism of action of intragastric balloons in the treatment of obesity is not fully understood. One of the hypotheses is that balloons might have an effect on the fundus, the area of ghrelin production.

Methods: Participants were randomized to a 13-week period of sham or balloon treatment followed by a 13-week period of balloon therapy in everyone. Read More

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Recent Advances in Computational Metabolite Structure Predictions and Altered Metabolic Pathways Assessment to Inform Drug Development Processes.

Drug Metab Rev 2021 Apr 12:1-37. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, Schools of Pharmacy and Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, United States.

Many drug candidates fail during preclinical and clinical trials due to variable or unexpected metabolism which may lead to variability in drug efficacy or adverse drug reactions. The drug metabolism field aims to address this important issue from many angles which range from the study of drug-drug interactions, pharmacogenomics, computational metabolic modeling, and others. This manuscript aims to provide brief but comprehensive manuscript summaries highlighting the conclusions and scientific importance of seven exceptional manuscripts published in recent years within the field of drug metabolism. Read More

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Circulation of anodic effluent to the cathode chamber for subsequent treatment of wastewater in photosynthetic microbial fuel cell with generation of bioelectricity and algal biomass.

Chemosphere 2021 Mar 31;278:130455. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

School of Bio-Chemical Engineering and Technology, Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology, Thammasat University, Pathum Thani, 12120, Thailand. Electronic address:

Synthetic wastewater containing 1500 mg L of COD was treated in the anode chamber for 5, 10, and 20 d. An anode chamber was conducted under anaerobic conditions with mixed culture bacteria inoculum attached to the anode. Anodic effluent was transferred to the cathode chamber for further treatment for 5, 10, and 20 d as the growth medium of Chlorella vulgaris. Read More

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Comprehensive transcriptional analysis reveals salt stress-regulated key pathways, hub genes and time-specific responsive gene categories in common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) roots.

BMC Plant Biol 2021 Apr 10;21(1):175. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Coastal Salinity Tolerant Grass Engineering and Technology Research Center, Ludong University, Yantai, Shandong, People's Republic of China.

Background: Despite its good salt-tolerance level, key genes and pathways involved with temporal salt response of common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) have not been explored. Read More

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Mannosylated gelatin nanoparticles enhanced inactivated PRRSV targeting dendritic cells and increased T cell immunity.

Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2021 Apr 5;235:110237. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

College of Life Science and Technology, Dalian University, Dalian, 116622, PR China; Institute of Immunology, Dalian University, Dalian, 116622, PR China. Electronic address:

The objective of the present work was to evaluate the efficacy of a novel antigen carrier using mannosylated gelatin nanoparticles with entrapped inactivated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in inducing T cell mediated immunity in vitro. Gelatin nanoparticles (GNP) were modified with mannose to form mannosylated gelatin nanoparticles (MnGNP), which can efficiently and specifically target monocyte derived dendritic cells (MoDCs). The inactivated PRRSV was encapsulated in the MnGNP and GNP, referred to as MnGNP-PRRSV and GNP-PRRSV, respectively. Read More

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Dose-optimization for loss-of-response to vedolizumab - pharmacokinetics and immune mechanisms.

J Crohns Colitis 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Gastroenterology Institute, Sheba Medical Center Tel Hashomer, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Background: Real-life-data regarding pharmacokinetics of vedolizumab in patients needing dose-optimization are scarce. We set to examine whether pre-optimization vedolizumab-levels associate with therapy-outcomes and which mechanisms explain the associations.

Methods: A multi-center observational study assessed the outcome of dose-increase in association with pre-escalation levels in vedolizumab-treated patients. Read More

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Simultaneous Combined Major Arterial and Lumbar Plexus Injury During Primary Extra Lateral Interbody Fusion: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

Cureus 2021 Mar 4;13(3):e13701. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Orthopedics and Traumatology, General Hospital of Patras "Agios Andreas", Patras, GRC.

Extra lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) has been established in recent years as an effective approach to address degenerative lumbar disc disease (DLDD). Although neurological and vascular complications during XLIF have been reported, to our knowledge, a combination of simultaneous vascular and neurovascular complication during XLIF has not been reported to date. A 72-year-old female patient was admitted to our orthopaedic department because of back pain associated with severe neuropathic radicular pain to her both lower extremities, incomplete paraplegia and low back fistula with serous secretion for several weeks. Read More

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Elemental iron modifies the redox environment of the gastrointestinal tract: a novel therapeutic target and test for metabolic syndrome.

Free Radic Biol Med 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Plant Biology, School of Environmental and Biological Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, 08901.

Metabolic syndrome (MetS, i.e., type 2 diabetes and obesity) is often associated with dysbiosis, inflammation, and leaky gut syndrome, which increase the content of oxygen and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Read More

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Sleep deprivation impairs molecular clearance from the human brain.

Brain 2021 Apr;144(3):863-874

Department of Radiology, Oslo University Hospital - Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway.

