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Higher Abundance of Sediment Methanogens and Methanotrophs Do Not Predict the Atmospheric Methane and Carbon Dioxide Flows in Eutrophic Tropical Freshwater Reservoirs.

Front Microbiol 2021 17;12:647921. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Center of Engineering, Modeling and Applied Social Sciences, Federal University of ABC, Santo André, Brazil.

Freshwater reservoirs emit greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as methane (CH) and carbon dioxide (CO), contributing to global warming, mainly when impacted by untreated sewage and other anthropogenic sources. These gases can be produced by microbial organic carbon decomposition, but little is known about the microbiota and its participation in GHG production and consumption in these environments. In this paper we analyzed the sediment microbiota of three eutrophic tropical urban freshwater reservoirs, in different seasons and evaluated the correlations between microorganisms and the atmospheric CH and CO flows, also correlating them to limnological variables. Read More

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Conventional Testing Produces Submaximal Values for Oxygen Uptake in Elite Runners.

Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2021 Mar 31:1-6. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Purpose: This study aimecd to investigate whether elite athletes could reach higher values of maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) during a decremental exercise test in comparison with a traditional incremental test, as recently demonstrated in trained individuals.

Methods: Nine male runners (age 25.8 [5. Read More

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Effectiveness of the quadrivalent high-dose influenza vaccine for prevention of cardiovascular and respiratory events in people aged 65 years and above: rationale and design of a real-world pragmatic randomized clinical trial.

Am Heart J 2021 Mar 12. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Global Clinical Sciences, Sanofi Pasteur, Marcy L'Etoile, France.

Background: Influenza has been an acknowledged cause of respiratory disease for decades. However, considerable related, and often unappreciated, disease burden stems from cardiovascular complications, exacerbations of underlying medical conditions and secondary respiratory complications, with the highest burden in the elderly. This novel study combines the gold standard method of a randomized controlled trial with real-world data collection through national registries, to assess the relative effectiveness of high-dose (QIV-HD) versus standard-dose quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIV-SD) in preventing cardio-respiratory hospitalizations in a large cohort of adults aged ≥65 years. Read More

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Development and Field Evaluation of Near-Isogenic Lines of GR2-EBRRI dhan29 Golden Rice.

Front Plant Sci 2021 25;12:619739. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, Philippines.

Vitamin A deficiency remains a common public health problem among the rice-dependent poor people in the developing countries of Asia. Conventional milled rice does not contain provitamin A (β-carotene) in is edible part (endosperm) and is also deficient in essential minerals, such as iron and zinc. Transgenic Golden Rice event GR2E, which produces β-carotene in its endosperm, was used as a parent to introgress the transgene locus conferring β-carotene biosynthesis into a widely grown rice variety, BRRI dhan29, which covers around 26. Read More

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February 2021

Host apoplastic cysteine protease activity is supressed during the mutualistic association of Lolium perenne and Epichloë festucae.

J Exp Bot 2021 Feb 25. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Institute for Plant Sciences, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

Plants secrete various defence-related proteins into the apoplast, including proteases. Papain-like cysteine proteases (PLCPs) are central components of the plant immune system. To overcome plant immunity and successfully colonise their hosts, several plant pathogens secrete effector proteins inhibiting plant PLCPs. Read More

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February 2021

Influenza spread on context-specific networks lifted from interaction-based diary data.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Jan 27;8(1):191876. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Division of Applied Mathematics, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.

Studying the spread of infections is an important tool in limiting or preventing future outbreaks. A first step in understanding disease dynamics is constructing networks that reproduce features of real-world interactions. In this paper, we generate networks that maintain some features of the partial interaction networks that were recorded in an existing diary-based survey at the University of Warwick. Read More

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January 2021

Factors affecting dairy calf price in auction markets in Québec, Canada: 2008-2019.

J Dairy Sci 2021 Apr 19;104(4):4635-4649. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Faculté de médecine vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, 3200 rue Sicotte, St-Hyacinthe, QC, J2S 2M2, Canada.

Dairy calves not kept for replacement are sold at young age in Québec auction markets for white and grain-fed veal calf production. The province of Québec produces 80% of the Canadian veal meat, but little information is available on the factors associated with the calves' price per crude weight (Can$/kg; Can$1 = US$0.78 at time of writing). Read More

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Effects of Melatonin on Anterior Pituitary Plasticity: A Comparison Between Mammals and Teleosts.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2020 11;11:605111. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Physiology Unit, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Oslo, Norway.

