Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2020 Sep 13;201:110795. Epub 2020 Jun 13.
Pan American Health Organization: PAHO, Washington, D.C., USA.
Rare earth elements (REEs) are naturally distributed in the environment, and are increasingly being used in agriculture and high technology materials worldwide, thereby increasing anthropogenic contamination and environmental risks. There exists scarce and contradictory toxicity information about REEs; hence, more studies are required, especially on their mixtures. Thus, this study aimed to assess the toxicities of La, Nd, Sm, and the combinations of these elements (binary 1:1 and ternary 1:1:1), to organisms from different trophic levels: producers (the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and Raphidocelis subcapitata), primary consumers (the microcrustaceans Daphnia similis and Artemia salina), and decomposers (the fungi Penicillium simplicissimum and Aspergillus japonicus). Read More