1,403 results match your criteria sclerotia


Light from a firefly at temperatures considerably higher and lower than normal.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 14;11(1):12498. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Physics, Gauhati University, Guwahati, 781014, India.

Bioluminescence emissions from a few species of fireflies have been studied at different temperatures. Variations in the flash-duration have been observed and interesting conclusions drawn in those studies. Here we investigate steady-state and pulsed emissions from male specimens of the Indian species Sclerotia substriata at temperatures considerably higher and lower than the ones at which they normally flash. Read More

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A polysaccharide from Lignosus rhinocerotis sclerotia: Self-healing properties and the effect of temperature on its rheological behavior.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Sep 19;267:118223. Epub 2021 May 19.

College of Food Science and Technology and MOE Key Laboratory of Environment Correlative Dietology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China. Electronic address:

This work investigated the self-healing properties of Lignosus rhinocerotis polysaccharide (LRP) and the effect of temperature on its rheological behavior. Dynamic sweep tests (strain sweep, frequency sweep, and time sweep) showed that the LRP/water system possessed self-healing properties due to the entangled network formed by hyperbranched LRP molecular chains. The flow activation energy of LRP solution calculated by Arrhenius equation was shown to decrease with increasing LRP concentration, indicating that LRP solution at higher concentration was less sensitive to temperature. Read More

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September 2021

Ras subfamily GTPases regulate development, aflatoxin biosynthesis and pathogenicity in the fungus Aspergillus flavus.

Environ Microbiol 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

State Key Laboratory of Ecological Pest Control for Fujian and Taiwan Crops, Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Fungi and Mycotoxins of Fujian Province, School of Life Sciences, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, China.

Ras subfamily proteins are molecular switches in signal transduction pathways of many eukaryotes that regulate a variety of cellular processes. Here, the Ras subfamily, encoded by six genes, was identified in Aspergillus flavus: rasA, rasB, rasC, rab-33, rheb and rsr1. The rsr1 deletion mutant (∆rsr1), rheb deletion mutant (∆rheb) and double deletion mutant (∆rheb/rsr1) displayed significantly decreased growth and sporulation. Read More

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Integrated Proteomics and Transcriptomics Analyses Reveals the Possible Antifungal Mechanism of an Indoloquinoline Alkaloid Neocryptolepine against .

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Jun 2;69(23):6455-6464. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Lanzhou Institute of Husbandry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 335 Jiangouyan, Lanzhou 730050, P.R. China.

causes serious plant diseases. Neocryptolepine presented the significant antifungal activity against . , however the mode of action is unclear. Read More

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G Protein β Subunit Bcgb1 Controls Growth, Development and Virulence by Regulating cAMP Signaling and MAPK Signaling.

J Fungi (Basel) 2021 May 29;7(6). Epub 2021 May 29.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology and Hubei Key Laboratory of Plant Pathology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.

is a necrotrophic phytopathogenic fungus that causes gray mold disease in many crops. To better understand the role of G protein signaling in the development and virulence of this fungus, the G protein β subunit gene was knocked out in this study. The Δ mutants showed reduced mycelial growth rate, but increased aerial hyphae and mycelial biomass, lack of conidiation, failed to form sclerotia, increased resistance to cell wall and oxidative stresses, delayed formation of infection cushions, and decreased virulence. Read More

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First Report of Leaf Spot Caused by Botrytis cinerea on Cardamine hupingshanensis in China.

Plant Dis 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory for Biology and Control of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Hunan Agricultural University, Nongda Road 1, Furong District, Changsha City, Hunan Province, Changsha, China;

Cardamine hupingshanensis is a selenium (Se) and cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator plant distributed in wetlands along the Wuling Mountains of China (Zhou et al. 2018). In March of 2020, a disease with symptoms similar to gray mold was observed on leaves of C. Read More

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Effect of necrotrophic fungus and PGPR on the comparative histochemistry of Vigna radiata by using multiple microscopic techniques.

Microsc Res Tech 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Botany, Bacha Khan University, Charsadda, Pakistan.

Rapid advances in the field of pathogen detection have opened new opportunities and better understanding for their management approaches. Aim of this study was to elucidate histopathological observations of different tissues affected by Macrophomina phaseolina and to observe the defense responses of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in mungbean plants. Sections of the stem and root were prepared and stained with ferric chloride, Lugol's iodine and Wiesner's reagent and were then observed under multiple microscopic techniques. Read More

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Sclerotia formed by citric acid producing strains of Aspergillus niger: Induction and morphological analysis.

