393 results match your criteria sclerotia produced


First Report of Leaf Spot Caused by Botrytis cinerea on Cardamine hupingshanensis in China.

Plant Dis 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory for Biology and Control of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Hunan Agricultural University, Nongda Road 1, Furong District, Changsha City, Hunan Province, Changsha, China;

Cardamine hupingshanensis is a selenium (Se) and cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator plant distributed in wetlands along the Wuling Mountains of China (Zhou et al. 2018). In March of 2020, a disease with symptoms similar to gray mold was observed on leaves of C. Read More

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Baseline sensitivity and control efficacy of strobilurin fungicide pyraclostrobin against Sclerotium rolfsii.

Plant Dis 2021 May 18. Epub 2021 May 18.

Huazhong Agricultural University, Plant Protection, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, HuBei, China, 430070;

Sclerotium rolfsii is a fungi pathogen of southern blight with broad host range. The QoI fungicide pyraclostrobin was officially approved for controlling many diseases in 2015. In this study, baseline sensitivity of S. Read More

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First Report of Southern Blight on Polygonatum sibiricum Caused by Sclerotium delphinii in China.

Plant Dis 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Wuhan, Hubei , China;

Polygonatum sibiricum Delar. ex Redoute is a plant species used for medicine and food. On one hand, its rhizomes have potential medicinal values such as enhancing immunity, anti-aging, anti-tumor and antibacterial as well as the effects of improving memory and reducing blood lipid and sugar. Read More

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First Report of Causing Gray Mold on Greenhouse-Grown Tomato Plants in Mauritius.

Plant Dis 2021 Mar 5. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Institute of Plant Protection, University of Belgrade-Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Phytopathology, Nemanjina 6, Belgrade , Serbia, 11080.

Gray mold is one of the most important fungal diseases of greenhouse-grown vegetables (Elad and Shtienberg 1995) and plants grown in open fields (Elad et al. 2007). Its etiological agent, , has a wide host range of over 200 species (Williamson et al. Read More

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Field Sanitation and Foliar Application of PMS-702 for the Control of Rice Sheath Blight.

Plant Pathol J 2021 Feb;37(1):57-71

Department of Plant Pathology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan.

Rice sheath blight (ShB), caused by Kühn AG1-IA, is one of the destructive rice diseases worldwide. The aims of this study were to develop biocontrol strategies focusing on field sanitation and foliar application with a biocontrol agent for ShB management. PMS-702 showed a great antagonistic activity against . Read More

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February 2021

First Report of Ergot (Claviceps purpurea) on Drunken Horse Grass (Achnatherum inebrians) in China.

Plant Dis 2021 Jan 28. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

College of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu, China.

Drunken horse grass (Achnatherum inebrians) belongs to the family Poaceae: it is mainly distributed in the natural grasslands of northern and northwestern in China. Ergot is a disease that can not only affect the growth of the grass, but also cause livestock poisoning (Coufal-Majewski et al. 2016). Read More

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January 2021

Southern Blight on Medicago sativa Caused by Sclerotium rolfsii in North China.

Plant Dis 2021 Jan 13. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Qingdao Agricultural University, 98431, College of Grassland Science, Qingdao, Shandong, China;

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the most important perennial leguminous forages in many countries, known by its high feed value and yield potential. With the increasing demand for feed, alfalfa has been planted all over China. Read More

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January 2021

Application of Two-Photon Microscopy to Study Sclerotium cepivorum Berk Sclerotia Isolated from Naturally Infested Soil and Produced In Vitro.

Curr Microbiol 2021 Feb 9;78(2):749-755. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Ingeniería Bioquímica, Instituto Tecnológico Superior de Irapuato, Carretera Irapuato-Silao Km 12.5, 36821, Irapuato, Guanajuato, Mexico.

The danger of Sclerotium cepivorum lies in the strength of its survival structure: sclerotia. Sclerotia comprising hardened mycelium contains food reserves that allow it to remain dormant for long period, which makes the sclerotia-infested soil useless to grow any crop of the Allium species, including onion and garlic. This paper would be the first report on the application of two-photon fluorescence microscopy to the analysis of the structure of sclerotia from S. Read More

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February 2021

Reactive oxygen species: A generalist in regulating development and pathogenicity of phytopathogenic fungi.