It remains an enigma why human beings spend one-third of their life asleep. Experimental data suggest that sleep is required for clearance of waste products from brain metabolism. This has, however, never been verified in humans. Read More

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The many actions of insulin in skeletal muscle, the paramount tissue determining glycemia.

Cell Metab 2021 Apr;33(4):758-780

Cell Biology Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada; Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; Department of Biochemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

As the principal tissue for insulin-stimulated glucose disposal, skeletal muscle is a primary driver of whole-body glycemic control. Skeletal muscle also uniquely responds to muscle contraction or exercise with increased sensitivity to subsequent insulin stimulation. Insulin's dominating control of glucose metabolism is orchestrated by complex and highly regulated signaling cascades that elicit diverse and unique effects on skeletal muscle. Read More

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Equating Resistance-Training Volume Between Programs Focused on Muscle Hypertrophy.

Sports Med 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Metabolism, Nutrition, and Exercise Laboratory. Physical Education and Sport Center, Londrina State University, Londrina, Brazil.

Calculating resistance-training volume in programs focused on muscle hypertrophy is an attempt to quantify the external workload carried out, then to estimate the dose of stimulus imposed on targeted muscles. The volume is usually expressed in some variables that directly affected the total training work, such as the number of sets, repetitions, and volume-load. These variables are used to try to quantify the training work easily, for the subsequent organization and prescription of training programs. Read More

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Incidence of metabolic syndrome and determinants of its progression in Southern Iran: A 5-year longitudinal follow-up study.

J Res Med Sci 2020 26;25:103. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Department of Internal Medicine, Gastroenterologist, Shiraz Health Policy Research Center, Institute of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of conditions increasing the risk of serious diseases. This study aimed to define the predictors of MetS incident in a community-based cohort in Southern Iran, during a mean follow-up period of 5.1 years. Read More

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November 2020

Systemic reprogramming of phytohormone profiles and metabolic traits by virulent Diplodia infection in its pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) host.

Plant Cell Environ 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Center of Molecular Ecophysiology (CMEP), College of Resources and Environment, Chongqing, P.R. China.

The widespread ascomycetous fungus Diplodia pinea is a latent, necrotrophic pathogen in Pinus species causing severe damages and world-wide economic losses. However, the interactions between pine hosts and virulent D. pinea are largely not understood. Read More

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Large fluxes of fatty acids from membranes to triacylglycerol and back during N-deprivation and recovery in Chlamydomonas.

Plant Physiol 2021 Apr;185(3):796-814

Department of Plant Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, 48824, USA.

Microalgae accumulate triacylglycerol (TAG) during nutrient deprivation and break it down after nutrient resupply, and these processes involve dramatic shifts in cellular carbon allocation. Due to the importance of algae in the global carbon cycle, and the potential of algal lipids as feedstock for chemical and fuel production, these processes are of both ecophysiological and biotechnological importance. However, the metabolism of TAG is not well understood, particularly the contributions of fatty acids (FAs) from different membrane lipids to TAG accumulation and the fate of TAG FAs during degradation. Read More

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The control of lung branching morphogenesis.

Dagmar Iber

Curr Top Dev Biol 2021 23;143:205-237. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Biosystems, Science and Engineering (D-BSSE), ETH Zurich, Basel, Switzerland; Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (SIB), Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Branching morphogenesis generates epithelial trees which facilitate gas exchange, filtering, as well as secretion processes with their large surface to volume ratio. In this review, we focus on the developmental mechanisms that control the early stages of lung branching morphogenesis. Lung branching morphogenesis involves the stereotypic, recurrent definition of new branch points, subsequent epithelial budding, and lung tube elongation. Read More

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Ecdysteroid metabolism in mammals: the fate of ingested 20-hydroxyecdysone in mice and rats.

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2021 Apr 2:105896. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Biophytis, Sorbonne Université - BC9, 4 place Jussieu, 75005, Paris, France; Sorbonne Université, CNRS - Institut de Biologie Paris Seine (BIOSIPE), 75005, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Phytoecdysteroids are molecules derived from sterol metabolism and found in many plants. They display a wide array of pharmacological effects on mammals (e.g. Read More

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Construction and immunological evaluation of hepatitis B virus core virus-like particles containing multiple antigenic peptides of respiratory syncytial virus.

Virus Res 2021 Apr 2;298:198410. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

State Key Laboratory of Virology, Modern Virology Research Center, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China. Electronic address:

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection causes severe disease in the lower respiratory tract of infants and young children. Currently, no licensed vaccine is available. In this study, we generated the chimeric virus-like particles (tHBc/F, tHBc/F/M2 and tHBc/F/M2/tG VLPs) containing multiple antigenic peptides of RSV proteins based on a truncated hepatitis B virus core carrier (tHBc). Read More

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Iron metabolism: an emerging therapeutic target underlying the anti-cancer effect of quercetin.

Free Radic Res 2021 Apr 5:1-8. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

School of Medicine, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Changsha, PR China.

