11,915 results match your criteria sea urchin


The first complete mitochondrial genome of (Lamarck, 1816) from the Stomechinidae (Echinoidea: Stomopneustoida).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 6;6(8):2258-2259. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Institute of Marine Drugs, Guangxi University of Chinese Medicine, Nanning, China.

Sea urchins (Echinoidea) are key components of marine benthic communities and many are commercially important fishery resources as luxury and healthy seafood. However, despite their high ecological and economic value, the mitochondrial genomes of all sea urchins have yet to be analyzed. In this study, we report the first complete mitochondrial genome of Stomopneustidae from . Read More

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Getting started for migration: A focus on EMT cellular dynamics and mechanics in developmental models.

Cells Dev 2021 Jul 7:203717. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology Department (MCD), Centre de Biologie Integrative (CBI), University of Toulouse, CNRS, UPS, 31062 Toulouse, France. Electronic address:

The conversion of epithelial cells into mesenchymal ones, through a process known as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (or EMT) is a reversible process involved in critical steps of animal development as early as gastrulation and throughout organogenesis. In pathological conditions such as aggressive cancers, EMT is often associated with increased drug resistance, motility and invasiveness. The characterisation of the upstream signals and main decision takers, such as the EMT-transcription factors, has led to the identification of a core molecular machinery controlling the specification towards EMT. Read More

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Conditional specification of endomesoderm.

Cells Dev 2021 Jul 7;167:203716. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Biology, University of North Carolina, Wilmington, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Early in animal development many cells are conditionally specified based on observations that those cells can be directed toward alternate fates. The endomesoderm is so named because early specification produces cells that often have been observed to simultaneously express both early endoderm and mesoderm transcription factors. Experiments with these cells demonstrate that their progeny can directed entirely toward endoderm or mesoderm, whereas normally they establish both germ layers. Read More

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Lipid metabolism of sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus in two contrasting natural habitats.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 8;11(1):14174. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

IMC-International Marine Centre, Loc. Sa Mardini, 09170, Torregrande, OR, Italy.

Sea urchins Paracentrotus lividus were harvested monthly from April 2015 to March 2016 from two sites in Sardinia (Italy). The two sites, a Posidonia oceanica meadow and a rocky bottom habitat, were naturally characterized by different food sources and availability, being mainly populated by the sea grass Posidonia oceanica and the brown algae Halopteris scoparia, respectively. Total lipids showed a minimum during winter in mature gonads, and a maximum in the summer (recovery stage). Read More

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Metabolic depression in sea urchin barrens associated with food deprivation.

Ecology 2021 Jul 8:e03463. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Florida State University, Department of Biological Science, 319 Stadium Drive, Tallahassee, FL, 32306-4295, USA.

The proliferation of sea urchins can raze macroalgal forests in coastal ecosystems. Such phenomena can reduce some of the most productive ecosystems on the planet (Schiel and Foster 2015) to low productivity "urchin barrens" (Filbee-Dexter and Scheibling 2014). Although urchins inhabiting these food-depauperate barrens face starvation, many survive in these barrens for years or decades by eating food subsidies from drift algae (Rodríguez 2003, Vanderklift and Wernberg 2008, Britton-Simmons et al. Read More

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Biomonitoring Assessment of Toxic and Trace Elements in Sterechinus neumayeri Sea Urchins from the Comandante Ferraz Station in Antarctica.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 1524, São Paulo, 05508-900, Brazil.

In the present study, sea urchin Sterechinus neumayeri tissues were used for the passive biomonitoring of toxic and trace elements at the Comandante Ferraz Station, Antarctica and compared to a pristine region (Botany). As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Na, Rb, Sc, Se and Zn concentrations were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), while toxic metals (Cd, Hg, Ni and Pb), and Cu were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS). The findings were compared to other organisms commonly applied for biomonitoring purposes and to the sediment concentrations of each sampling region. Read More

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AST/ALT levels, MDA, and liver histopathology of  ethanol extract on paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 2021 Jun 25;32(4):511-516. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Airlangga University, Surabaya, Indonesia.

Objectives: was known to have potential antioxidant activities because it contains of  ( and ). The antioxidant properties contributed to the hepatoprotective effect by binding to free radicals compound that causes oxidative stress and necrosis in the hepatocytes. The research aimed to determine the hepatorepair effects of the ethanol extract on high-dose paracetamol-induced hepatic damage in Wistar rats. Read More

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Glyconectin Cell Adhesion Epitope, β-d-GlcNAc3S-(1→3)-α-l-Fuc, Is Involved in Blastulation of Sea Urchin Embryos.

