29,504 results match your criteria screening programme

Fidelity of implementation of TB screening guidelines by health providers at selected HIV clinics in Ghana.

PLoS One 2021 17;16(9):e0257486. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Introduction: Tuberculosis screening of people living with human immunodeficiency virus is an intervention recommended by the WHO to control the dual epidemic of TB and HIV. The extent to which the intervention is adhered to by the HIV healthcare providers (fidelity) determines the intervention's effectiveness as measured by patient outcomes, but literature on fidelity is scarce. This study assessed provider implementation fidelity to national guidelines on TB screening at HIV clinics in Ghana. Read More

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September 2021

Trypanosome SL-RNA detection in blood and cerebrospinal fluid to demonstrate active gambiense human African trypanosomiasis infection.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Sep 17;15(9):e0009739. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Mixed Research Unit 177 Intertryp, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement, University of Montpellier, Montpellier, France.

Background: Spliced Leader (SL) trypanosome RNA is detectable only in the presence of live trypanosomes, is abundant and the Trypanozoon subgenus has a unique sequence. As previously shown in blood from Guinean human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) patients, SL-RNA is an accurate target for diagnosis. Detection of SL-RNA in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has never been attempted. Read More

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September 2021

Gaps in the tuberculosis preventive therapy care cascade in children in contact with TB.

Paediatr Int Child Health 2021 Sep 17:1-10. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Family Medicine and Population Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Antwerp, Belgium.

: Young children (<5 years) and children living with HIV in contact with an adult with tuberculosis (TB) should receive TB preventive therapy (TPT), but uptake is low.: To determine gaps in the uptake of and adherence to TPT in child TB contacts under routine primary care clinic conditions. : A cohort of child TB contacts (age <5 years or living with HIV <15 years) was followed at a primary care clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa. Read More

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September 2021

Cambodia malaria indicator survey 2020: Implications for malaria elimination.

Malariaworld J 2021 1;12. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Health and Social Development (HSD), Cambodia.

Background: Cambodia has made significant progress in controlling malaria in the past decade. It now aims to eliminate malaria from the country by 2025. It launched the Malaria Elimination Action Framework (MEAF 2016-2020) in 2015 with strong political commitment targeting appropriate interventions on high-risk populations, particularly mobile and migrant groups. Read More

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Gene therapy: perspectives from young adults with Leber's congenital amaurosis.

Eye (Lond) 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Genetics and Genome Biology (GGB) Program, The Hospital for Sick Children Research Institute, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Aims/purpose: To investigate Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) patients' expectations, decision-making processes and gene therapy-related concerns.

Methods: Using a qualitative approach, we explored perceptions of gene therapy and clinical trials among individuals with LCA. Young adults with a clinical diagnosis of LCA were recruited through the Ocular Genetics Programme at the Hospital for Sick Children. Read More

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September 2021

[CacyBP promotes the proliferation and invasion of non-small cell lung cancer].

Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi 2021 Sep;43(9):924-931

Department of Thoracic Surgery, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100021, China.

To investigate the effects and the mechanism of Calcyclin-binding protein (CacyBP) on the proliferation and invasion of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Six lung cancer tissues and paired normal lung tissues were collected from NSCLC patients who underwent surgical treatment in Jinan Central Hospital during 2016. The expression of CacyBP in these tissues was examined by western blot. Read More

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September 2021

Treatment strategies for mosaic overgrowth syndromes of the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway.

Br Med Bull 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Université de Paris, Paris, France.

Introduction Or Background: Mosaic overgrowth syndromes (OS) are a proteiform ensemble of rare diseases displaying asymmetric overgrowth involving any tissue type, with degrees of severity ranging from isolated malformation to life-threatening conditions such as pulmonary embolism. Despite discordant clinical presentations, all those syndromes share common genetic anomalies: somatic mutations of genes involved in cell growth and proliferation. The PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling pathway is one of the most prominent regulators of cell homeostasis, and somatic oncogenic mutations affecting this pathway are responsible for mosaic OS. Read More

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September 2021

Distributed cognition: a framework for conceptualizing telediagnosis in teams.

Diagnosis (Berl) 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Medicine, Center for Health Professions Education, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD, USA.

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September 2021

Assessment of malaria infection among pregnant women and children below five years of age attending rural health facilities of Kenya: A cross-sectional survey in two counties of Kenya.