Iron, an essential micronutrient for all kinds of cells, is essential for the balance of body internal environment. Notably, cancer cells exhibit a strong dependence on iron and require a large amount of iron for proliferation. A growing number of studies suggested that iron metabolism imbalance and subsequent excess iron accumulation are closely related to the occurrence and progression of cancer. Read More

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Efficacy of Ramucirumab Sorafenib as Subsequent Treatment for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Anticancer Res 2021 Apr;41(4):2187-2192

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Japan;

Background/aim: The present study aimed to examine the therapeutic efficacy of ramucirumab compared with that of sorafenib as subsequent systemic therapy for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) levels ≥400 ng/ml.

Patients And Methods: In our prospectively registered, real-world cohort, 13 and 11 patients treated with ramucirumab or sorafenib, respectively, were analyzed. Progression-free survival (PFS) was primarily compared between the ramucirumab and sorafenib groups. Read More

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Appropriate expression of P57kip2 drives trophoblast fusion via cell cycle arrest.

Reproduction 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

L Fu, Department of Herbal Medicine, School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

The syncytiotrophoblast, derived from cytotrophoblast fusion, is responsible for maternal-fetal exchanges, secretion of pregnancy-related hormones, and fetal defense against pathogens. Inadequate cytotrophoblast fusion can lead to pregnancy disorders, such as preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction. However, little is known about the mechanism of cytotrophoblast fusion in both physiological and pathological pregnancy conditions. Read More

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A clinical evaluation of VO kinetics in kidney transplant recipients.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2021 Apr 3. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Sport and Exercise Medicine Division, Department of Medicine, University Hospital of Padova, Via Giustiniani 2, 35128, Padua, Italy.

Purpose: Aerobic exercise capacity is reduced in patients with chronic kidney disease, partly due to alterations at the muscular and microvascular level. This study evaluated oxygen uptake (VO) kinetics as indicator of muscular oxidative metabolism in a population of Kidney Transplant Recipients (KTRs).

Methods: Two groups of KTRs enrolled 3 (n = 21) and 12 months (n = 14) after transplantation and a control group of healthy young adults (n = 16) underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing on cycle-ergometer. Read More

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Lateral one-third gland resection in Cushing patients with failed adenoma identification leads to low remission rates: long-term observations from a small, single-center cohort.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2021 Apr 3. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, University Hospital of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Background: Currently, there are no guidelines for neurosurgeons treating patients with Cushing's disease (CD) when intraoperative adenoma identification is negative. Under these circumstances, a total hypophysectomy or hemi-hypophysectomy on the side indicated by inferior petrosal sinus sampling (IPSS) is the approach being used, although there is a subsequent risk of hypopituitarism. Data on whether one-third lateral pituitary gland resection results in cure of hypercortisolism and low rates of hypopituitarism remain inconclusive. Read More

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R-Spondin 2 and WNT/CTNNB1 Signaling Pathways Are Required for Porcine Follicle Development and In Vitro Maturation.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Mar 5;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Laboratory of Veterinary Embryology and Biotechnology (VETEMBIO), College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 28644, Korea.

The secretion of oocyte-derived paracrine factors, such as R-spondin2, is an essential mechanism for follicle growth by promoting the proliferation and differentiation of cumulus cells around oocytes. In the present study, we aimed to identify the effect of R-spondin2 during follicular development. First, R-spondin2-related factors (R-spondin2, CTNNB1, LGR4, and LGR5) were identified through immunofluorescence in porcine ovarian tissue. Read More

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A Systematic Study of the In Vitro Pharmacokinetics and Estimated Human In Vivo Clearance of Indole and Indazole-3-Carboxamide Synthetic Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists Detected on the Illicit Drug Market.

Molecules 2021 Mar 5;26(5). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Leverhulme Research Centre for Forensic Science, School of Science and Engineering, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN, UK.

In vitro pharmacokinetic studies were conducted on enantiomer pairs of twelve valinate or -leucinate indole and indazole-3-carboxamide synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRAs) detected on the illicit drug market to investigate their physicochemical parameters and structure-metabolism relationships (SMRs). Experimentally derived Log D ranged from 2.81 (AB-FUBINACA) to 4. Read More

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Effects of Protein Restriction and Subsequent Realimentation on Body Composition, Gut Microbiota and Metabolite Profiles in Weaned Piglets.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Mar 4;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of protein restriction and subsequent protein realimentation on the body composition, gut microbiota and metabolite profiles of piglets. Fifty weaned piglets were randomly assigned to two treatments: a normal protein (NP) group (20% crude protein (CP)) or a low protein (LP) group (16% CP) with five animals per pen and five pens per group. Treatment diets were fed for 14 d during the protein restriction phase, and then all pigs were fed the same nursery diets with a normal CP level (19% CP) during the protein realimentation phase until they reached an average target body weight (BW) of 25 ± 0. Read More

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