Melatonin is a key hormone involved in the photoperiodic signaling pathway. In both teleosts and mammals, melatonin produced in the pineal gland at night is released into the blood and cerebrospinal fluid, providing rhythmic information to the whole organism. Melatonin acts specific receptors, allowing the synchronization of daily and annual physiological rhythms to environmental conditions. Read More

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January 2021

The Ecology of Nipah Virus in Bangladesh: A Nexus of Land-Use Change and Opportunistic Feeding Behavior in Bats.

Viruses 2021 01 23;13(2). Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

Nipah virus is a bat-borne paramyxovirus that produces yearly outbreaks of fatal encephalitis in Bangladesh. Understanding the ecological conditions that lead to spillover from bats to humans can assist in designing effective interventions. To investigate the current and historical processes that drive Nipah spillover in Bangladesh, we analyzed the relationship among spillover events and climatic conditions, the spatial distribution and size of roosts, and patterns of land-use change in Bangladesh over the last 300 years. Read More

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January 2021

A Long-Term Terrestrial Laser Scanning Measurement Station to Continuously Monitor Structural and Phenological Dynamics of Boreal Forest Canopy.

Front Plant Sci 2020 7;11:606752. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Remote Sensing and Photogrammetry, Finnish Geospatial Research Institute (FGI), National Land Survey of Finland, Masala, Finland.

The terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) has become standard technology for vegetation dynamics monitoring. TLS time series have significant underlying application in investigating structural development and dynamics on a daily and seasonal scale. However, the high potential of TLS for the monitoring of long-term temporal phenomena in fully grown trees with high spatial and temporal resolution has not yet been fully explored. Read More

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January 2021

Chemotype and aggressiveness evaluation of and isolates from wheat fields in Wisconsin.

Plant Dis 2021 Jan 24. Epub 2021 Jan 24.

University of Wisconsin, Plant Pathology, 1630 Linden Drive, Madison, Wisconsin, United States, 53706;

commonly causes Fusarium head blight (FHB) on wheat, barley, rice, and oats. produces nivalenol and deoxynivalenol (DON) and forms derivatives of DON based on its acetylation sites. The fungus is profiled into chemotypes based on DON derivative chemotypes (3 acetyldeoxynivalenol (3ADON) chemotype; 15 acetyldeoxynivalenol (15ADON) chemotype) and/or the nivalenol (NIV) chemotype. Read More

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January 2021

Deep Learning for Predicting Complex Traits in Spring Wheat Breeding Program.

Front Plant Sci 2020 5;11:613325. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, United States.

Genomic selection (GS) is transforming the field of plant breeding and implementing models that improve prediction accuracy for complex traits is needed. Analytical methods for complex datasets traditionally used in other disciplines represent an opportunity for improving prediction accuracy in GS. Deep learning (DL) is a branch of machine learning (ML) which focuses on densely connected networks using artificial neural networks for training the models. Read More

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January 2021

Exploring meat processing in the past: Insights from the Nunamiut people.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(1):e0245213. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

CNRS UMR 5608 TRACES, Université de Toulouse-Jean Jaurès, Maison de la Recherche, Toulouse, France.

Improving our knowledge of subsistence strategies and food processing techniques of past societies is of prime interest for better understanding human cultures as well as multiple aspects of human evolution. Beyond the simple matter of food itself, a substantial portion of socio-economic behavior is expressed in what, how, when, and with whom we eat. Over the last few decades, diverse methodologies for the analysis and interpretation of cut marks have progressively provided new insights for past butchery practices. Read More

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January 2021

Evaluation of the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of Cav extract using human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y.

J Toxicol Environ Health A 2021 Apr 12;84(8):345-355. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Laboratory of Genetic Toxicology, PPGBioSaúde (Postgraduate Program in Cellular and Molecular Biology Applied to Health), Lutheran University of Brazil (ULBRA), Canoas, RS, Brazil.

is a weed thought to have originated in Brazil, where it is present in abundant quantities, but also this plant is also found in south-central Florida, Indian Ocean Islands, and the Pacific Islands. produces neurotoxicity that adversely affects livestock breeding with heavy animal losses and consequent negative impact on Brazil's economy. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical profile, cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of ethanolic extracts of collected in winter (leaf extract) and summer (leaf extract and leaf + flower extract) using an model of human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. Read More

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Air pollution diffusion simulation and seasonal spatial risk analysis for industrial areas.

Environ Res 2021 Mar 30;194:110693. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Research Center for Hazard Mitigation and Prevention, National Central University, Taoyuan, 32001, Taiwan; Department of Civil Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan, 32001, Taiwan. Electronic address:

The petrochemical industry produces many air pollutants during production, such as airborne particulate matters (PM and PM), sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, carbon oxides, etc. Petrochemical industrial accidents are more likely to cause major air pollution hazards in a short period. Therefore this study simulated diffusion and performed air pollution spatial risk analysis for potential air pollutants generated by the petrochemical industry using meteorological observation data from 2017 to 2019. Read More

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HA1 (Hemagglutinin) quantitation for influenza A H1N1 and H3N2 high yield reassortant vaccine candidate seed viruses by RP-UPLC.