PLoS One 2021 16;16(9):e0257276. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Eastern and Southern Africa Centre of International Parasite Control, Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI), Nairobi, Kenya.

Background: In Kenya, health service delivery and access to health care remains a challenge for vulnerable populations, particularly pregnant women and children below five years. The aim of this study, therefore, was to determine the positivity rate of Plasmodium falciparum parasites in pregnant women and children below five years of age seeking healthcare services at the rural health facilities of Kwale and Siaya counties as well as their access and uptake of malaria control integrated services, like antenatal care (ANC), offered in those facilities.

Methods: Cluster random sampling method was used to select pregnant women and children below five years receiving maternal and child health services using two cross-sectional surveys conducted in eleven rural health facilities in two malaria endemic counties in western and coastal regions of Kenya. Read More

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September 2021

Retrospective screening for SARS-CoV-2 among influenza-like illness hospitalizations: 2018-2019 and 2019-2020 seasons, Valencia region, Spain.

Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Virology Laboratory, Fundación para el Fomento de la Investigación Sanitaria y Biomédica de la Comunitat Valenciana (FISABIO-Public Health), Valencia, Spain.

On 9 March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Influenza Programme (GIP) asked participant sites on the Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network (GIHSN) to contribute to data collection concerning severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We re-analysed 5833 viral RNA archived samples collected prospectively from hospital admissions for influenza-like illness (ILI) in the Valencia Region of Spain by the Valencia Hospital Surveillance Network for the Study of Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses (VAHNSI) network (four hospitals, catchment area population 1 118 732) during the pre-pandemic 2018/2019 (n = 4010) and pandemic 2019/2020 (n = 1823) influenza seasons for the presence of SARS-CoV-2. We did not find evidence for community-acquired SARS-CoV-2 infection in hospital admissions for ILI in our region before early March 2020. Read More

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September 2021

[Comparative efficacy of various methods of treatment of chronic venous oedema in real clinical practice].

Angiol Sosud Khir 2021 ;27(3):77-83

Chair of Faculty Surgery #2 of Therapeutic Department, Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University of the RF Ministry of Public Health, Moscow, Russia.

Aim: The study was aimed at assessing efficacy and safety of micronized purified flavonoid fraction (MPFF, Detralex) in comprehensive treatment of chronic venous oedema induced by lower limb varicose veins.

Patients And Methods: We performed a post hoc analysis of the results of treatment of 708 patients included into the observational programme VAP-PRO-C3 (ClinicalTrials.gov. Read More

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September 2021

Same-day antiretroviral therapy initiation for people living with HIV who have tuberculosis symptoms: a systematic review.

HIV Med 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Clinical Research Department, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Disease, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Objectives: Tuberculosis symptoms are very common among people living with HIV (PLHIV) initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART), are not specific for tuberculosis disease and may result in delayed ART start. The risks and benefits of same-day ART initiation in PLHIV with tuberculosis symptoms are unknown.

Methods: We systematically reviewed nine databases on 12 March 2020 to identify studies that investigated same-day ART initiation among PLHIV with tuberculosis symptoms and reported both their approach to TB screening and clinical outcomes. Read More

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September 2021

Alveolar proteinosis - an underdiagnosed condition in young people.

Med Pharm Rep 2021 Aug 10;94(Suppl No 1):S40-S42. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Department of Pneumology, Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare lung disease characterized by an abnormal intra-alveolar accumulation of surfactant derived lipoproteinaceous compounds, leading to dyspnea and, in severe cases, to respiratory failure. The most common form of PAP is the auto-immune one. Secondary PAP has been recognized in myeloid leukemia, non-hematological neoplasms, lung infections or environmental exposure to noxious particles. Read More

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Predictors of mortality and treatment success of multi-drug resistant and Rifampicin resistant tuberculosis in Zimbabwe: a retrospective cohort analysis of patients initiated on treatment during 2010 to 2015.

Pan Afr Med J 2021 15;39:128. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Biomedical Research and Training Institute, Harare, Zimbabwe.

Introduction: Zimbabwe is one of the 30 countries globally with a high burden of multidrug-resistant TB or rifampicin-resistant TB. The World Health Organization recommended that patients diagnosed with multidrug-resistant TB be treated with 20-24 month standardized second-line drugs since 2010. However, factors associated with mortality and treatment success have not been systematically evaluated in Zimbabwe. Read More

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A household-based community health worker programme for non-communicable disease, malnutrition, tuberculosis, HIV and maternal health: a stepped-wedge cluster randomised controlled trial in Neno District, Malawi.

