140,801 results match your criteria scientific term


Statistical models for firearm and tool mark image comparisons based on the congruent matching cells (CMC) method.

Authors:
Nien Fan Zhang

Forensic Sci Int 2021 Jul 20;326:110912. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Dr, Gaithersburg, MD 20899, USA. Electronic address:

In the branch of forensic science known as firearm evidence identification, various similarity scores have been proposed to compare firearm marks. Some similarity score comparisons, for example, congruent matching cells (CMC) method, are based on pass-or-fail tests. The CMC method compares the pairwise topography images of breech face impressions, from which the similarity score is derived for quantifying their topography similarity. Read More

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Elective Fetal Reduction by Radiofrequency Ablation in Monochorionic Diamniotic Twins Decreases Adverse Outcomes Compared to Ongoing Monochorionic Diamniotic Twins.

Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM 2021 Jul 24:100447. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Science, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY.

Background: Multifetal Pregnancy Reduction is a technique used to reduce the fetal number with the goal of mitigating risks of adverse outcomes associated with multiple gestations. Monochorionic diamniotic twin pregnancies are subject to unique complications, contributing to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Thus, patients have an option to electively reduce one fetus with the goal of improving outcomes. Read More

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Adult Zebrafish Anesthesia: A Study of Efficacy and Behavioral Recovery of Different Anesthetics.

Zebrafish 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

i3S-Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal.

The use of proper anesthesia in zebrafish research is essential to ensure fish welfare and data reliability. However, anesthesia long-term side effects remain poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to assess anesthesia quality and recovery in adult zebrafish using different anesthetic protocols and to determine possible long-term effects on the fish activity and anxiety-like behaviors after anesthesia. Read More

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Epigenetics and postsurgical pain: A scoping review.

Pain Med 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Medical Research Unit in Reproductive Medicine, Unidad Médica de Alta Especialidad, Hospital de Gineco Obstetricia No. 4, "Luis Castelazo Ayala", Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Mexico City, Mexico.

Objective: Multiple factors are involved in the physiology and variability of postsurgical pain, a great part of which can be explained by genetic and environmental factors and their interaction. Epigenetics refers to the mechanism by which the environment alters the stability and expression of genes. We conducted a scoping review to examine the available evidence in both animal models and clinical studies on epigenetic mechanisms involved in regulation of postsurgical and chronic postsurgical pain. Read More

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The 5-year course of neck pain among natural disaster survivors: The association of prior neck pain with new episodes of neck pain.

Pain Med 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Division of Epidemiology, Department of Health Informatics and Public Health, Tohoku University Graduate School of Public Health, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575, Japan.

Objective: Neck pain is a common health problem among both the general population and natural disaster survivors. However, the long-term course of neck pain has rarely been reported. The aim of this study was to elucidate the 5-year course of neck pain among survivors of the Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE) by assessing the association of neck pain 2 and 4 years after the disaster with that at 7 years. Read More

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Placental adaptation to maternal malnutrition.

Reproduction 2021 Jul 1. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

G Wu, Animal Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, United States.

Maternal malnutrition gives rise to both short- and long-term consequences for the survival and health of the offspring. As the intermediary between mother and fetus, the placenta has the potential to interpret environmental signals, such as nutrient availability, and adapt to support fetal growth and development. While this potential is present, it is clear that at times, placental adaptation fails to occur resulting in poor pregnancy outcomes. Read More

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Concussion risk and resilience: relationship with pre-injury salience network connectivity.

J Neurotrauma 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Keenan Research Centre for Biomedical Science, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Concussion is a major health concern, making it critical to identify factors that influence risk and resilience. The salience network (SN) likely plays a key role in concussion risk, given its roles in orienting attention, functional adaptability and interoceptive awareness. The SN's functions are thought to be mediated through causal control of other networks, including the default mode network (DMN) and executive control network (ECN). Read More

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Can We Afford to Ignore the Biology of Joint Healing and Graft Incorporation After ACL Reconstruction?

Authors:
Constance R Chu

J Orthop Res 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department Orthopaedic Surgery, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is successful at restoring stability to return ACL injured patients to high demand work, sports, and recreational activities. The development of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (OA) in roughly half of patients just 10-15 years after ACLR highlight the need to improve clinical care pathways. Graft failure and reinjury rates which further increase OA risk also remain high for younger and more active patients. Read More

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Intraspecific variation mediates density dependence in a genetically diverse plant species.