Vaccine 2021 01 17;39(3):545-553. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595, United States. Electronic address:

The only effective measure to decrease morbidity and mortality caused by the influenza virus in the human population is worldwide vaccination. Vaccination produces neutralizing antibodies that target the HA1 subunit of the HA (hemagglutinin) protein and are strain specific. The effectiveness of new influenza vaccines are linked to two factors, the correct prediction of the circulating strains in the population in a particular season and the concentration of the HA1 protein in the vaccine formulation. Read More

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January 2021

Examining the Impacts of CO Concentration and Genetic Compatibility on Perennial Ryegrass- var Interactions.

J Fungi (Basel) 2020 Dec 11;6(4). Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.

Perennial ryegrass () is the most cultivated cool-season grass worldwide with crucial roles in carbon fixation, turfgrass applications, and fodder for livestock. forms a mutualism with the strictly vertically transmitted fungal endophyte, var . The fungus produces alkaloids that protect the grass from herbivory, as well as conferring protection from drought and nutrient stress. Read More

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December 2020

The Role of Ascospores and Conidia, in Relation to Weather Variables, in the Epidemiology of Stemphylium Leaf Blight of Onion.

Plant Dis 2020 Dec 15. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

University of Guelph, Plant Agriculture, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario, Canada, N1G 2W1;

Stemphylium leaf blight (SLB), caused by Stemphylium vesicarium, is an important foliar disease of onion in northeastern North America. The pathogen produces conidia and ascospores, but the relative contributions of these spore types to epidemics in onion is not known. An effective disease forecasting model is needed to predict disease risk and to time fungicide applications. Read More

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December 2020

A mixed-methods community-based participatory research to explore stakeholder's perspectives and to quantify the effect of crop residue burning on air and human health in Central India: study protocol.

BMC Public Health 2020 Nov 30;20(1):1824. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Department of Environmental Health and Epidemiology, ICMR-National Institute for Research in Environmental Health, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Background: Crop residue burning adversely affects air quality and consequently human health. India, being one of the largest agro-economies of the world, produces around 500 Million tonnes of crop residue annually most of which is burnt on-farm. However, integrated studies that simultaneously quantify the effects of crop residue burning while exploring the subjective determinants of the practice are lacking in India. Read More

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November 2020

Modelling the spatial crosstalk between two biochemical signals explains wood formation dynamics and tree-ring structure.

J Exp Bot 2021 Feb;72(5):1727-1737

Université Clermont Auvergne, INRAE, PIAF, Clermont-Ferrand, France.

In conifers, xylogenesis during a growing season produces a very characteristic tree-ring structure: large, thin-walled earlywood cells followed by narrow, thick-walled latewood cells. Although many factors influence the dynamics of differentiation and the final dimensions of xylem cells, the associated patterns of variation remain very stable from one year to the next. While radial growth is characterized by an S-shaped curve, the widths of xylem differentiation zones exhibit characteristic skewed bell-shaped curves. Read More

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February 2021

Phenotypic Markers Reflecting the Status of Overstressed Tea Plants Subjected to Repeated Shade Cultivation.

Front Plant Sci 2020 6;11:556476. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Faculty of Agriculture, Shizuoka University, Shizuoka, Japan.

Shade cultivation is a traditional Japanese tea cultivation method in which the shoot buds are shaded for several weeks. This technique is increasingly used for green tea production because it produces tea of high quality (as indicated by umami and nutritional content) and commands high prices. However, given that shaded tea plants are grown under low-light stress, concerns exist regarding damage to tea plants caused by repeated shade cultivation. Read More

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November 2020

Evidence of Pollinators Foraging on Centipedegrass Inflorescences.

Insects 2020 Nov 13;11(11). Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Department of Crop and Soil Science, University of Georgia, Griffin, GA 30223, USA.

Turfgrasses are commonly used for lawns and as recreational surfaces in the USA. Because grasses are largely wind-pollinated, it was thought that pollinators would not forage on turfgrasses. Centipede grass ( (Munro) Hack) is a warm-season turfgrass widely used in the southeastern USA. Read More

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November 2020

The 1B vaccine strain of Chlamydia abortus produces placental pathology indistinguishable from a wild type infection.

PLoS One 2020 16;15(11):e0242526. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Moredun Research Institute, Penicuik, Midlothian, United Kingdom.

