3,615 results match your criteria sea salt


The effect of sodium chloride and temperature on the levels of transcriptional expression of staphylococcal enterotoxin genes in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from broiler carcasses.

Braz J Microbiol 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Science and Technology Agroindustry, Faculty of Agronomy Eliseu Maciel (FAEM), Federal University of Pelotas (UFPel), Pelotas, RS, Brazil.

Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common pathogens associated with food poisoning, which is caused by the ingestion of food contaminated with staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE). Our study aims at evaluating the occurrence and expression of five SE genes (sea, seb, sec, sed, and see) in S. aureus previously isolated from broiler carcasses. Read More

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A Smart Design Strategy for Super-Elastic Hydrogel with Long-Term Moisture, Extreme Temperature Resistance, and Non-Flammability.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Jun 19:e2100320. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

School of Architecture, Southwest Minzu University, Chengdu, 610041, P. R. China.

Elastic hydrogel is a promising material category for designing biological muscles, repairable building materials, flexible electronic devices, and vulcanized rubber substitutes, which is required to have a long life, good self-healing performance and extreme temperature tolerance. Herein, a super-elastic mineral hydrogel is developed with long-lasting moisture, based on dynamic physical crosslinking between hydrated calcium ion clusters and amide groups of polyacrylamide (PAM). The complex hydrogel exhibits a super stretchability of 13 600% at room temperature, and can maintain the super flexibility in a wide temperature range of -40-50 °C or for a long period of 28 days. Read More

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Modeling Floodplain Inundation, Circulation and Residence Time Under Changing Tide and Sea-Levels.

Estuaries Coast 2020 Jun;43:693-707

Department of Biology and Geology, University of South Carolina Aiken, SC 29801, USA.

Sea-level rise will have unknown effects on the structure and function of valuable tidal freshwater floodplains. One reason for this knowledge gap is our poor constraint on the physical controls on complex floodplain inundation and circulation processes. Here, a high-resolution light detection and ranging (lidar) digital elevation model (DEM) is applied to fine-scale numerical simulations of flow and tracer exchange in a 0. Read More

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Hydrostatic pressure- and halotolerance of Photobacterium phosphoreum and P. carnosum isolated from spoiled meat and salmon.

Food Microbiol 2021 Oct 13;99:103679. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Lehrstuhl Technische Mikrobiologie, Technische Universität München, 85354, Freising, Germany. Electronic address:

Photobacterium spp. occur frequently in marine environments but have been recently also found as common spoilers on chilled meats. The environmental conditions in these ecological niches differ especially regarding salinity and ambient pressure. Read More

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October 2021

Characterization of metapopulation of Ellobium chinense through Pleistocene expansions and four covariate COI guanine-hotspots linked to G-quadruplex conformation.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 10;11(1):12239. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Biology Education, Teachers College and Institute for Phylogenomics and Evolution, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 41566, South Korea.

The land snail Ellobium chinense (L. Pfeiffer, 1855) (Eupulmonata, Ellobiida, Ellobiidae), which inhabits the salt marshes along the coastal areas of northwestern Pacific, is an endangered species on the IUCN Red List. Over recent decades, the population size of E. Read More

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High frequency of enterotoxin encoding genes of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from food and clinical samples.

J Health Popul Nutr 2021 Jun 9;40(1):27. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran.

Background: Staphylococcus aureus is recognized as an important cause of food poisoning related to the consumption of raw, undercooked, or mishandled foods worldwide.

Methods: A total of 90 individual meat samples and 200 clinical specimens were collected and investigated the frequency of S. aureus and classical enterotoxin genes. Read More

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Gain-of-function Tibetan PHD2 variant suppresses monocyte function: A lesson in inflammatory response to inspired hypoxia.

EBioMedicine 2021 Jun 5;68:103418. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Regional Centre for Biotechnology, National Capital Region Biotech Science Cluster, Faridabad, India. Electronic address:

Background: We have previously described an evolutionarily selected Tibetan prolyl hydroxylase-2 (PHD2) variant that degrades the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIFα) more efficiently and protects these highlanders from hypoxia-triggered elevation in haemoglobin concentration. High altitude is known to cause acute mountain sickness (AMS) and high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) in a section of rapidly ascending non-acclimatised lowlanders. These morbidities are often accompanied by inflammatory response and exposure to hypobaric hypoxia is presumed to be the principal causative agent. Read More

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Risk assessment of climate change impacts on Mediterranean coastal wetlands. Application in Júcar River Basin District (Spain).

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 26;790:148032. Epub 2021 May 26.

