Diabet Med 2021 Jul 20:e14643. Epub 2021 Jul 20.
School of Medicine, Dentistry & Nursing, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Scotland.
This personal account presents some glimpses into the clinical research processes which have made radical changes to our understanding of disease and treatment, and some characteristics of researchers, drawn from history and personal experiences around obesity and type 2 diabetes. Some summary messages emerge: •The history of clinical diabetes research has shown how, perhaps through skilful leadership, combining very different personalities, skills and motivations can solve great challenges •Type 2 diabetes is a primary nutritional disease, secondary to the disease-process of obesity, not a primary endocrine disease •Type 2 diabetes is a manifestation of the disease-process of obesity, revealed by weight gain in people with underlying metabolic syndrome genetics/diathesis, mediated in large part at least by reversible ectopic fat accumulation impairing function of organs (liver, pancreas, brown adipose tissue) •Treat overweight/obesity more seriously (defined as a disease-process with multiple organ-specific complications - not as a BMI state or cut-off) •Discuss the complications and risks of T2D openly: remission is as important as for cancers •Offer and support an optimal dietary weight-management programme as soon as possible from diagnosis, specifically aiming for remission oWarn against non-evidence-based programs that look similar or claim to have similar potential: we have fully evidence based programmes oTarget sustained loss of >15kg for Europeans, (possibly less, eg >10kg for Asians?) •Increase future research support to enhance long-term weight loss maintenance. Several approaches need consideration: oPersonalise diet compositions (recognising there is no intrinsic advantage from different carbohydrate/fat content) oNovel diet strategies (eg 5:2, time-restricted, flexible diet compositions) oNew Pharmaceutical agents as adjuncts to diet if necessary oFood supplements to increase endogenous GLP-1 secretion. Read More