462,747 results match your criteria secretion glucose

Comparative study on the intestinal absorption of three gastrodin analogues via the glucose transport pathway.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2021 Apr 11:105839. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

NMPA Key Laboratory for Research and Evaluation of Drug Metabolism, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southern Medical University, 510515 Guangzhou, China; TCM-Integrated Hospital of Southern Medical University, 510315 Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Gastrodin is the main active constituent of Tianma, a famous traditional Chinese herbal medicine. Our previous research has found that gastrodin is absorbed rapidly in the intestine by the sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1). In the current report, gastrodin is the best glycoside compound absorbed via the glucose transport pathway. Read More

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Metabolic flexibility determines human NK cell functional fate in the tumor microenvironment.

Cell Metab 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Medicine, McMaster Immunology Research Centre, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8N 3Z5, Canada. Electronic address:

NK cells are central to anti-tumor immunity and recently showed efficacy for treating hematologic malignancies. However, their dysfunction in the hostile tumor microenvironment remains a pivotal barrier for cancer immunotherapies against solid tumors. Using cancer patient samples and proteomics, we found that human NK cell dysfunction in the tumor microenvironment is due to suppression of glucose metabolism via lipid peroxidation-associated oxidative stress. Read More

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Genome-wide association and transcriptome analysis suggests total serum ghrelin to be linked with GFRAL.

Eur J Endocrinol 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

M Kluge, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Leipzig Faculty of Medicine, Leipzig, Germany.

Objective: Ghrelin is an orexigenic peptide hormone involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, food intake and glucose metabolism. Serum levels increase anticipating a meal and fall afterwards. Underlying genetic mechanisms of the ghrelin secretion are unknown. Read More

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Tissue-specific glucose partitioning and fat content in prediabetes and type 2 diabetes: Whole-body PET/MRI during hyperinsulinemia.

Eur J Endocrinol 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

H Ahlström, Department of surgical sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, 751 05, Sweden.

Objective: To obtain direct quantifications of glucose turnover, volumes and fat content of several tissues in the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D) using a novel integrated approach for whole-body imaging.

Design And Methods: Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps and simultaneous whole-body integrated [18F]FDG-PET/MRI with automated analyses were performed in control (n=12), prediabetes (n=16) and T2D (n=13) subjects matched for age, sex and BMI.

Results: Whole-body glucose uptake (Rd) was reduced by approximately 25% in T2D vs control subjects, and partitioning to brain was increased from 3. Read More

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Insulin Secretion is a Strong Predictor for Need of Insulin Therapy in Patients With New Onset Diabetes and HbA1c >10%, a post hoc analysis of EDICT study.

Diabetes Obes Metab 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Division of Diabetes, University of Texas Health Science Center and Texas Diabetes Institute, San Antonio, Texas.

Aim: To identify predictors of response to glucose lowering therapy in patients with new onset diabetes and very high HbA1c (>10%).

Research Design And Methods: The study included EDICT participants with initial HbA1c >10% (N = 104). All subjects received a 75-g OGTT before initiation of therapy, and then were randomized to receive: (i) initial Triple Therapy with metformin, pioglitazone, and exenatide versus (ii) stepwise Conventional Therapy with metformin followed by glipizide and then glargine insulin to reduce A1c < 6. Read More

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Acute ketosis inhibits appetite and decreases plasma concentrations of acyl ghrelin in healthy humans.

Diabetes Obes Metab 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Internal Medicine, Clinic for Diabetes and Endocrinology, Viborg Regional Hospital, DK, Viborg, Denmark.

Context: Ketosis appears to decrease appetite and facilitate weight loss. Potential underlying mechanisms include decreases in plasma levels of the orexigenic hormone ghrelin and increases in appetite-inhibiting glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels. The effect of acute ketosis as compared to an isocaloric and isovolumetric beverage on both acyl ghrelin and total GLP-1 plasma concentrations has not been previously measured. Read More

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The antiresorptive effect of GIP, but not GLP-2, is preserved in patients with hypoparathyroidism- a randomized crossover study.