Comput Struct Biotechnol J 2020 4;18:3344-3349. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, Institute of Botany, The Innovative Academy of Seed Design, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China.

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are small molecules with high oxidative activity, and are usually produced as byproducts of metabolic processes in organisms. ROS play an important role during the interaction between plant hosts and pathogenic fungi. Phytopathogenic fungi have evolved sophisticated ROS producing and scavenging systems to achieve redox homeostasis. Read More

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November 2020

The Conserved MAP Kinase MpkB Regulates Development and Sporulation without Affecting Aflatoxin Biosynthesis in .

J Fungi (Basel) 2020 Nov 16;6(4). Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Woosuk University, Wanju 55338, Korea.

In eukaryotes, the MAP kinase signaling pathway plays pivotal roles in regulating the expression of genes required for growth, development, and stress response. Here, we deleted the gene (AFLA_034170), an ortholog of the gene, to characterize its function in , a cosmopolitan, pathogenic, and aflatoxin-producing fungus. Previous studies revealed that MpkB positively regulates sexual and asexual differentiation in . Read More

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November 2020

First Report of Stem Rot of Huangjing (Polygonatum sibiricum) Caused by Sclerotium rolfsii.

Plant Dis 2020 Nov 3. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Guiyang, China;

Huangjing (Polygonatum sibiricum) is a medicinal plant widely distributed in China, Japan, and Korea. The dried rhizome of Huangjing has been reported to have many pharmacological applications and biological activities, such as antioxidants, immunity enhancement, anti-fatigue, anti-osteoporosis, and anti-aging activity (Cui et al., 2018). Read More

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November 2020

Genetic diversity studies based on morpho-pathological and molecular variability of the Sclerotinia sclerotiorum population infecting potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

World J Microbiol Biotechnol 2020 Oct 29;36(12):177. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Division of Plant Protection, ICAR-Central Potato Research Institute, Shimla, HP, 170001, India.

White mould or stem rot, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary, is a devastating fungal disease found in major potato cultivation areas worldwide. The aim of this study was to characterize genetic diversity in the S. Read More

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October 2020

First Report of Damping-off on Sedum plumbizincicola Caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-1 in China.

Plant Dis 2020 Oct 21. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory for Biology and Control of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Hunan Agricultural University, Nongda Road 1, Furong District, Changsha City, Hunan Province, Changsha, China;

Sedum plumbizincicola X.H. Guo et S. Read More

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October 2020

Sterile White Basidiomycete Fungus : A New Pathogen Causing Seedling Blight in Rice.

Plant Dis 2020 Oct 6. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Texas A&M University, Plant Pathology and Microbiology, College Station, Texas, United States;

In April 2018, damping-off of rice ( L.) seedlings at the 2-to-3-leaf stage was observed in three fields in the counties of Wharton and Matagorda of Texas and Jefferson-Davis Parish of Louisiana. All affected areas were 1 ha or greater, with 10 to 20% of the seedlings showing the symptoms. Read More

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October 2020

First report of quinoa anthracnose caused by and in the United States.

Plant Dis 2020 Oct 6. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

USDA Agricultural Research Service, 17123, Plant Introduction Research Unit, Ames, Iowa, United States;

Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is increasingly produced outside its native Andean range. In September 2019, stem lesions were observed on all six plants of quinoa accessions PI 510547 (25% severity) and PI 596293 (75% severity) in a demonstration plot in Ames, IA. Read More

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October 2020

Characterization of morphological changes within stromata during sexual reproduction in .

Mycologia 2020 Sep-Oct;112(5):908-920. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Center for Integrated Fungal Research, Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, North Carolina State University , Raleigh, NC 27695.

contaminates agricultural products worldwide with carcinogenic aflatoxins that pose a serious health risk to humans and animals. The fungus survives adverse environmental conditions through production of sclerotia. When fertilized by a compatible conidium of an opposite mating type, a sclerotium transforms into a stroma within which ascocarps, asci, and ascospores are formed. Read More

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First Report of Stem Rot Caused by Athelia rolfsii on Curry Leaf Tree (Murraya koenigii) in Tripura, India.