Research Institute of Water and Environmental Engineering (IIAMA), Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain. Electronic address:

Sea level rise (SLR) produced by climate change affects severely coastal ecosystems which are currently being impacted by sea level rise in many parts of the world. In relation with coastal wetlands, the most relevant induced effect will occur on water and soil's salt content, especially in areas below sea level. This could lead into a reduction of habitat for the wetlands' biota. Read More

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Albatrosses respond adaptively to climate variability by changing variance in a foraging trait.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Centre d'Etudes Biologiques de Chizé, UMR 7372, 79360, Villiers-en-Bois, France.

The ability of individuals and populations to adapt to a changing climate is a key determinant of population dynamics. While changes in mean behaviour are well studied, changes in trait variance have been largely ignored, despite being assumed to be crucial for adapting to a changing environment. As the ability to acquire resources is essential to both reproduction and survival, changes in behaviours that maximise resource acquisition, should be under selection. Read More

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Nature-based solutions efficiency evaluation against natural hazards: Modelling methods, advantages and limitations.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 15;784:147058. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Institute for Interdisciplinary Mountain Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Innsbruck, Austria.

Nature-based solutions (NBS) for hydro-meteorological risks (HMRs) reduction and management are becoming increasingly popular, but challenges such as the lack of well-recognised standard methodologies to evaluate their performance and upscale their implementation remain. We systematically evaluate the current state-of-the art on the models and tools that are utilised for the optimum allocation, design and efficiency evaluation of NBS for five HMRs (flooding, droughts, heatwaves, landslides, and storm surges and coastal erosion). We found that methods to assess the complex issue of NBS efficiency and cost-benefits analysis are still in the development stage and they have only been implemented through the methodologies developed for other purposes such as fluid dynamics models in micro and catchment scale contexts. Read More

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Air-water interactions: The signature of meteorological and air-quality parameters on the chemical characteristics of water produced from the atmosphere.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 23;790:147940. Epub 2021 May 23.

The Water Research Center, Porter School for Environment and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel. Electronic address:

Atmospheric water is considered an alternative sustainable solution for global water scarcity. We analyzed the effects of meteorological and air-quality parameters on the chemical characteristics of atmospheric water. First, we measured the chemical characteristics of water produced by a unique atmospheric water generator (AWG) apparatus in Tel Aviv, Israel. Read More

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Development of a non-invasive method for monitoring variations in salt concentrations of seawater using nuclear technique and Monte Carlo simulation.

Appl Radiat Isot 2021 Aug 20;174:109784. Epub 2021 May 20.

Nuclear Engineering Institute - IEN/CNEN, Hélio de Almeida Street, Number 75, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 21941-906, Brazil.

In the oil production industry, water is used as a fluid injected into the well to raise the oil when the well is depressurized. Water thus produced presents variations in the concentrations of dissolved salts, as there is a mixture of different types of water, related to its origin (such as connate water, sea water). Because it is reused in oil production, water needs to be monitored to maintain the standard suitable for its use as it can be hypersaline, contributing to the encrustation of pipes and contamination of underground water reservoirs. Read More

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Late Miocene megalake regressions in Eurasia.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 1;11(1):11471. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Paleomagnetic Laboratory Fort Hoofddijk, Department of Earth Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

The largest megalake in the geological record formed in Eurasia during the late Miocene, when the epicontinental Paratethys Sea became tectonically-trapped and disconnected from the global ocean. The megalake was characterized by several episodes of hydrological instability and partial desiccation, but the chronology, magnitude and impacts of these paleoenvironmental crises are poorly known. Our integrated stratigraphic study shows that the main desiccation episodes occurred between 9. Read More

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Use of the Microheterogeneous Model to Assess the Applicability of Ion-Exchange Membranes in the Process of Generating Electricity from a Concentration Gradient.

Membranes (Basel) 2021 May 28;11(6). Epub 2021 May 28.

Physical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Chemistry and High Technologies, Kuban State University, 350040 Krasnodar, Russia.

The paper shows the possibility of using a microheterogeneous model to estimate the transport numbers of counterions through ion-exchange membranes. It is possible to calculate the open-circuit potential and power density of the reverse electrodialyzer using the data obtained. Eight samples of heterogeneous ion-exchange membranes were studied, two samples for each of the following types of membranes: Ralex CM, Ralex AMH, MK-40, and MA-41. Read More

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Carotenoid Nostoxanthin Production by sp. SG73 Isolated from Deep Sea Sediment.

Mar Drugs 2021 May 14;19(5). Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Environmental and Life Sciences, School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8526, Japan.

Carotenoids are used commercially for dietary supplements, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals because of their antioxidant activity. In this study, colored microorganisms were isolated from deep sea sediment that had been collected from Suruga Bay, Shizuoka, Japan. One strain was found to be a pure yellow carotenoid producer, and the strain was identified as sp. Read More

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Interactive effects of groundwater level and salinity on soil respiration in coastal wetlands of a Chinese delta.

Environ Pollut 2021 May 19;286:117400. Epub 2021 May 19.

State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875, China.