Ecology 2021 Jul 27:e03502. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Biological Sciences, Boise State University, Boise, ID, 83725, USA.

Interactions between neighboring plants are critical for biodiversity maintenance in plant populations and communities. Intraspecific trait variation and genome duplication are common in plant species and can drive eco-evolutionary dynamics through genotype-mediated plant-plant interactions. However, few studies have examined how species-wide intraspecific variation may alter interactions between neighboring plants. Read More

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Influencing factors for the decline of limb muscle strength and the association with all-cause mortality: evidence from a nationwide population-based cohort study.

Aging Clin Exp Res 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Arthritis Clinic & Research Center, Peking University People's Hospital, Peking University, Beijing, 100044, China.

Background: The decline of muscle strength, a typical characteristic of sarcopenia, greatly affects aging-related health outcomes; however, prospective data on influencing factors and mortality in the Chinese population are relatively sparse.

Aims: We investigated the influencing factors for the declined limb muscle strength and the association with all-cause mortality among the elderly Chinese individuals aged ≥ 65 years in a large long-term prospective cohort study.

Methods: We used data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). Read More

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Antipsychotics Effects on Network-Level Reconfiguration of Cortical Morphometry in First-Episode Schizophrenia.

Schizophr Bull 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

The Clinical Hospital of Chengdu Brain Science Institute, MOE Key Lab for Neuroinformation, Center for Information in Medicine, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, PR China.

Cortical thickness reductions are evident in schizophrenia (SZ). Associations between antipsychotic medications (APMs) and cortical morphometry have been explored in SZ patients. This raises the question of whether the reconfiguration of morphological architecture by APM plays potential compensatory roles for abnormalities in the cerebral cortex. Read More

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Comparison of Survival and Patterns of Recurrence in Gastric Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, Mixed Adenoneuroendocrine Carcinoma, and Adenocarcinoma.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Jul 1;4(7):e2114180. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Gastric Surgery, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fuzhou, China.

Importance: Gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma and mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma are rare pathological types of gastric cancer, and there is a lack of multicenter studies comparing the prognosis and recurrence patterns of gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma, gastric mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma, and gastric adenocarcinoma.

Objective: To compare the differences in long-term survival and patterns of recurrence among gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma, gastric mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma, and gastric adenocarcinoma.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cohort study included patients with resectable gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma and gastric mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma at 23 hospitals in China from January 2006 to December 2016. Read More

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Cost-effectiveness of Dapagliflozin for the Treatment of Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Jul 1;4(7):e2114501. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Importance: Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction produces substantial morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. Dapagliflozin is the first sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor approved for the treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction.

Objective: To examine the cost-effectiveness of adding dapagliflozin to guideline-directed medical therapy for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction in patients with or without diabetes. Read More

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Association Between Mental Health Disorders and Mortality Among Patients With COVID-19 in 7 Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

JAMA Psychiatry 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Aix-Marseille University, CEReSS-Health Service Research and Quality of Life Center, Marseille, France.

Importance: Heterogeneous evidence exists for the association between COVID-19 and the clinical outcomes of patients with mental health disorders. It remains unknown whether patients with COVID-19 and mental health disorders are at increased risk of mortality and should thus be targeted as a high-risk population for severe forms of COVID-19.

Objective: To determine whether patients with mental health disorders were at increased risk of COVID-19 mortality compared with patients without mental health disorders. Read More

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A systematic review of radiation-related lymphopenia in genito-urinary malignancies.

Cancer Invest 2021 Jul 27:1-19. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Loyola University, Chicago, IL.

Background: The impact of radiation related lymphopenia on clinical outcomes has been reported in various solid malignancies such as high grade gliomas, head and neck cancers, thoracic malignancies and gastro-intestinal malignancies but its impact is not clearly known in the context of common genito-urinary(GU) malignancies.

Methodology: To better understand the effect of radiation-associated lymphopenia in prostate and bladder cancer we undertook this systematic review of clinical studies that have studied radiation related lymphopenia in GU malignancies. A systematic methodology search of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library resulted in 2125 abstracts. Read More

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R&D of JAEA for the decommissioning of TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station.