Plant Dis 2020 Aug 17. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute,, Plant Pathology, New Delhi, Delhi, India;

Murraya koenigii is an important medicinal plant of India and commonly known as curry leaf tree grown in tropical and subtropical regions. The leaves of curry tree are used as a herb due to the presence of following important active constituent bismahanine, murrayanine, murrayafoline-A, bi-koeniquinone-A, murrayazolidine etc. (Jain et al. Read More

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Toxicity of three rare earth elements, and their combinations to algae, microcrustaceans, and fungi.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2020 Sep 13;201:110795. Epub 2020 Jun 13.

Pan American Health Organization: PAHO, Washington, D.C., USA.

Rare earth elements (REEs) are naturally distributed in the environment, and are increasingly being used in agriculture and high technology materials worldwide, thereby increasing anthropogenic contamination and environmental risks. There exists scarce and contradictory toxicity information about REEs; hence, more studies are required, especially on their mixtures. Thus, this study aimed to assess the toxicities of La, Nd, Sm, and the combinations of these elements (binary 1:1 and ternary 1:1:1), to organisms from different trophic levels: producers (the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and Raphidocelis subcapitata), primary consumers (the microcrustaceans Daphnia similis and Artemia salina), and decomposers (the fungi Penicillium simplicissimum and Aspergillus japonicus). Read More

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September 2020

Rice leaf extract synthesized silver nanoparticles: An in vitro fungicidal evaluation against Rhizoctonia solani, the causative agent of sheath blight disease in rice.

Fungal Biol 2020 07 23;124(7):671-681. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University (PJTSAU), Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, 500030, India.

Silver nanoparticles (Ag NP) were synthesized using rice leaf extract and optimized synthetic conditions were found to be 0.4 % leaf extract, 0.6 mM AgNO and 30 min of autoclaving. Read More

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Morphological and Pathogenic Characterization of , the Causal Agent of Southern Blight Disease on Common Bean in Uganda.

Plant Dis 2020 Aug 9;104(8):2130-2137. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), P.O. Box 6247, Kampala, Uganda.

Over the last 5 years, Southern blight caused by Sacc. has superseded root rots caused by pathogens such as and spp. as a major constraint of common bean ( L. Read More

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The bZIP Transcription Factor AflRsmA Regulates Aflatoxin B Biosynthesis, Oxidative Stress Response and Sclerotium Formation in .

Toxins (Basel) 2020 04 23;12(4). Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Fungi and Mycotoxins of Fujian Province, School of Life Sciences, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China.

Fungal secondary metabolites play important roles not only in fungal ecology but also in humans living as beneficial medicine or harmful toxins. In filamentous fungi, bZIP-type transcription factors (TFs) are associated with the proteins involved in oxidative stress response and secondary metabolism. In this study, a connection between a bZIP TF and oxidative stress induction of secondary metabolism is uncovered in an opportunistic pathogen , which produces carcinogenic and mutagenic aflatoxins. Read More

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Dimethyl disulfide exerts antifungal activity against Sclerotinia minor by damaging its membrane and induces systemic resistance in host plants.

Sci Rep 2020 04 16;10(1):6547. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Division of Biotechnology, Jeonbuk National University, Iksan, 54596, Republic of Korea.

Microbial volatile compounds (MVCs) significantly influence the growth of plants and phytopathogens. However, the practical application of MVCs at the field level is limited by the fact that the concentrations at which these compounds antagonize the pathogens are often toxic for the plants. In this study, we investigated the effect of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), one of the MVCs produced by microorganisms, on the fitness of tomato plants and its fungicidal potential against a fungal phytopathogen, Sclerotinia minor. Read More

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Identification of SclB, a Zn(II)Cys transcription factor involved in sclerotium formation in Aspergillus niger.

