76,251 results match your criteria school settings

Detection of foot contact in treadmill running with inertial and optical measurement systems.

J Biomech 2021 Apr 9;121:110419. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Physical Therapy & Rehabilitation Sciences, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, United States.

In running assessments, biomechanics of the stance phase are often measured to understand external loads applied to the body. Identifying time of initial foot contact can be challenging in runners with different strike patterns. Peak downward velocity of the pelvis (PDVP) has been validated in a laboratory setting to detect initial contact. Read More

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Randomized controlled trial of group motivational interviewing for veterans with substance use disorders.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2021 Apr 16;223:108716. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, 40 Temple St., New Haven, CT, 06510, USA; VA Connecticut Healthcare System, 950 Campbell Ave, West Haven, CT, 06516, USA.

Background: Motivational interviewing delivered in a group format is understudied yet promising as a treatment for substance use disorders (SUD). We evaluated the efficacy of group motivational interviewing (GMI) relative to a treatment-control (TCC) for enhancing treatment and self-help engagement and decreasing alcohol and drug use among veterans with SUD and co-existing psychiatric disorders.

Method: Veterans (n = 118) with alcohol use disorder were recruited within an outpatient SUD treatment program and randomized to GMI or TCC upon program entry. Read More

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Examining the utility of the Violence Prevention Climate scale: In a metropolitan Australian general hospital.

J Clin Nurs 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Nursing, Midwifery and Health, Northumbria University, Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, UK.

Aim And Objectives: To evaluate and examine the utility of the Violence Prevention Climate scale by generalist healthcare professionals.

Background: Workplace violence in general hospital settings remains a challenge for healthcare organisations. High rates of violence are still being reported towards healthcare workers, despite organisational violence prevention strategies being implemented. Read More

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Meeting Unique Requirements: Community Consultation and Public Disclosure for Research in Emergency Setting Using Exception from Informed Consent.

Acad Emerg Med 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

University of Michigan Medical School, Department of Emergency Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Background: Exception from informed consent (EFIC) regulations for research in emergency settings contain unique requirements for community consultation and public disclosure. These requirements address ethical challenges intrinsic to this research context. Multiple approaches have evolved to accomplish these activities that may reflect and advance different aims. Read More

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Progestogens for preventing miscarriage: a network meta-analysis.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 Apr 19;4:CD013792. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Tommy's National Centre for Miscarriage Research, Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research (IMSR), WHO Collaborating Centre for Global Women's Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.

Background: Miscarriage, defined as the spontaneous loss of a pregnancy before 24 weeks' gestation, is common with approximately 25% of women experiencing a miscarriage in their lifetime, and 15% to 20% of pregnancies ending in a miscarriage. Progesterone has an important role in maintaining a pregnancy, and supplementation with different progestogens in early pregnancy has been attempted to rescue a pregnancy in women with early pregnancy bleeding (threatened miscarriage), and to prevent miscarriages in asymptomatic women who have a history of three or more previous miscarriages (recurrent miscarriage).

Objectives: To estimate the relative effectiveness and safety profiles for the different progestogen treatments for threatened and recurrent miscarriage, and provide rankings of the available treatments according to their effectiveness, safety, and side-effect profile. Read More

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Knowledge, attitude, perception, and preventative practices towards COVID-19 in sub-Saharan Africa: A scoping review.

PLoS One 2021 19;16(4):e0249853. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Discipline of Public Health Medicine, School of Nursing and Public Health, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard Campus, Durban, South Africa.

Background: Knowledge, attitudes, perception, and preventative practices regarding coronavirus- 2019 (COVID-19) are crucial in its prevention and control. Several studies have noted that the majority of people in sub-Saharan African are noncompliant with proposed health and safety measures recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and respective country health departments. In most sub-Saharan African countries, noncompliance is attributable to ignorance and misinformation, thereby raising questions about people's knowledge, attitudes, perception, and practices towards COVID-19 in these settings. Read More

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Epidemiology of Concussion in the National Football League, 2015-2019.

Sports Health 2021 Apr 19:19417381211011446. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Neurological Surgery and Vanderbilt Sports Concussion Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee.