Authors:
Koichi Noda

Ann ICRP 2021 Jul 27:1466453211010892. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Japan Atomic Energy Agency Fukushima Research and Development Division, Iwaki City, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan; e-mail:

This paper does not necessarily reflect the views of the International Commission on Radiological Protection.Since the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station in March 2011, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been contributing actively to the environmental recovery of Fukushima and the decommissioning of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station from a technical aspect, through a wide range of research and development (R&D) activities including fundamental research and applicational technology development. JAEA has been conducting R&D such as the characterisation of fuel debris, and treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes based on the 'Mid-and-Long-Term Roadmap' authorised by the Japanese Government. Read More

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Fabrics Attached with Highly Efficient Aggregation-Induced Emission Photosensitizer: Toward Self-Antiviral Personal Protective Equipment.

ACS Nano 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Center for Infection and Immunity, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Biomedical Imaging, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai 519000, Guangdong, China.

Personal protective equipment (PPE) is vital for the prevention and control of SARS-CoV-2. However, conventional PPEs lack virucidal capabilities and arbitrarily discarding used PPEs may cause a high risk for cross-contamination and environmental pollution. Recently reported photothermal or photodynamic-mediated self-sterilizing masks show bactericidal-virucidal abilities but have some inherent disadvantages, such as generating unbearable heat during the photothermal process or requiring additional ultraviolet light irradiation to inactivate pathogens, which limit their practical applications. Read More

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Influence of short-term temperature drops on sex-determination in sea turtles.

J Exp Zool A Ecol Integr Physiol 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Brisbane Office, World Wildlife Fund Australia, Brisbane, Australia.

All sea turtles exhibit temperature-dependent sex-determination, where warmer temperatures produce mostly females and cooler temperatures produce mostly males. As global temperatures continue to rise, sea turtle sex-ratios are expected to become increasingly female-biased, threatening the long-term viability of many populations. Nest temperatures are dependent on sand temperature, and heavy rainfall events reduce sand temperatures for a brief period. Read More

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Trends and variability in polar sea ice, global atmospheric circulations, and baroclinicity.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

School of Earth Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

We analyze the polar sea ice distribution and the global sea level pressure (SLP) and baroclinicity distributions over the "satellite" period of 1979-2020. In the Arctic, there are statistically significant sea ice extent (SIE) decreases in all calendar months, and the annual mean has lost 2.22 million km over the four decades. Read More

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Insight into the thermal stability of DNA in hydrated ionic liquids from multi-wavelength UV resonance Raman experiments.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Chemistry, Materials and Chemical Engineering ''G. Natta'', Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, 20133, Milano, Italy.

The utility of ionic liquids (ILs) as alternative solvents for stabilizing and preserving the native structure of DNA over the long term may be envisaged for biotechnological and biomedical applications in the near future. The delicate balance between the stabilizing and destabilizing effects of IL-mediated interactions with the structure of DNA is complex and is still not well understood. This work reports a fundamental study dealing with the effect exerted by cations and anions in imidazolium-based ILs on the thermal structural stability of large nucleic acid molecules. Read More

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Stress response asymmetries in African American emerging adults exposed to chronic social adversity.

Stress 2021 Jul 27:1-5. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Oklahoma Center for Evolutionary Analysis, Department of Psychology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA.

Chronic stress is linked to social adversity and underlies many health disparities among ethnic minorities. Cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) reflect sensitivity to adversity and are related to health outcomes. Our aim was to understand how social adversity influences biological responses to experimental and daily stressors in a sample of low-income African American emerging adults. Read More

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Rational Design of Nonbonded Point Charge Models for Divalent Metal Cations with Lennard-Jones 12-6 Potential.

J Chem Inf Model 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Biological Science and Engineering, School of Chemistry and Biological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China.

Exploring a metal-involved biochemical process at a molecular level often requires a reliable description of metal properties in aqueous solution by classical nonbonded models. An additional term for considering ion-induced dipole interactions was previously proposed to supplement the widely used Lennard-Jones 12-6 potential (known as the 12-6-4 LJ-type model) with good accuracy. Here, we demonstrate an alternative to modeling divalent metal cations (M) with the traditional 12-6 LJ potential by developing nonbonded point charge models for use with 11 water models: TIP3P, SPC/E, SPC/E, TIP4P-Ew, TIP4P-D, and TIP4P/2005 and the more recent OPC3, TIP3P-FB, OPC, TIP4P-FB, and a99SB-. Read More

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Effects of long-term phosphorus application on crop yield, phosphorus absorption, and soil phosphorus accumulation in maize-wheat rotation system.

Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2021 Jul;32(7):2469-2476

College of Resources and Environmental Science/Hebei Province Key Laboratory for Farmland Eco-environment, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding 071000, Hebei, China.