BMJ Glob Health 2021 Sep;6(9)

Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.

Background: Community health worker (CHW) programmes are a valuable component of primary care in resource-poor settings. The evidence supporting their effectiveness generally shows improvements in disease-specific outcomes relative to the absence of a CHW programme. In this study, we evaluated expanding an existing HIV and tuberculosis (TB) disease-specific CHW programme into a polyvalent, household-based model that subsequently included non-communicable diseases (NCDs), malnutrition and TB screening, as well as family planning and antenatal care (ANC). Read More

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September 2021

Increasing the uptake of cervical screening at cornerstone medical practice.

BMJ Open Qual 2021 Sep;10(3)

Lockside Medical Centre, Stalybridge, UK.

Background: Nationally, cervical screening uptake is suboptimal, even though research shows that the programme is highly effective at preventing cervical cancer.

Local Problem: Cornerstone is a small practice located in Salford in the North West of England. Historically, screening uptake here has been lower than average. Read More

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September 2021

Efficacy of lumbar kinetic chain training for staged rehabilitation after percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 Sep 15;22(1):793. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Physical Therapy, Beijing Bo'ai Hospital,China Rehabilitation Research Center, School of Rehabilitation, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD) is a promising minimally invasive treatment for lumbar disc herniation (LDH). Postoperative rehabilitation can improve patient outcomes. Not only rehabilitation for surgical trauma but also rehabilitation for lumbar spine and lower kinetic chain dysfunction should be performed. Read More

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September 2021

RARG variant predictive of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity identifies a cardioprotective therapy.

Cell Stem Cell 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Pharmacology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, USA; Center for Pharmacogenomics, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, USA. Electronic address:

Doxorubicin is an anthracycline chemotherapy agent effective in treating a wide range of malignancies, but its use is limited by dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. A recent genome-wide association study identified a SNP (rs2229774) in retinoic acid receptor-γ (RARG) as statistically associated with increased risk of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity. Here, we show that human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) from patients with rs2229774 and who suffered doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity (DIC) are more sensitive to doxorubicin. Read More

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September 2021

Vaccine impact and effectiveness of meningococcal serogroup ACWY conjugate vaccine implementation in the Netherlands: a nationwide surveillance study.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, the Netherlands.

Background: In response to the recent serogroup W invasive meningococcal disease (IMD-W) epidemic in the Netherlands, meningococcal serogroup C (MenC) conjugate vaccination for 14-month-olds was replaced with a MenACWY conjugate vaccination, and a mass campaign targeting 14-18 year-olds was executed. We investigated the impact of MenACWY vaccination implementation in 2018-2020 on incidence rates and estimated vaccine effectiveness (VE).

Methods: We extracted all IMD cases diagnosed between July 2014 and December 2020 from the national surveillance system. Read More

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September 2021

Development of a Programme Theory for Early Intervention Vocational Rehabilitation: A Realist Literature Review.

J Occup Rehabil 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Preventive and Social Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Purpose Little is currently known about how early intervention vocational rehabilitation (EIVR) works for people with newly acquired neurological conditions such as traumatic brain injury, acquired brain injury and spinal cord injury. This study aims, from a realist framework, to identify relevant literature and develop an initial programme theory to understand how EIVR might work for people experiencing acquired neurological disability. Realist reviews are ideally placed to address the identified knowledge gap as they assist in gaining a deeper understanding of how the intervention works, for whom it works best, and the contexts that promote the activation of desired outcomes. Read More

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September 2021

Deep-Learning-Based Pre-Diagnosis Assessment Module for Retinal Photographs: A Multicenter Study.

Transl Vis Sci Technol 2021 Sep;10(11):16

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

Purpose: Artificial intelligence (AI) deep learning (DL) has been shown to have significant potential for eye disease detection and screening on retinal photographs in different clinical settings, particular in primary care. However, an automated pre-diagnosis image assessment is essential to streamline the application of the developed AI-DL algorithms. In this study, we developed and validated a DL-based pre-diagnosis assessment module for retinal photographs, targeting image quality (gradable vs. Read More

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September 2021

Operational analysis of the national sickle cell screening programme in the Republic of Uganda.