Coastal wetland soils serve as a great C sink or source, which highly depends on soil carbon flux affected by complex hydrology in relation to salinity. We conducted a field experiment to investigate soil respiration of three coastal wetlands with different land covers (BL: bare land; SS: Suaeda salsa; PL: Phragmites australis) from May to October in 2012 and 2013 under three groundwater tables (deeper, medium, and shallower water tables) in the Yellow River Delta of China, and to characterize the spatial and temporal changes and the primary environmental drivers of soil respiration in coastal wetlands. Our results showed that the elevated groundwater table decreased soil CO emissions, and the soil respiration rates at each groundwater table exhibited seasonal and diurnal dynamics, where significant differences were observed among coastal wetlands with different groundwater tables (p < 0. Read More

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Spatial properties affecting the sensitivity of soil water dissolved organic carbon long-term median concentrations and trends.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 23;780:146670. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Soil Research Centre, Department of Geography and Environmental Science, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6DW, UK.

It is increasingly clear that increases in dissolved organic carbon in upland waters in recent decades have often been dominated by acid deposition, but reasons for substantial variation in rates of change remain unclear. This paper focuses on the extent to which spatial properties, such as variation in soil properties, atmospheric deposition and climate, affect the sensitivity of DOC concentrations in soil water. The purpose is to i) examine evidence for differences in site average concentrations and trends in soil water DOC between sites with contrasting ecosystem properties, i. Read More

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Cation-Driven Lipopolysaccharide Morphological Changes Impact Heterogeneous Reactions of Nitric Acid with Sea Spray Aerosol Particles.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 May 22;12(20):5023-5029. Epub 2021 May 22.

Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92037, United States.

Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in sea spray aerosol (SSA) particles have recently been shown to undergo heterogeneous reactions with HNO in the atmosphere. Here, we integrate theory and experiment to further investigate how the most abundant sea salt cations, Na, Mg, and Ca, impact HNO reactions with LPS-containing SSA particles. Aerosol reaction flow tube studies show that heterogeneous reactions of SSA particles with divalent cation (Mg and Ca) and LPS signatures were less reactive with HNO than those dominated by monovalent cations (Na). Read More

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Strategies to reduce sodium levels in European seabass sausages.

Food Chem Toxicol 2021 Jul 15;153:112262. Epub 2021 May 15.

Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, University of Porto, Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de Leixões, Av. General Norton de Matos S/N, 4450-208, Matosinhos, Portugal; Portuguese Institute for the Sea and Atmosphere, Division of Aquaculture, Upgrading and Bioprospecting, Av. Alfredo Magalhães Ramalho 6, 1495-165, Lisboa, Portugal. Electronic address:

Considering the increasing demand towards "ready-to-cook" processed seafood products, recognised as being potential contributors to high sodium (Na) intake by consumers, this study aimed to assess the effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) reduction on physicochemical, microbiological and sensory properties of European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) sausages stored in chilling conditions during 5 weeks. Three formulations were tested in comparison with a control (100% NaCl, CTR): (i) 50% NaCl+50% ME (oleoresins microcapsules) (F1); (ii) 50% NaCl+50% KCl (F2); and (iii) only 50% NaCl (F3). The NaCl reduction mainly affected the texture and the salty taste, resulting in softer and perceived as less salty sausages after processing. Read More

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Influence of various production methods on the microplastic contamination of sea salt produced in Java, Indonesia.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Wasser 3.0 gGmbH, Neufeldstr. 17a-19a, 76187, Karlsruhe, Germany.

The extensive research on microplastics (MPs) in the last years has shown that it is not just an environmental problem anymore. As it can also be found in human food, it poses a potential risk for human health and food safety. Especially sea salt, which is produced by the evaporation of seawater, including its microplastic contamination, has been reported with different levels of MP contamination. Read More

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Coastal resilience surges as living shorelines reduce lateral erosion of salt marshes.

Integr Environ Assess Manag 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Environmental Sciences, University of North Carolina Wilmington, Wilmington, North Carolina, USA.

A growing suite of research has demonstrated that nature-based shoreline stabilization methods can increase resilience of coastal ecosystems by improving their capacity to return to predisturbance states. Previous work suggests that during hurricanes, living shorelines promote vertical accretion and experience less damage than traditional shoreline stabilization alternatives. Nevertheless, there is limited research looking at the impacts of major storm events on living shorelines and most studies have investigated a small number of sites. Read More

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Earliest evidence of marine habitat use by mammals.

Sci Rep 2021 May 13;11(1):8846. Epub 2021 May 13.

Texas A&M Natural Resources Institute, 578 John Kimbrough Blvd. #2260, College Station, TX, 77843, USA.

Evidence for the earliest invasion of the marine realm by mammals was previously restricted to Eocene (48.6-37.8 Ma) skeletal remains. Read More

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Saxitoxins from the freshwater cyanobacterium Raphidiopsis raciborskii can contaminate marine mussels.