J Bone Miner Res 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 2200, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) are gut hormones secreted postprandially. In healthy humans, both hormones decrease bone resorption accompanied by a rapid reduction in parathyroid hormone (PTH). The aim of this study was to investigate whether the changes in bone turnover after meal intake and after GIP- and GLP-2 injections, respectively, are mediated via a reduction in PTH secretion. Read More

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Effect of Dapagliflozin on Cardiovascular Outcomes According to Baseline Kidney Function and Albuminuria Status in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Prespecified Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Cardiol 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

TIMI Study Group, Cardiovascular Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Importance: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors, such as dapagliflozin, promote renal glucose excretion and reduce cardiovascular (CV) deaths and hospitalizations for heart failure (HHF) among patients with type 2 diabetes. The relative CV efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin according to baseline kidney function and albuminuria status are unknown.

Objective: To assess the CV efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin according to baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR). Read More

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RhoG-Rac1 Signaling Pathway Mediates Metabolic Dysfunction of the Pancreatic Beta-Cells Under Chronic Hyperglycemic Conditions.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2021 Apr;55(2):180-192

Biomedical Research Service, John D. Dingell VA Medical Center, Detroit, MI, USA,

Background/aims: Published evidence suggests regulatory roles for small G proteins (Cdc42 and Rac1) in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic beta-cells. More recent evidence suggests novel roles for these G proteins, specifically Rac1, in the induction of metabolic dysfunction of the islet beta-cell under the duress of a variety of stress conditions. However, potential upstream regulators of sustained activation of Rac1 have not been identified in the beta-cell. Read More

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microRNA-129 overexpression in endothelial cell-derived extracellular vesicle influences inflammatory response caused by myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury.

Cell Biol Int 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of General internal Medicine, Jilin City Hospital of Chemical Industry, Jilin, 132022, Jilin, P.R. China.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have the potency to function as modulators in the process of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. This investigation was performed to decipher the mechanism of human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs)-derived EVs in myocardial I/R injury with the involvement of microRNA-129 (miR-129). HUVECs-secreted EVs were collected and identified. Read More

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Wiad Lek 2021 ;74(1):22-27


Objective: The aim: A clinical evaluation of biochemical parameters especially carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, their effect on the treatment program in patients with acute complicated pancreatitis.

Patients And Methods: Material and methods: The results of complex treatment of a sample group of 127 patients with acute pancreatitis were studied. A moderately severe clinical course of the disease was found in 42 patients (33. Read More

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January 2021

Metabolic responses in neonatal sepsis - a systematic review of human metabolomic studies.

Acta Paediatr 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Paediatric Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT-The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

Aim: To systematically review human metabolomic studies investigating metabolic responses in septic neonates.

Methods: A systematic literature search was performed in the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane library up to the 1st of January 2021. We included studies that assessed neonatal sepsis and the following outcomes; (1) change in the metabolism compared to healthy neonates and/or (2) metabolomics compared to traditional diagnostic tools of neonatal sepsis. Read More

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The impact of hypoxia exposure on glucose homeostasis in metabolically compromised humans: A systematic review.

Rev Endocr Metab Disord 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Human Biology, NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Humans living at a higher altitude are less prone to suffer from impaired glucose homeostasis and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which might at least partly be explained by lower oxygen availability at higher altitudes. The present systematic review aimed to provide an overview of the current literature on the effects of hypoxia exposure on glucose homeostasis in metabolically compromised humans. Several databases were searched up to August 10, 2020. Read More

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Cholecalciferol Supplementation Does Not Prevent the Development of Metabolic Syndrome or Enhance the Beneficial Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Obese Mice.

J Nutr 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Québec Heart and Lung Institute Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Laval University, Québec City, QC, Canada.

Background: Cholecalciferol (D3) may improve inflammation, and thus provide protection from cardiometabolic diseases (CMD), although controversy remains. Omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3FA) may also prevent the development of CMD, but the combined effects of ω-3FA and D3 are not fully understood.

Objectives: We determined the chronic independent and combined effects of D3 and ω-3FA on body weight, glucose homeostasis, and markers of inflammation in obese mice. Read More

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Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) improved diabetic lung fibrosis via AMPK and microRNA-27a (miR-27a).

Ann Transl Med 2021 Mar;9(6):492

NHC Key Laboratory of Hormones and Development, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Metabolic Diseases, Tianjin Medical University Chu Hsien-I Memorial Hospital & Tianjin Institute of Endocrinology, Tianjin, China.

Background: Extracellular matrix proliferation is an issue which leads to lung tissue damage in diabetes mellitus. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogues can improve the proliferation of extracellular matrix in diabetic pulmonary disease. In this study, we investigated the effect of GLP-1 on pulmonary fibrosis through the AMPK/microRNA-27a (miR-27a) pathway. Read More

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Liraglutide-induced structural modulation of the gut microbiota in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

PeerJ 2021 1;9:e11128. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Shanghai Biotecan Pharmaceuticals Co., Ltd., Shanghai, China.