Background: Concussion in American football, and specifically the National Football League (NFL) is a major area of interest and key focus for injury prevention. Complete and accurate characterization of when, how, and to whom these injuries occur can facilitate injury reduction efforts. Existing studies of concussion in the NFL use publicly available data, potentially limiting data quality and the inferences that can be made. Read More

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Development and Validation of a Machine Learning Model to Estimate Bacterial Sepsis Among Immunocompromised Recipients of Stem Cell Transplant.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Apr 1;4(4):e214514. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle.

Importance: Sepsis disproportionately affects recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (allo-HCT), and timely detection is crucial. However, the atypical presentation of sepsis within this population makes detection challenging, and existing clinical sepsis tools have limited prognostic value among this high-risk population.

Objective: To develop a full risk factor (demographic, transplant, clinical, and laboratory factors) and clinical factor-specific automated bacterial sepsis decision support tool for recipients of allo-HCT with potential bloodstream infections (PBIs). Read More

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Assessment of Methylene Chloride-Related Fatalities in the United States, 1980-2018.

JAMA Intern Med 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Program on Reproductive Health and the Environment, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco.

Importance: Methylene chloride is a halogenated organic solvent widely used in paint strippers, cleaners, adhesives, and sealants. Despite label warnings and occupational standards, methylene chloride-related fatalities continue to occur in the United States.

Objective: To identify and analyze methylene chloride-related fatalities in the US. Read More

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Material-assisted mass spectrometric analysis of low molecular weight compounds for biomedical applications.

J Mater Chem B 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

State Key Laboratory for Oncogenes and Related Genes, Division of Cardiology, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 160 Pujian Road, Shanghai, 200127, P. R. China and School of Biomedical Engineering, Institute of Medical Robotics and Med-X Research Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200030, P. R. China.

Low molecular weight compounds play an important role in encoding the current physiological state of an individual. Laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI MS) offers high sensitivity with low cost for molecular detection, but it is not able to cover small molecules due to the drawbacks of the conventional matrix. Advanced materials are better alternatives, showing little background interference and high LDI efficiency. Read More

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Education and training for preventing sharps injuries and splash exposures in healthcare workers.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 Apr 14;4:CD012060. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: In healthcare settings, health care workers (HCWs) are at risk of acquiring infectious diseases through sharps injuries and splash exposures to blood or bodily fluids. Education and training interventions are widely used to protect workers' health and safety and to prevent sharps injuries. In certain countries, they are part of obligatory professional development for HCWs. Read More

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Examining the extent and factors associated with interprofessional teamwork in primary care settings.

J Interprof Care 2021 Apr 17:1-12. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, Toronto, Canada.

Despite growing emphasis on adopting team-based models of primary care to facilitate patient access to a diverse range of care providers, our understanding of team functioning within primary care teams remains limited. This study examined interprofessional teamwork within primary care practices (Family Health Teams [FHT] and Community Health Centers - [CHC]) in Ontario and explored team-level and organizational factors associated with interprofessional teamwork. Interprofessional teamwork was measured using the Collaborative Practice Assessment Tool (CPAT), which was completed by providers in each participating team. Read More

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Occupational stress, burnout, and organizational readiness for change: A longitudinal study among HIV HCPs in China.

Psychol Health Med 2021 Apr 19:1-12. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Guangxi Center of Disease Control and Prevention, Nanning, Guangxi, China.

Literature suggests that organizational readiness for change (ORC) could facilitate adaptation and implementation of new projects or practices in clinical settings. Limited data are available regarding the longitudinal associations between ORC and psychosocial conditions of HCPs. Using six waves of longitudinal data collected between 2013 and 2016 from 357 HIV HCPs in Guangxi, China, we identify sociodemographic and occupational characteristics that impact ORC and examine how occupational stress and burnout affect ORC adjusting for potential cofounders. Read More

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Parental Depression and Contextual Selection: The Case of School Choice.