Fungal Genet Biol 2020 06 3;139:103377. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Institute of Biology Leiden, Leiden University, Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology, Sylviusweg 72, 2333 BE Leiden, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Certain Aspergillus species such as Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus are well known for the formation of sclerotia. These developmental structures are thought to act as survival structures during adverse environmental conditions but are also a prerequisite for sexual reproduction. Read More

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Biological Control of Tomato Gray Mold Caused by with the Entomopathogenic Fungus .

Pathogens 2020 Mar 13;9(3). Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Provincial Key Laboratory of Plant Pathology of Hubei Province, College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, Hubei, China.

Gray mold disease caused by is a devastating disease that leads to serious financial loss. In this study, the entomopathogenic fungus that acts against the gray mold pathogen was evaluated. produced a significant inhibition zone in front of the colony in the dual culture test. Read More

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Molecular profile of non-aflatoxigenic phenotype in native strains of Aspergillus flavus.

Arch Microbiol 2020 Jul 15;202(5):1143-1155. Epub 2020 Feb 15.

Microbiology and Fermentation Technology, CSIR-Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysuru, Karnataka, 570 020, India.

Aflatoxins are the most common mycotoxin contaminant reported in food and feed. Aflatoxin B, the most toxic among different aflatoxins, is known to cause hepatocellular carcinoma in animals. Aspergillus flavus and A. Read More

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The role of the VosA-repressed dnjA gene in development and metabolism in Aspergillus species.

Curr Genet 2020 Jun 14;66(3):621-633. Epub 2020 Feb 14.

School of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, 80 Daehak-ro, Buk-gu, Daegu, 41566, Republic of Korea.

The DnaJ family of proteins (or J-proteins) are molecular chaperones that govern protein folding, degradation, and translocation in many organisms. Although J-proteins play key roles in eukaryotic and prokaryotic biology, the role of J-proteins in Aspergillus species is currently unknown. In this study, we characterized the dnjA gene, which encodes a putative DnaJ protein, in two Aspergillus species: Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus flavus. Read More

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Genetic and transcriptional dissection of resistance to Claviceps purpurea in the durum wheat cultivar Greenshank.

Theor Appl Genet 2020 Jun 14;133(6):1873-1886. Epub 2020 Feb 14.

Morden Research and Development Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Morden, MB, R6M 1Y5, Canada.

Key Message: Four QTL for ergot resistance (causal pathogen Claviceps purpurea) have been identified in the durum wheat cultivar Greenshank. Claviceps purpurea is a pathogen of grasses that infects flowers, replacing the seed with an ergot sclerotium. Ergot presents a significant problem to rye, barley and wheat, in particular hybrid seed production systems. Read More

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Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation Reduces Viability of and Sclerotia and Root-Knot Nematodes in Muck Soils.

Phytopathology 2020 Apr 3;110(4):795-804. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

Department of Plant Pathology, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH 44691.

Experiments were conducted to evaluate potential functional and mechanistic differences in the suppression of and and root-knot nematodes in muck soils by anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) using different carbon source amendments. Volatile compounds produced during ASD in muck soil amended with molasses, wheat bran, or mustard greens at 20.2 Mg/ha or a 2% ethanol solution significantly reduced the mycelial growth and number of sclerotia produced by both spp. Read More

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Comparison of aflatoxin production of Aspergillus flavus at different temperatures and media: Proteome analysis based on TMT.

Int J Food Microbiol 2019 Nov 24;310:108313. Epub 2019 Aug 24.

Southern Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, New Orleans, LA 70124, United States.

Aflatoxin production of Aspergillus flavus is affected by abiotic factors such as temperature, water activity, oxidative stress, etc. These factors likely affect different metabolic pathways and result in altered aflatoxin production. Aflatoxin was determined in liquid media at 28 °C, solid media at 28 °C and solid media at 37 °C. Read More

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November 2019

Development of high yielding strain of -: fructification, nutritional and phylogenetic studies.

J Food Sci Technol 2019 Aug 12;56(8):3597-3608. Epub 2019 Jun 12.

1Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa.

Mushrooms are nutritionally rich, healthy and medicinal. - (Fr.) is one of the nutritious medicinal mushroom found in the tropics and subtropics, but with history of slow growth and low sclerotia yield. Read More

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