Accumulating evidence has suggested the importance of gut microbiota in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In the present study, 40 patients with T2DM were treated with liraglutide for 4 months. Feces samples and clinical characteristics were collected from these 40 T2DM patients before and after the liraglutide treatment. Read More

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Ligninolytic activity of the and fungi involved in the biotransformation of synthetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes modify its toxicity.

PeerJ 2021 31;9:e11127. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Laboratorio de Interacción Suelo Planta Microorganismo, Instituto de Investigaciones Químico Biológicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico.

Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are of multidisciplinary scientific interest due to their exceptional physicochemical properties and a broad range of applications. However, they are considered potentially toxic nanoparticles when they accumulate in the environment. Given their ability to oxidize resistant polymers, mycorremediation with lignocellulolytic fungi are suggested as biological alternatives to the mineralization of MWCNTs. Read More

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Diclofenac impairs the proliferation and glucose metabolism of triple-negative breast cancer cells by targeting the c-Myc pathway.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Jun 2;21(6):584. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Gastrointestinal and Gland Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi 530021, P.R. China.

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells obtain energy mainly through aerobic glycolysis, and their glycolytic rate is significantly higher compared with that of non-TNBC cells. Glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) is a transmembrane transporter necessary for the entry of glucose into tumor cells, hexokinase (HK) is a key enzyme in the glycolytic pathway, and both are targets of the transcription factor c-Myc. c-Myc can promote aerobic glycolysis by upregulating GLUT1 expression and enhancing HK activity. Read More

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Paeoniflorin protects PC12 cells from oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation-induced injury via activating JAK2/STAT3 signaling.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Jun 29;21(6):572. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450000, P.R. China.

Ischemic stroke is the most common type of stroke, and it has become a major health issue as it is characterized by high mortality and morbidity rates. Paeoniflorin (PF) is a natural compound and the main active ingredient of Radix Paeoniae. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of PF in oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R)-induced injury of PC12 cells and its association with the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway. Read More

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Hybrid imaging in dementia: A semi-quantitative (F)-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging approach in clinical practice.

World J Nucl Med 2021 Jan-Mar;20(1):23-31. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Department of Radiology, Stony Brook University Hospital, Stony Brook, NY, USA.

Neurodegenerative disorders may demonstrate typical lobar and regional patterns of volume loss with corresponding decreased glucose metabolism. In this retrospective study, we correlated semi-quantitative volumetric changes utilizing NeuroQuant morphometric analysis with decreased fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake age-matched calculated -scores utilizing F-FDG positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI). Eighty-nine patients (mean age 71. Read More

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October 2020

Bmal1 inhibits phenotypic transformation of hepatic stellate cells in liver fibrosis via IDH1/α-KG-mediated glycolysis.

Acta Pharmacol Sin 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

School of Pharmacy, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032, China.

Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play an important role in the initiation and development of liver fibrogenesis, and abnormal glucose metabolism is increasingly being considered a crucial factor controlling phenotypic transformation in HSCs. However, the role of the factors affecting glycolysis in HSCs in the experimental models of liver fibrosis has not been completely elucidated. In this study, we showed that glycolysis was significantly enhanced, while the expression of brain and muscle arnt-like protein-1 (Bmal1) was downregulated in fibrotic liver tissues of mice, primary HSCs, and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-induced LX2 cells. Read More

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The glycolytic process in endothelial cells and its implications.

Acta Pharmacol Sin 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Institute of Clinical Science, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032, China.

Endothelial cells play an obligatory role in regulating local vascular tone and maintaining homeostasis in vascular biology. Cell metabolism, converting food to energy in organisms, is the primary self-sustaining mechanism for cell proliferation and reproduction, structure maintenance, and fight-or-flight responses to stimuli. Four major metabolic processes take place in the energy-producing process, including glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, glutamine metabolism, and fatty acid oxidation. Read More

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Natural product 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranose is a reversible inhibitor of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

Acta Pharmacol Sin 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Drug Discovery and Design Center, the Center for Chemical Biology, State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 201203, China.