J Health Soc Behav 2021 Apr 19:221465211001058. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Parental depression constricts children's development, but the mechanisms implicated-beyond daily parenting tactics-remain unknown. Today, parents must evaluate and select environmental contexts for child-rearing within increasingly complex residential and educational markets. Depression may hamper parents' abilities to navigate this terrain, constraining information collection and impairing child-oriented decision-making. Read More

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Hydrogel-Based Stamping Technology for Solution-Free Blood Cell Staining.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Noul Co. Limited, B-10F, 338, Gwanggyojungang-ro, Suji-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 16942, Republic of Korea.

An accurate microscopical analysis of blood smears requires a reproducible and convenient method of staining. Solution-based staining procedures can be cumbersome. Especially in low- and middle-income countries, the lack of skilled technicians and adequate laboratory facilities, as well as insufficient water and reagent quality, often become confounding factors. Read More

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Review Article: Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids, Violence, and Crime: Two Cases and Literature Review.

Am J Addict 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background And Objectives: Anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use has become a major worldwide substance use disorder, affecting tens of millions of individuals. Importantly, it is now increasingly recognized that some individuals develop uncharacteristically violent or criminal behaviors when using AAS. We sought to summarize available information on this topic. Read More

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Probiotics for preventing gestational diabetes.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 Apr 19;4:CD009951. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Australia.

Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with a range of adverse pregnancy outcomes for mother and infant. The prevention of GDM using lifestyle interventions has proven difficult. The gut microbiome (the composite of bacteria present in the intestines) influences host inflammatory pathways, glucose and lipid metabolism and, in other settings, alteration of the gut microbiome has been shown to impact on these host responses. Read More

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COVID-19 and the Need for Global Critical Care Training. Why Ventilators Alone Are Not the Answer.

ATS Sch 2020 Oct 23;2(1):13-18. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

The current coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has unearthed many weaknesses in healthcare systems worldwide. In doing so, it has caused high-income countries to deal with the uncomfortable situation of resource allocation that has long been a daily occurrence in low- and middle-income countries. The shortage of equipment continues to be a major problem in low- and middle-income countries, but there is an even greater shortage of human resources in the form of trained individuals capable of caring for critically ill patients. Read More

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October 2020

Fellowship Education in Interstitial Lung Disease. A National Survey of Program Directors and Trainees.

ATS Sch 2020 Aug 13;1(4):384-394. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care, Department of Medicine, and.

Whether graduating pulmonary and critical care medicine (PCCM) fellows feel adequately trained in interstitial lung disease (ILD) remains unknown. In addition, there are no published data describing the current approach to educating trainees about ILD. To characterize the present state of ILD training during fellowship and to determine graduating PCCM fellows' perceived abilities to diagnose and manage ILD. Read More

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Communication Training in Adult and Pediatric Critical Care Medicine. A Systematic Review.

ATS Sch 2020 Jul 14;1(3):316-330. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri.

Interpersonal and communication skills are essential for physicians practicing in critical care settings. Accordingly, demonstration of these skills has been a core competency of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education since 2014. However, current practices regarding communication skills training in adult and pediatric critical care fellowships are not well described. Read More

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Mental health services in primary care: Evidence for the feasibility of telehealth during the COVID-19 pandemic.

J Affect Disord Rep 2021 Apr 14:100146. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Brown University Warren Alpert Medical School, Providence, RI United States.

Background: : This study examined the transition to telehealth services during the COVID-19 pandemic in terms of attendance rates, the provision of evidence-based interventions, and clinical outcomes.

Methods: : The feasibility of in-person versus telehealth visits for integrated primary care sessions was compared using chart review data. Data on patient characteristics, attendance, symptom severity and improvement, and evidence-based intervention use were collected for patients (N =173) from an integrated primary clinic that primarily serves a low-income, diverse sample of adults and children whose primary presenting problems are depression and anxiety. Read More

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Mobile health applications for disease screening and treatment support in low-and middle-income countries: A narrative review.

Heliyon 2021 Mar 31;7(3):e06639. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Discipline of Public Health Medicine, School of Nursing and Public Health, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

The advances in mobile technologies and applications are driving the transformation in health services delivery globally. Mobile phone penetration is increasing exponentially in low-and middle-income countries, hence using mobile phones for healthcare services could reach more people in resource-limited settings than the traditional forms of healthcare provision. The review presents recent literature on facilitators and barriers of implementing mHealth for disease screening and treatment support in low-and middle-income countries. Read More

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Detection of a novel insect-specific flavivirus across ecologically diverse populations of on the Caribbean island of Saint Lucia.