Afr J Lab Med 2021 12;10(1):1303. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Division of Hematology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States.

Background: Sickle cell anaemia is a common global life-threatening haematological disorder. Most affected births occur in sub-Saharan Africa where children usually go undiagnosed and die early in life. Uganda's national sickle cell screening programme was developed in response to a 2014 sickle cell surveillance study that documented a high disease prevalence. Read More

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Barriers to follow-up after an abnormal cervical cancer screening result and the role of male partners: a qualitative study.

BMJ Open 2021 Sep 14;11(9):e049901. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Clinical Department, University of North Carolina Project, Lilongwe, Central Region, Malawi.

Introduction: Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths among women in Malawi, but preventable through screening. Malawi primarily uses visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) for screening, however, a follow-up for positive screening results remains a major barrier, in rural areas. We interviewed women who underwent a community-based screen-and-treat campaign that offered same-day treatment with thermocoagulation, a heat-based ablative procedure for VIA-positive lesions, to understand the barriers in accessing post-treatment follow-up and the role of male partners in contributing to, or overcoming these barriers. Read More

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September 2021

Assessing the safety of home oximetry for COVID-19: a multisite retrospective observational study.

BMJ Open 2021 09 14;11(9):e049235. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Objectives: To determine the safety and effectiveness of home oximetry monitoring pathways for patients with COVID-19 in the English National Health Service.

Design: Retrospective, multisite, observational study of home oximetry monitoring for patients with suspected or proven COVID-19.

Setting: This study analysed patient data from four COVID-19 home oximetry pilot sites in England across primary and secondary care settings. Read More

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September 2021

Prevalence estimates of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Belgium: results from two cross-sectional studies.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Sep 14;21(1):947. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Service Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases, Sciensano, Rue Ernest Blerot 1, 1070, Anderlecht, Belgium.

Background: Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) is the most diagnosed sexually transmitted infection in Belgium. Screening programs focus on young women, due to the implications of chronic asymptomatic infections for reproductive health. Thereby, the frequency of infections in men and older adults is underestimated. Read More

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September 2021

A Survey of Latent Tuberculosis Screening and Treatment Practices in a Tertiary Centre.

Ir Med J 2021 Aug 19;114(7):406. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Department of International Health and Tropical Medicine, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin 2.

Aim Knowledge of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) screening and treatment practices are lacking in Ireland, where LTBI is not programmatically surveyed or managed. The aim of this research was to describe current clinical practice when screening and treating patients for LTBI in a tertiary referral centre in Ireland. Methods A 17-question survey relating to LTBI screening and management practices with both open-ended questions and close ended multiple-choice questions was created using SurveyMonkey. Read More

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Feasibility and acceptability of targeted salivary cytomegalovirus screening through universal newborn hearing screening.

J Paediatr Child Health 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Paediatrics, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

Aim: This study aimed to determine the feasibility and parental acceptability of screening for congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) through saliva polymerase chain reaction in infants who did not pass their newborn hearing screening. Additionally, the utility (i.e. Read More

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September 2021

Airborne SARS-CoV-2 surveillance in hospital environment using high-flowrate air samplers and its comparison to surface sampling.

Indoor Air 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Singapore Centre for Environmental Life Sciences Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore.

Reliable methods to detect the presence of SARS-CoV-2 at venues where people gather are essential for epidemiological surveillance to guide public policy. Communal screening of air in a highly crowded space has the potential to provide early warning on the presence and potential transmission of SARS-CoV-2 as suggested by studies early in the epidemic. As hospitals and public facilities apply varying degrees of restrictions and regulations, it is important to provide multiple methodological options to enable environmental SARS-CoV-2 surveillance under different conditions. Read More

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September 2021

Factors predicting improved compliance towards colonoscopy in individuals with positive faecal immunochemical test (FIT).

Cancer Med 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Division of Colorectal Surgery, University Surgical Cluster, National University Health System, Singapore.

Objectives: Follow-up colonoscopy after a positive faecal immunochemical test (FIT) in any colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programme is integral. However, many individuals who had a positive FIT declined colonoscopy subsequently. This study aims to uncover the predictors on completion of colonoscopy using the Health Belief Model (HBM) between individuals who complete and those who did not after a positive FIT. Read More

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September 2021