Aerobic glycolysis, also known as the Warburg effect, is a hallmark of cancer cell glucose metabolism and plays a crucial role in the activation of various types of immune cells. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) catalyzes the conversion of D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to D-glycerate 1,3-bisphosphate in the 6th critical step in glycolysis. GAPDH exerts metabolic flux control during aerobic glycolysis and therefore is an attractive therapeutic target for cancer and autoimmune diseases. Read More

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A neoclerodane orthoester and other new neoclerodane diterpenoids from Teucrium yemense chemistry and effect on secretion of insulin.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 13;11(1):8074. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, P.O. Box. 2457, Riyadh, 11451, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Teucrium yemense, a medicinal plant commonly grown in Saudi Arabia and Yemen, is traditionally used to treat infections, kidney diseases, rheumatism, and diabetes. Extraction of the dried aerial parts of the plant with methanol, followed by further extraction with butanol and chromatography, gave twenty novel neoclerodanes. Their structures, relative configurations and some conformations were determined by MS and 1-D and 2-D NMR techniques. Read More

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GABAergic retinal ganglion cells regulate innate defensive responses.

Neuroreport 2021 May;32(7):643-649

Eye Center, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei.

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is regarded as the most important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, including the retina. However, the roles of GABA-immunolabeled retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) have not been explored. Here, we report the expression of GABAergic RGCs that project to many brain areas in mice, including the superior colliculus. Read More

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[Research progress in the role and mechanism of polysaccharides in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism].

Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2021 Mar;41(3):471-475

Anhui Provincial Engineering Research Center for Polysaccharide Drugs, Anhui Provincial Key Laboratory of Active Biological Macromolecules, Wuhu 241002, China.

Polysaccharides are a group of compounds composed of multiple monosaccharides of the same or different structures combined by glycosidic bonds, and are widely found in animals and plants and in the cell walls of microorganisms. Polysaccharides possess the advantages of high safety and low toxicity. Recent studies revealed that polysaccharides have a wide range of biological activities including immunoregulation, anti-tumor, antiviral, antioxidant activities, and blood glucose-and lipid- lowering effects. Read More

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Exosomes from adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells alleviate diabetic osteoporosis in rats through suppressing NLRP3 inflammasome activation in osteoclasts.

J Biosci Bioeng 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Cangzhou Central Hospital, No. 16 Xinhuaxi Road, Cangzhou 061000, Hebei, China.

Inflammation is one of major contributors of diabetic osteoporosis. Adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) show great potential to inhibit inflammation. We investigated the anti-osteoporosis role of AD-MSCs-derived exosomes in diabetic osteoporosis and the underlying molecular mechanism. Read More

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Berberine prevents diabetic retinopathy through inhibiting HIF-1α /VEGF/ NF-κ B pathway in db/db mice.

Pharmazie 2021 Apr;76(4):165-171

Translational Chinese Medicine Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Academy of Chinese Medicine Sciences; Sichuan Institute for Translational Chinese Medicine, Chengdu.

Our paper investigated the effect of berberine on the diabetic retinopathy (DR) in transgenic mice and explored its possible mechanisms. During chronic intragastric administration for ten weeks, berberine could decrease the levels of fasting blood glucose, TC and TG without hepatotoxicity. Moreover, berberine could protect the retinal morphology against the hyperglycemic insults and decrease glycogen accumulation, the contents of TNF-α and IL-1β in the retinas, as demonstrated by HE staining, PAS staining and ELISA kits, respectively. Read More

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Everolimus regulates the activity of gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells by targeting the Warburg effect via PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling.

Mol Med 2021 Apr 13;27(1):38. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Pancreatic Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Background: Gemcitabine (GEM) resistance remains a significant clinical challenge in pancreatic cancer treatment. Here, we investigated the therapeutic utility of everolimus (Evr), an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), in targeting the Warburg effect to overcome GEM resistance in pancreatic cancer.

Methods: The effect of Evr and/or mTOR overexpression or GEM on cell viability, migration, apoptosis, and glucose metabolism (Warburg effect) was evaluated in GEM-sensitive (GEM) and GEM-resistant (GEM) pancreatic cancer cells. Read More

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High social jetlag is correlated with nocturnal inhibition of melatonin production among night workers.

Chronobiol Int 2021 Apr 13:1-7. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Health, Life Cycles and Society, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Night work can lead to social jetlag (SJL), which can be briefly defined as the difference between social and biological time. In this sense, SJL has been viewed as a proxy for circadian misalignment. Studies have suggested that SJL may modify physiological processes, such as blood pressure, glucose metabolism, cortisol, and melatonin production. Read More

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