In this study, we examined the effects of four phosphorus treatments on crop yields, and analyzed crop phosphorus uptake and phosphorus utilization efficiency, as well as changes in soil phosphorus deficit in maize-wheat rotation system, based on a 7-year field experiment in Baoding City, Hebei Province. The results showed that long-term phosphorus application significantly increased the yield and phosphorus uptake of maize and wheat. The yield and phosphorus uptake of maize and wheat showed a parabolic trend that first increased and then decreased with the increases of phosphorus application. Read More

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Short-term effects of grazing intensity on soil stoichiometric characteristics of typical grassland in the agro-pastoral ecotone of northern China.

Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2021 Jul;32(7):2433-2439

College of Grassland Science, Shanxi Agricultural University, Jinzhong 030801, Shanxi, China.

Grazing is the dominant land use way for natural grasslands. Different grazing intensities could affect soil stoichiometry in grasslands by influencing the selective feeding by livestock, litter input, and microbial community structure. In this study, a grazing experiment was carried out in a grassland of agro-pastoral ecotone in Northern China for three years (2017-2019). Read More

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Effects of rotation grazing time on the characteristics of soil seed bank in desert steppe.

Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2021 Jul;32(7):2378-2388

Institute of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Science, Science and Technology Bureau of Yanchi County, Ningxia 751500, China.

Exploring the characteristics of soil seed bank under seasonal grazing plays an important role in the reasonable use of desert steppe. We examined seed bank species composition, density, vertical distribution, diversity in the soil of 0-5, 5-10, 10-15 cm soil layers and the relationship with vegetation and soil environmental factors in Ningxia desert steppe. The treatments included enclosure (FY), traditional time rotation grazing (FG), delayed to start rotation grazing (YG), early to end rotation grazing (TG), delayed to start and early to end rotation grazing (YT) and free grazing (ZY). Read More

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Manipulative experiments networks on response and adaptation of terrestrial ecosystems to environmental changes: Building the research methods and technology system.

Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2021 Jul;32(7):2275-2289

Synthesis Research Center of Chinese Ecosystem, Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Mode-ling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China.

The feedback relationship between organisms or ecosystems and environment has been a key issue in ecological research. Manipulative experiments with changing biological or environmental factors and large-scale field experiment networks were regarded as effective approaches to understand and accurately quantify the process and mechanisms underlying ecosystem response and adaptation to environmental changes. In recent years, a few networks have been developed, including large-scale networks of field physics simulation experiment (. Read More

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Effects of human footprint and biophysical factors on the body-size structure of fished marine species.

Conserv Biol 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Western Australian Fisheries and Marine Research Laboratories, Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Government of Western Australia, North Beach, Western Australia, Australia.

Marine fisheries in coastal ecosystems in many areas of the world have historically removed large-bodied individuals, potentially impairing ecosystem functioning and the long-term sustainability of fish populations. Reporting on size-based indicators that link to food-web structure can contribute to ecosystem-based management, but the application of these indicators over large (cross-ecosystem) geographical scales has been limited to either fisheries-dependent catch data or diver-based methods restricted to shallow waters (<20 m) that can misrepresent the abundance of large-bodied fished species. We obtained data on the body-size structure of 82 recreationally or commercially targeted marine demersal teleosts from 2904 deployments of baited remote underwater stereo-video (stereo-BRUV). Read More

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Non-thyroidal illness syndrome and SARS-CoV-2-associated multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children.

J Endocrinol Invest 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Pediatric Department, "V. Buzzi" Children's Hospital, 20154, Milan, Italy.

Purpose: COVID-19 disease may result in a severe multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), which in turn may alter thyroid function (TF). We assessed TF in MIS-C, evaluating its impact on disease severity.

Methods: We retrospectively considered children admitted with MIS-C to a single pediatric hospital in Milan (November 2019-January 2021). Read More

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Breast cancer incidence and early diagnosis in a family history risk and prevention clinic: 33-year experience in 14,311 women.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Nightingale/Prevent Breast Cancer Centre, Wythenshawe Hospital, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, M23 9LT, UK.

Purpose: Women at increased familial breast cancer risk have been offered screening starting at an earlier age and increased frequency than national Screening Programmes for over 30 years. There are limited data on longer-term largescale implementation of this approach on cancer diagnosis.

Methods: Women at our institution at ≥ 17% lifetime breast cancer risk have been offered enhanced screening with annual mammography starting at age 35 or 5-years younger than youngest affected relative, with upper age limit 50 for moderate and 60 for high-risk. Read More

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