Fungal Biol 2021 Jun 1;125(6):485-494. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Austrian Centre of Industrial Biotechnology (ACIB GmbH), Muthgasse 18, Vienna, Austria; Institute of Microbiology and Microbial Biotechnology, BOKU-VIBT, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Muthgasse 18, Vienna, Austria; Institute of Chemical, Environmental and Bioscience Engineering, TU Wien, Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

Some strains of Aspergillus niger have been previously reported to produce sclerotia under certain conditions. Sclerotia are aggregations of hyphae which can act either as survival or as sexual structures in species related to A. niger. Read More

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The PHD transcription factor Cti6 is involved in the fungal colonization and aflatoxin B1 biological synthesis of Aspergillus flavus.

IMA Fungus 2021 May 18;12(1):12. Epub 2021 May 18.

Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Fungi and Mycotoxins of Fujian Province, Key Laboratory of Biopesticide and Chemical Biology of Education Ministry, Proteomic Research Center, and School of Life Sciences, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, China.

Aspergillus flavus and its main secondary metabolite AFB1 pose a serious threat to several important crops worldwide. Recently, it has been reported that some PHD family transcription factors are involved in the morphogenesis and AFB1 biological synthesis in A. flavus, but the role of Cti6, a PHD domain containing protein in A. Read More

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Baseline sensitivity and control efficacy of strobilurin fungicide pyraclostrobin against Sclerotium rolfsii.

Plant Dis 2021 May 18. Epub 2021 May 18.

Huazhong Agricultural University, Plant Protection, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, HuBei, China, 430070;

Sclerotium rolfsii is a fungi pathogen of southern blight with broad host range. The QoI fungicide pyraclostrobin was officially approved for controlling many diseases in 2015. In this study, baseline sensitivity of S. Read More

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Isolation and evaluation of the biocontrol potential of Talaromyces spp. against rice sheath blight guided by soil microbiome.

Environ Microbiol 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

State Key Laboratory of Agriculture Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei Province, 430070, People's Republic of China.

Rice sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani is the major disease of rice that seriously threatens food security worldwide. Efficient and eco-friendly biological approaches are urgently needed since no resistant cultivars are available. In this study, fallow and paddy soils were initially subjected to microbiome analyses, and the results showed that Talaromyces spp. Read More

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Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Sarcoptiformes: Acaridae) in the in vitro cultures of slime molds (Mycetozoa): accident, contamination, or interaction?

Exp Appl Acarol 2021 Jun 10;84(2):445-458. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University in Kraków, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387, Kraków, Poland.

Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank), commonly known as the cereal mite, cheese mite, or ham mite, is a cosmopolitan species reported from various environments in the wild, including soil, plant material and vertebrate nests. It has also been recognized as a common pest of food storages, mycological collections as well as plant and invertebrate laboratory cultures. Laboratory observations indicate that T. Read More

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Comparative transcriptome analysis of cells from different areas reveals ROS responsive mechanism at sclerotial initiation stage in Morchella importuna.

Sci Rep 2021 May 3;11(1):9418. Epub 2021 May 3.

State Key Laboratory of Mycology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, NO.3 1st Beichen West Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100101, China.

Morels are some of the most highly prized edible and medicinal mushrooms, with great economic and scientific value. Outdoor cultivation has been achieved and expanded on a large scale in China in recent years. Sclerotial formation is one of the most important phases during the morel life cycle, and previous reports indicated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role. Read More

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A Major Effect Gene Controlling Development and Pathogenicity in Identified Through Genetic Analysis of Natural Mycelial Non-pathogenic Isolates.

Front Plant Sci 2021 14;12:663870. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Spanish-Portuguese Institute for Agricultural Research (CIALE), Department of Microbiology and Genetics, University of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain.

is a necrotrophic plant pathogenic fungus with a wide host range. Its natural populations are phenotypically and genetically very diverse. A survey of isolates causing gray mold in the vineyards of Castilla y León, Spain, was carried out and as a result eight non-pathogenic natural variants were identified. Read More

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Investigating the potential mechanism of pydiflumetofen resistance in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

Plant Dis 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Henan Institute of Science and Technology, 177560, Henan Engineering Research Center of Crop Genome Editing, Xinxiang, Henan, China;

The necrotrophic pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is one of the most damaging and economically important plant pathogens. Pydiflumetofen, which was recently developed by Syngenta Crop Protection, has already been registered in China for the management of Sclerotinia stem rot (SSR) which was caused by S. sclerotiorum in oilseed rape. Read More

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Vasoactive Effects of Acute Ergot Exposure in Sheep.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 04 20;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Veterinary Pathology, Western College of Veterinary Medicine; University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B4, Canada.