Wellcome Open Res 2020 25;5:149. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Disease Control, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, WC1E 7HT, UK.

. Outbreaks of mosquito-borne arboviral diseases including dengue virus (DENV), Zika virus (ZIKV), yellow fever virus (YFV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) have recently occurred in the Caribbean. The geographical range of the principle vectors responsible for transmission, and . Read More

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Transitional Shock of Multi-Nationality Newly Graduate Nurses in Kuwait.

SAGE Open Nurs 2021 Jan-Dec;7:2377960821998530. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Clinical Nursing Department, School of Nursing, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan.

Introduction: The transitional period of newly graduate nurses became more stressful, different coping mechanisms are essential. Therefore, effective coping with transition-related stress and anxiety is important for the life and professional of those nurses.

Objectives: To examine the transitional shock through assessing the occupational stress and coping mechanism of multi-nationality newly graduate nurses in Kuwait. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2, surgeons and surgical masks.

World J Clin Cases 2021 Apr;9(10):2170-2180

National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance, The Children's Hospital at Westmead, and the University of Sydney, Westmead 2145, New South Wales, Australia.

The exact risk association of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) for surgeons is not quantified which may be affected by their risk of exposure and individual factors. The objective of this review is to quantify the risk of COVID-19 among surgeons, and explore whether facemask can minimise the risk of COVID-19 among surgeons. A systematised review was carried out by searching MEDLINE to locate items on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 or COVID-19 in relation to health care workers (HCWs) especially those work in surgical specialities including surgical nurses and intensivists. Read More

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When Maintaining Relationships and Social Connectivity Matter: The Case of New Zealand Midwives and COVID-19.

Front Sociol 2021 16;6:614017. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Wellington School of Business and Government, Te Herenga Waka Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand.

New Zealand's response to COVID-19 was go hard and go early into Level 4 lockdown on 25 March 2020. This rapid response has resulted in low rates of infection and deaths. For New Zealand midwives, the sudden changes to how they work with women and families during pregnancy, birth and postnatally, especially in the community, required unprecedented innovation and adaptation. Read More

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Development and Dissemination of a Strengths-Based Indigenous Children's Storybook: "Our Smallest Warriors, Our Strongest Medicine: Overcoming COVID-19".

Front Sociol 2021 23;6:611356. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Center for American Indian Health, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, United States.

The traditions, strengths, and resilience of communities have carried Indigenous peoples for generations. However, collective traumatic memories of past infectious diseases and the current impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in many Indigenous communities point to the need for Indigenous strengths-based public health resources. Further, recent data suggest that COVID-19 is escalating mental health and psychosocial health inequities for Indigenous communities. Read More

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Breaching Trust: A Qualitative Study of Healthcare Experiences of People Who Use Drugs in a Rural Setting.

Front Sociol 2020 10;5:593925. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Section of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, IL, United States.

Increased drug use has disproportionately impacted rural areas across the U.S. People who use drugs are at risk of overdose and other medical complications, including infectious diseases. Read More

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November 2020

Are Women Really Less Competitive Than Men? Career Duration in Nordic and Alpine Skiing.

Front Sociol 2020 20;5:539766. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

School of Business and Economics, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

Do women shy away from competition while men compete too much? The available, mostly experimental evidence generally supports these assumptions. However, in contrast to laboratory settings, labor markets do not have random assignment of workers. Instead, individuals-professional athletes and corporate executives-self-select into specific occupations. Read More

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January 2021

Canine-Assisted Interventions in Hospitals: Best Practices for Maximizing Human and Canine Safety.

Front Vet Sci 2021 30;8:615730. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Center for Human-Animal Interaction, School of Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, United States.

Canine-assisted interventions (CAI) are becoming more popular in hospital settings, representing a crucial intersection between animals, veterinary medicine, and society. However, standardized policies and procedures to minimize risk and maximize benefit to vulnerable humans and protect therapy dog welfare are lacking, posing a challenge to safe practice. Few intervention programs are evaluated to document efficacy compounding the potential risk. Read More

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