Molecules 2021 Jun 30;26(13). Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Institute for Interdisciplinary Research in Bio-Nano-Sciences, Molecular Biology Center, Babeș-Bolyai University, 400084 Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

Glycans, as the most peripheral cell surface components, are the primary candidates to mediate the initial steps of cell recognition and adhesion via glycan-glycan binding. This molecular mechanism was quantitatively demonstrated by biochemical and biophysical measurements at the cellular and molecular level for the glyconectin 1 β-d-GlcNAc3S-(1→3)-α-l-Fuc glycan structure (GN1). The use of adhesion blocking monoclonal antibody Block 2 that specifically recognize this epitope showed that, besides Porifera, human colon carcinoma also express this structure in the apical glycocalyx. Read More

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Sub-Chronic Effects of Slight PAH- and PCB-Contaminated Mesocosms in Lmk: A Multi-Endpoint Approach and De Novo Transcriptomic.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 22;22(13). Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Department of Marine Biotechnology, Villa Comunale, 80121 Naples, Italy.

Sediment pollution is a major issue in coastal areas, potentially endangering human health and the marine environments. We investigated the short-term sublethal effects of sediments contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the sea urchin for two months. Spiking occurred at concentrations below threshold limit values permitted by the law (TLVPAHs = 900 µg/L, TLVPCBs = 8 µg/L, Legislative Italian Decree 173/2016). Read More

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The Diverse Transformer (Trf) Protein Family in the Sea Urchin Acts through a Collaboration between Cellular and Humoral Immune Effector Arms.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 22;22(13). Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Molecular Biology, Ariel University, Science Park, Ariel 40700, Israel.

Sea urchins are long-living marine invertebrates with a complex innate immune system, which includes expanded families of immune receptors. A central immune gene family in sea urchins encodes the Transformer (Trf) proteins. The Trf family has been studied mainly in the purple sea urchin . Read More

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Ocean warming and acidification modify top-down and bottom-up control in a tropical seagrass ecosystem.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 30;11(1):13605. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, 903-0123, Japan.

Seagrass ecosystem is one of the most productive ecosystems in coastal waters providing numerous ecological functions and supporting a large biodiversity. However, various anthropogenic stressors including climate change are impacting these vulnerable habitats. Here, we investigated the independent and combined effects of ocean warming and ocean acidification on plant-herbivore interactions in a tropical seagrass community. Read More

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Cnidarian-bilaterian comparison reveals the ancestral regulatory logic of the β-catenin dependent axial patterning.

Nat Commun 2021 06 29;12(1):4032. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Neurosciences and Developmental Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Djerassiplatz 1, Vienna, Austria.

In animals, body axis patterning is based on the concentration-dependent interpretation of graded morphogen signals, which enables correct positioning of the anatomical structures. The most ancient axis patterning system acting across animal phyla relies on β-catenin signaling, which directs gastrulation, and patterns the main body axis. However, within Bilateria, the patterning logic varies significantly between protostomes and deuterostomes. Read More

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Characterization of Gangliosides in Three Sea Urchin Species by HILIC-ESI-MS/MS.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Jul 29;69(27):7641-7651. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, No. 5, Yushan Road, Qingdao, Shandong 266003, China.

Sea urchin gangliosides (SU-GLSs) are well acknowledged for their nerve regeneration activity and neuroprotective property. The present study sought to characterize and semi-quantitate different SU-GLS subclasses in three sea urchin species, including , and . A total of 14 SU-GLS subclasses were identified by a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-Q-Exactive tandem mass spectrometry method. Read More

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Early-stage anomalies in the sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) as bioindicators of multiple stressors in the marine environment: Overview and future perspectives.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jun 23;287:117608. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Dipartimento di Scienze e Ingegneria Della Materia, Dell'Ambiente e Urbanistica, Università Politecnica Delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131, Ancona, Italy. Electronic address:

The morphological anomalies of the early development stages of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, caused by exposure to environmental stressors, are used as biomarker in ecotoxicological and ecological investigations. Here, we reviewed the available literature and classified the embryo and larval anomalies identified so far, to highlight potential commonalities or differences related to the biological action of the different stressors and their ecological impact. Morphological anomalies are influenced by a) the developmental stage of exposure to stressors; b) the intensity of the stress; c) the intra- and inter-cellular mechanisms affected by the exposure to environmental agents. Read More

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Molecular evidence for a single origin of ultrafiltration-based excretory organs.

Curr Biol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Bergen, Thormøhlensgate 55, 5006 Bergen, Norway. Electronic address:

Excretion is an essential physiological process, carried out by all living organisms, regardless of their size or complexity. Both protostomes (e.g. Read More

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Analysis of the DNA-binding properties of Alx1, an evolutionarily conserved regulator of skeletogenesis in echinoderms.