Ergotism is a common and increasing problem in Saskatchewan's livestock. Chronic exposure to low concentrations of ergot alkaloids is known to cause severe arterial vasoconstriction and gangrene through the activation of adrenergic and serotonergic receptors on vascular smooth muscles. The acute vascular effects of a single oral dose with high-level exposure to ergot alkaloids remain unknown and are examined in this study. Read More

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The Fungi-specific histone Acetyltransferase Rtt109 mediates morphogenesis, Aflatoxin synthesis and pathogenicity in Aspergillus flavus by acetylating H3K9.

IMA Fungus 2021 Apr 7;12(1). Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Fungi and Mycotoxins of Fujian Province, Key Laboratory of Biopesticide and Chemical Biology of Education Ministry, and College of Life Sciences, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, China.

Aspergillus flavus is a common saprophytic filamentous fungus that produces the highly toxic natural compound aflatoxin during its growth process. Synthesis of the aflatoxins, which can contaminate food crops causing huge losses to the agricultural economy, is often regulated by epigenetic modification, such as the histone acetyltransferase. In this study, we used Aspergillus flavus as an experimental model to construct the acetyltransferase gene rtt109 knockout strain (△rtt109) and its complementary strain (△rtt109·com) by homologous recombination. Read More

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Indigenous Fungivorous Nematodes Affect the Biocontrol Efficacy of through Reducing the Hyphal Density.

J Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Soil and Land Resources Division, Department of Plant, Soil, and Entomological Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-2339, USA.

Indigenous fungus-feeding nematodes may adversely affect the growth and activity of introduced biocontrol fungi. Alginate pellets of the biocontrol fungus ThzID1-M3 and sclerotia of the fungal plant pathogen were added to nonsterile soil at a soil water potential of -50 or -1000 kPa. The biomass of ThzID1-M3, nematode populations, and extent of colonization of sclerotia by ThzID1-M3 were monitored over time. Read More

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Compartmentalization of Melanin Biosynthetic Enzymes Contributes to Self-Defense against Intermediate Compound Scytalone in .

mBio 2021 03 23;12(2). Epub 2021 Mar 23.

School of Life Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China

In filamentous fungi, 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN) melanin is a major component of the extracellular matrix, endowing fungi with environmental tolerance and some pathogenic species with pathogenicity. However, the subcellular location of the melanin biosynthesis pathway components remains obscure. Using the gray mold pathogen , the DHN melanin intermediate scytalone was characterized via phenotypic and chemical analysis of mutants, and the key enzymes participating in melanin synthesis were fused with fluorescent proteins to observe their subcellular localizations. Read More

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First Report of Binucleate AG-L Causing Root and Stem Rot of Wishbone Flower () in Taiwan.

Plant Dis 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

National Chung Hsing University, Department of Plant Pathology, 250 Kuo Kuang Rd., Taichung 402, Taiwan R.O.C., Taichung, Taiwan, 402;

Wishbone flower ( L.) is a common ornamental plant for flower bed in Taiwan. In August 2018, root and stem rot of wishbone flower occurred on the flower bed in the campus of National Chung Hsing University, Taichung city, with 100% incidence. Read More

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First Report of Southern Blight on Polygonatum sibiricum Caused by Sclerotium delphinii in China.

Plant Dis 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Wuhan, Hubei , China;

Polygonatum sibiricum Delar. ex Redoute is a plant species used for medicine and food. On one hand, its rhizomes have potential medicinal values such as enhancing immunity, anti-aging, anti-tumor and antibacterial as well as the effects of improving memory and reducing blood lipid and sugar. Read More

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First report of charcoal rot caused by on potato tubers in Mauritius.

Plant Dis 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Institute of Plant Protection, University of Belgrade-Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Phytopathology, Nemanjina 6, Belgrade , Serbia, 11080.