Chlamydia abortus is one of the most commonly diagnosed causes of infectious abortion in small ruminants worldwide. Control of the disease (Enzootic Abortion of Ewes or EAE) is achieved using the commercial live, attenuated C. abortus 1B vaccine strain, which can be distinguished from virulent wild-type (wt) strains by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. Read More

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January 2021

Predicting the Olea pollen concentration with a machine learning algorithm ensemble.

Int J Biometeorol 2021 Apr 13;65(4):541-554. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM). ETSII-UPM, José Gutiérrez Abascal 2, 28006, Madrid, Spain.

Air pollution in large cities produces numerous diseases and even millions of deaths annually according to the World Health Organization. Pollen exposure is related to allergic diseases, which makes its prediction a valuable tool to assess the risk level to aeroallergens. However, airborne pollen concentrations are difficult to predict due to the inherent complexity of the relationships among both biotic and environmental variables. Read More

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Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue Affects Rumen Microbiota in Grazing Ewes at Gestation and Lactation.

Front Vet Sci 2020 14;7:544707. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Department of Animal Science, Division of Agriculture, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, United States.

Tall fescue () is a cool-season perennial grass that is widely used as a forage for many livestock species including sheep. An endophyte ( in tall fescue produces ergot alkaloids that enhance plant survival but produce toxicosis in animals. The objective of this study was to investigate the rumen microbiota from gestation and lactation in ewes grazing tall fescue pastures with high (HA) or moderate (MA) levels of endophyte infection, and their relationship with serum parameters. Read More

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October 2020

Probabilistic cause-of-disease assignment using case-control diagnostic tests: A latent variable regression approach.

Stat Med 2021 Feb 6;40(4):823-841. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

Optimal prevention and treatment strategies for a disease of multiple causes, such as pneumonia, must be informed by the population distribution of causes among cases, or cause-specific case fractions (CSCFs). CSCFs may further depend on additional explanatory variables. Existing methodological literature in disease etiology research does not fully address the regression problem, particularly under a case-control design. Read More

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February 2021

Fungicide Resistance in , Cause of Pecan Scab: Current Status and Practical Implications.

Phytopathology 2021 Feb 11;111(2):244-252. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Plant Pathology, Coastal Plain Experiment Station, University of Georgia, Tifton, GA 31793.

Pecan scab, caused by , is the most economically damaging disease of pecan in the southeastern United States, and annual epidemics are most effectively managed through multiple fungicide applications. The fungicide applications can be the single greatest operating cost for commercial growers and the return on that investment is impacted by fungicide resistance. produces multiple generations of conidia per season, exhibits substantial genetic diversity, overwinters as stromata in the tree, and is under immense selection from the applied fungicides, all of which lead to a high risk for developing fungicide resistance. Read More

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February 2021

Maternal Temperature, Corticosterone, and Body Condition as Mediators of Maternal Effects in Jacky Dragons ().

Physiol Biochem Zool 2020 Nov/Dec;93(6):434-449

AbstractTemperature is a crucial environmental component that imposes physiological constraints and ultimately produces variation in life-history traits. Temperatures experienced by mothers can influence offspring phenotypes, including growth and sex ratios, especially in ectothermic species. However, mechanisms by which thermal information can be passed onto offspring have been underexplored. Read More

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February 2021

Comparing the Feeding Damage of the Invasive Brown Marmorated Stink Bug to a Native Stink Bug and Leaffooted Bug on California Pistachios.

Insects 2020 Oct 12;11(10). Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Department of Environmental Science, Policy & Management, University of California Berkeley, Mulford Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.

California currently produces about a quarter of the world's pistachios. Pistachio nuts are susceptible to feeding by stink bugs and leaffooted bugs; therefore, the invasive presence of the highly polyphagous brown marmorated stink bug, (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a concern to California pistachio growers. We aimed to assess the potential of to cause yield loss and nut damage to pistachios, which had not yet been assessed in the field. Read More

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October 2020

Ultrastructure and histochemistry of the male reproductive system of the genus Callinectes Stimpson, 1860 (Brachyura: Portunidae).

J Morphol 2020 12 10;281(12):1660-1678. Epub 2020 Oct 10.

Invertebrate Morphology Laboratory (IML), Department of Applied Biology, Agricultural and Veterinary School of Jaboticabal and Aquaculture Center (CAUNESP), São Paulo State University (UNESP), Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil.

We described the ultrastructure and histochemistry of the reproductive system of five Callinectes species, and evaluate the seasonal variation in weight of the reproductive system and hepatopancreas by comparing annual changes of somatic indices. The somatic indices changed little throughout the year. In Callinectes, spermatogenesis occurs inside the lobular testes and, within each lobule, the cells are at the same developmental stage. Read More

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December 2020