J Biol Chem 2021 Jun 19;297(1):100901. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Department of Biological Sciences, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. Electronic address:

Alx1, a homeodomain-containing transcription factor, is a highly conserved regulator of skeletogenesis in echinoderms. In sea urchins, Alx1 plays a central role in the differentiation of embryonic primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs) and positively regulates the transcription of most biomineralization genes expressed by these cells. The alx1 gene arose via duplication and acquired a skeletogenic function distinct from its paralog (alx4) through the exonization of a 41-amino acid motif (the D2 domain). Read More

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Light-induced, spatiotemporal control of protein in the developing embryo of the sea urchin.

Dev Biol 2021 Jun 18;478:13-24. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Molecular Biology, Cell Biology, and Biochemistry, Brown University, 185 Meeting Street, BOX-GL277, Providence, RI, 02912, USA. Electronic address:

Differential protein regulation is a critical biological process that regulates cellular activity and controls cell fate determination. It is especially important during early embryogenesis when post-transcriptional events predominate differential fate specification in many organisms. Light-induced approaches have been a powerful technology to interrogate protein functions with temporal and spatial precision, even at subcellular levels within a cell by controlling laser irradiation on the confocal microscope. Read More

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Biochemical composition of some Echinodermata (Holothuroidea, Echinoidea) from the Red Sea, Egypt.

Braz J Biol 2021 11;82:e246309. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Taif University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Taif, Saudi Arabia.

In the present study, the biochemical composition of some Echinodermata (Holothuroidea, Echinoidea) from the Red Sea, Egypt was investigated. The results showed that the highest percentage of saturated fatty acids (SFA) was in Holothuria nobilis and the lowest percentage was recorded in Holothuria scabra. The highest percentage of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) was recorded in Pearsonothuria graeffei while the lowest percentage was recorded in Holothuria atra. Read More

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Sea urchin-like calcium borate microspheres and synergistic action with cholinesterase-inhibiting insecticides for ecofriendly control.

Environ Sci Process Impacts 2021 Jul;23(7):1006-1017

Plant Protection Research Institute, A. R. C., Nadi El-Said Street - Dokki, Giza, 12311, Egypt.

The development of nanoagrochemicals has attracted much attention in the last decade to overcome the recent agricultural and environmental challenges associated with the intensive usage of insecticides. Herein, nanostructured calcium borate materials with hierarchical sea urchin-like microspheres and microblocks have been synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. The insecticidal activity of CaB2O4 and its synergistic combination with cholinesterase-inhibiting insecticides are explored against Spodoptera littoralis (S. Read More

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Shape anisotropic magnetic thrombolytic actuators: synthesis and systematic behavior study.

J Mater Chem B 2021 Jun;9(24):4941-4955

International Institute "Solution Chemistry of Advanced Materials and Technology", ITMO University, St. Petersburg 197101, Russia.

Thrombosis-related diseases are undoubtedly the deadliest disorders. During the last decades, numerous attempts were made to reduce the overall death rate and severe complications caused by treatment delays. Significant progress has been made in the development of nanostructured thrombolytics, especially magnetically controlled. Read More

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In vitro characterization of bioactive compounds extracted from sea urchin (Stomopneustes variolaris) using green and conventional techniques.

Food Chem 2021 Nov 19;361:129866. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Food Science and Technology, Pukyong National University, 45 Yongso-ro, Nam-gu, Busan 48513, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

This study investigated the in vitro bioactivities of extracts obtained from viscera, spines, shells, and gonads of Stomopneustes variolaris using subcritical water extraction (SWE) at 110 °C, 150 °C, 190 °C, and 230 °C and Soxhlet extraction. The highest amounts of phenolics (22.68 ± 0. Read More

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November 2021

Precise regulation of presenilin expression is required for sea urchin early development.

J Cell Sci 2021 Jul 12;134(13). Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Paris-Saclay Institute of Neuroscience, CNRS, Université Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay, France.

Presenilins (PSENs) are widely expressed across eukaryotes. Two PSENs are expressed in humans, where they play a crucial role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Each PSEN can be part of the γ-secretase complex, which has multiple substrates, including Notch and amyloid-β precursor protein (AβPP) - the source of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides that compose the senile plaques during AD. Read More

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The Plant-Like Structure of Lance Sea Urchin Spines as Biomimetic Concept Generator for Freeze-Casted Structural Graded Ceramics.

Biomimetics (Basel) 2021 May 31;6(2). Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Geosciences, Applied Mineralogy, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Wilhelmstraße 56, D-72074 Tübingen, Germany.