Harmful Algae 2021 03 11;103:102004. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Laboratory of Phycology, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Center for Biological Sciences, Florianópolis, SC, 88040-900, Brazil. Electronic address:

Raphidiopsis raciborskii (formerly Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii) is a freshwater cyanobacterium potentially producing saxitoxins (STX) and cylindrospermopsin. Its ecophysiological versatility enables it to form blooms in the most diverse types of environments, from tropical to temperate, and from relatively pristine to polluted. In Peri Lake, located in the subtropical south of Brazil, growing populations of STX-producing R. Read More

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Sources of PM-bound water soluble ions at EMEP's Auchencorth Moss (UK) supersite revealed by 3D-Concentration Weighted Trajectory (CWT) model.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 15;274:129979. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Bush Estate, Penicuik, UK.

The Concentration Weighted Trajectory (CWT) model is a well-known tool which combines the residence time (trajectory points) of air masses over specific regions with ambient concentrations of air pollutants, aiming to identify potential long range transport impacts. An upgraded 3D-version of CWT model (3D-CWT), investigating not only the geographical origin of the exogenous emissions but also the altitudinal layers in which the transport occurs, was developed and coupled with PM-bound concentrations of water soluble ions (nss- SO (non-sea salt sulfates), NO, Cl, NH, Na, Mg, Ca and K) for the years 2017-2018, derived by the Auchencorth Moss supersite in Southeast Scotland, United Kingdom (UK). The 3D-CWT model was implemented in two distinct altitudinal layers above ground level (0 m ≤ Layer 1 < 1000 m, 1000 m ≤ Layer 2 < 2000 m), because few trajectory points exceeded the 2000 m limit. Read More

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The impact of atmospheric oxidation on hygroscopicity and cloud droplet activation of inorganic sea spray aerosol.

Sci Rep 2021 May 11;11(1):10008. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, 8000, Aarhus C, Denmark.

Sea spray aerosol (SSA) contributes significantly to natural aerosol particle concentrations globally, in marine areas even dominantly. The potential changes of the omnipresent inorganic fraction of SSA due to atmospheric ageing is largely unexplored. In the atmosphere, SSA may exist as aqueous phase solution droplets or as dried solid or amorphous particles. Read More

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Establishment of soil strength in a nourished wetland using thin layer placement of dredged sediment.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(5):e0251420. Epub 2021 May 11.

US Army Corps of Engineers, Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, Mississippi, United States of America.

Coastal wetlands are experiencing accelerated rates of fragmentation and degradation due to sea-level rise, sediment deficits, subsidence, and salt-water intrusion. This reduces their ability to provide ecosystem benefits, such as wave attenuation, habitat for migratory birds, and a sink for carbon and nitrogen cycles. A deteriorated back barrier wetland in New Jersey, USA was nourished through thin layer placement (TLP) of dredged sediment in 2016. Read More

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Efficacy and Safety of Sea Salt-Derived Physiological Saline Nasal Spray as Add-On Therapy in Patients with Acute Upper Respiratory Infection: A Multicenter Retrospective Cohort Study.

Med Sci Monit 2021 May 11;27:e929714. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Jiangxi Provincial People's Hospital Affiliated to Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of seawater on nasal congestion and runny nose symptoms in adults with an acute upper respiratory infection (URI). MATERIAL AND METHODS This was a multicenter retrospective cohort trial of patients with acute URI and symptoms of nasal congestion and runny nose. The patients were assigned to 2 groups and were administered regular non-drug supportive treatment or supportive treatment with nasal irrigation with sea salt-derived physiological saline. Read More

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Integration of environmental metabolomics and physiological approach for evaluation of saline pollution to rice plant.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 27;286:117214. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Henan Province Engineering Research Center for Biomass Value-added Products, School of Forestry, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, 450002, China.

Salinisation of soil is associated with urban pollution, industrial development and rising sea level. Understanding how high salinity is managed at the plant cellular level is vital to increase sustainable farming output. Previous studies focus on plant stress responses under salinity tolerance. Read More

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Hygroscopic behavior and chemical reactivity of aerosols generated from mixture solutions of low molecular weight dicarboxylic acids and NaCl.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 May 4;23(18):11052-11064. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Chemistry, Inha University, Incheon 22212, Korea.

Ambient sea spray aerosols (SSAs) have been reported to undergo reactions with low molecular weight dicarboxylic acids (LMW DCAs). In the present study, the hygroscopic behavior of aerosols generated from NaCl-LMW DCA mixture solutions with different mixing ratios was explained. In situ Raman microspectrometry (RMS) was used to simultaneously monitor the alterations in chemical composition, size, and phase as a function of the relative humidity (RH) for individual aerosols. Read More

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