Charcoal rot, caused by , is an important disease in tropical and subtropical regions which affects a broad range of host plants, including potato ( L.). In this crop, charcoal rot can reduce the marketable quality of tubers (Arora 2012) and cause yield losses up to 88% (Somani 2007). Read More

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First report of causing stem canker on L. in Oregon.

Authors:
Andrea Garfinkel

Plant Dis 2021 Mar 17. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Oregon CBD, 3395 S Pacific Hwy W, Independence, Oregon, United States, 97351;

In August of 2020, plants of L. grown in hoop houses at two farms located in Benton County, Oregon exhibited wilting and chlorosis, followed by shoot necrosis. Symptomatic plants had dry, tan-brown lesions or cankers, often accompanied by large, round to irregular or ribbon-shaped, black sclerotia and/or profuse white mycelial growth. Read More

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First Report of Causing Gray Mold on Greenhouse-Grown Tomato Plants in Mauritius.

Plant Dis 2021 Mar 5. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Institute of Plant Protection, University of Belgrade-Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Phytopathology, Nemanjina 6, Belgrade , Serbia, 11080.

Gray mold is one of the most important fungal diseases of greenhouse-grown vegetables (Elad and Shtienberg 1995) and plants grown in open fields (Elad et al. 2007). Its etiological agent, , has a wide host range of over 200 species (Williamson et al. Read More

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Complex microbial communities inhabiting natural Cordyceps militaris and the habitat soil and their predicted functions.

Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 2021 Apr 27;114(4):465-477. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Yunnan Herbal Laboratory, Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Yunnan University, No. 2 Cuihu Lake North Road, Kunming, 650091, Yunnan, China.

Cordyceps militaris is a traditional Chinese medicinal food that is challenging to quality maintaining while mass cultivation. Many studies have found that abundant microbes inhabit Ophiocordyceps sinensis and perform important functions for their host. In this study, our objective was to reveal the microbial communities that inhabit C. Read More

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Cs and K activities and total K distribution in the sclerotia of the Wolfiporia cocos fungus from China.

J Environ Radioact 2021 May 13;231:106549. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Institute of Meteorology and Water Management - Maritime Branch, National Research Institute, 42 Waszyngtona Av., 81-342, Gdynia, Poland.

The activity concentration of Cs and K and total K content in the sclerotia of the Chinese medicinal fungus Wolfiporia cocos collected mainly from Yunnan province of China during the period 2013-2015 were investigated. W. cocos in Yunnan is collected from the wild and is cultivated in field conditions and the wood substrate used is derived from the local pine (Pinus yunnanensis Franch. Read More

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New Xerophilic Species of from Soil.

J Fungi (Basel) 2021 Feb 9;7(2). Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Mycology Unit, Medical School and IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili (URV), Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Tarragona, Spain.

Soil is one of the main reservoirs of fungi. The aim of this study was to study the richness of ascomycetes in a set of soil samples from Mexico and Spain. Fungi were isolated after 2% phenol treatment of samples. Read More

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February 2021

Distinguishing Homokaryons and Heterokaryons in Medicinal Polypore Mushroom (Agaricomycetes) Based on Cultural and Genetic Characteristics.

Front Microbiol 2020 25;11:596715. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

State Key Laboratory of Mycology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

The sclerotia of are a kind of traditional medicine and food with excellent benefits and are widely used in China, Japan, and other Asian countries. The mating system of fungi is not only of practical importance for breeding but also has profound effects on genetic variability and molecular evolution. However, the lack of clamp connections in increases the difficulty of research on mating systems. Read More

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January 2021

Field Sanitation and Foliar Application of PMS-702 for the Control of Rice Sheath Blight.

Plant Pathol J 2021 Feb;37(1):57-71

Department of Plant Pathology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan.

Rice sheath blight (ShB), caused by Kühn AG1-IA, is one of the destructive rice diseases worldwide. The aims of this study were to develop biocontrol strategies focusing on field sanitation and foliar application with a biocontrol agent for ShB management. PMS-702 showed a great antagonistic activity against . Read More

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February 2021

First Report of Ergot (Claviceps purpurea) on Drunken Horse Grass (Achnatherum inebrians) in China.

Plant Dis 2021 Jan 28. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

College of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu, China.

Drunken horse grass (Achnatherum inebrians) belongs to the family Poaceae: it is mainly distributed in the natural grasslands of northern and northwestern in China. Ergot is a disease that can not only affect the growth of the grass, but also cause livestock poisoning (Coufal-Majewski et al. 2016). Read More

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January 2021