The spine of the lance sea urchin () is an unusual plant-akin hierarchical lightweight construction with several gradation features: a basic core-shell structure is modified in terms of porosities, pore orientation and pore size, forming superstructures. Differing local strength and energy consumption features create a biomimetic potential for the construction of porous ceramics with predetermined breaking points and adaptable behavior in compression overload. We present a new detailed structural and failure analysis of those spines and demonstrate that it is possible to include at least a limited number of those features in an abstracted way in ceramics, manufactured by freeze-casting. Read More

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Investigation of Compression and Buckling Properties of a Novel Surface-Based Lattice Structure Manufactured Using Multi Jet Fusion Technology.

Materials (Basel) 2021 May 17;14(10). Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Keelung Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan.

Lattice structures possess many superior properties over solid materials and conventional structures. Application-oriented lattice structure designs have become a choice in many industries, such as aerospace, automotive applications, construction, biomedical applications, and footwear. However, numerical and empirical analyses are required to predict mechanical behavior under different boundary conditions. Read More

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Involvement of Huntingtin in Development and Ciliary Beating Regulation of Larvae of the Sea Urchin, .

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 12;22(10). Epub 2021 May 12.

Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8575, Japan.

The multiple functions of the wild type Huntington's disease protein of the sea urchin (Hp-Htt) have been examined using the anti-Hp-Htt antibody (Ab) raised against synthetic oligopeptides. According to immunoblotting, Hp-Htt was detected as a single band at around the 350 kDa region at the swimming blastula stage to the prism larva stage. From the 2-arm pluteus stage (2aPL), however, an additional smaller band at the 165 kDa region appeared. Read More

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Sea Urchin Pigments: Echinochrome A and Its Potential Implication in the Cytokine Storm Syndrome.

Mar Drugs 2021 May 11;19(5). Epub 2021 May 11.

Laboratorio de Química de Organismos Marinos, Instituto Patagónico del Mar, Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco (UNPSJB), Puerto Madryn 9120, Chubut, Argentina.

: Echinochrome A (EchA) is a pigment from sea urchins. EchA is a polyhydroxylated 1,4-naphthoquinone that contains several hydroxyl groups appropriate for free-radical scavenging and preventing redox imbalance. EchA is the most studied molecule of this family and is an active principle approved to be used in humans, usually for cardiopathies and glaucoma. Read More

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Energetic context determines the effects of multiple upwelling-associated stressors on sea urchin performance.

Sci Rep 2021 May 31;11(1):11313. Epub 2021 May 31.

Telonicher Marine Laboratory, Humboldt State University, Trinidad, USA.

Globally, kelp forests are threatened by multiple stressors, including increasing grazing by sea urchins. With coastal upwelling predicted to increase in intensity and duration in the future, understanding whether kelp forest and urchin barren urchins are differentially affected by upwelling-related stressors will give insight into how future conditions may affect the transition between kelp forests and barrens. We assessed how current and future-predicted changes in the duration and magnitude of upwelling-associated stressors (low pH, dissolved oxygen, and temperature) affected the performance of purple sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) sourced from rapidly-declining bull kelp (Nereocystis leutkeana) forests and nearby barrens and maintained on habitat-specific diets. Read More

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When site matters: Metabolic and behavioural responses of adult sea urchins from different environments during long-term exposure to seawater acidification.

Mar Environ Res 2021 Jul 20;169:105372. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Biology, University of Padova, 35121, Padova, Italy. Electronic address:

CO-driven ocean acidification (OA) affects many aspects of sea urchin biology. However, even in the same species, OA effects are often not univocal due to non-uniform exposure setups or different ecological history of the experimental specimens. In the present work, two groups of adult sea urchins Paracentrotus lividus from different environments (the Lagoon of Venice and a coastal area in the Northern Adriatic Sea) were exposed to OA in a long-term exposure. Read More

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Fertilization and development of Arbacia lixula eggs are affected by osmolality conditions.

Biosystems 2021 Aug 28;206:104448. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Research Infrastructures for Marine Biological Resources, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Napoli, Italy.

The sea urchin Arbacia lixula coexist with Paracentrotus lividus in the Mediterranean, but the two sea urchin species are quite different from each other. Concerning the female gamete, A. lixula eggs are much darker than those of P. Read More

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Rapid external erosion of coral substrate in subtropical Hong Kong waters.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 May 27;169:112495. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Biology and Hong Kong Branch of the Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Guangzhou), Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, China; HKBU Institute of Research and Continuing Education, Virtual University Park, Shenzhen, China; Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Guangzhou), China. Electronic address:

Erosion of coral substrate plays a crucial role in reef calcium carbonate budget, but little is known about erosion in subtropical corals. In a 2-year study of coral substrate erosion, we deployed Porites skeletal blocks at nine sites across subtropical Hong Kong waters. External erosion varied from 0. Read More

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