946 results match your criteria scenario lowest


HDI, Technological and Human Resources in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Malformations of the Circulatory System in Brazil.

Arq Bras Cardiol 2021 Jul;117(1):63-71

Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ - Brasil.

Background: In 2015, the number of infants with congenital malformations (CMs) per 100 000 live births (LBs) was 2368 (7.6%) worldwide, of whom 10.6% died in the first year of life, 43% due to malformations of the circulatory system (MCSs), a scenario similar to what occurs in Brazil. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

An Economic Analysis of the Impact of Homecare Drug Administration for Biologic Interventions Available for Plaque Psoriasis in the UK.

Dermatol Ther (Heidelb) 2021 Jul 23:1-8. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

York Health Economics Consortium, York, UK.

Introduction: In the UK, biologic interventions for plaque psoriasis can either be administered in a hospital setting or following delivery to a patient's home. To date, limited research has been undertaken on how the administration route affects the overall treatment costs and the implications for this on UK clinical practice. The objective was to explore the cost implications of different administration routes for plaque psoriasis biologic interventions in the UK. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Review: Trends for meat, milk and egg consumption for the next decades and the role played by livestock systems in the global production of proteins.

Animal 2021 Jul 23:100287. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Teagasc Food Research Centre, Ashtown, Dublin 15 D15 KN3K, Ireland.

Meeting the food demands of a growing global population within planetary boundaries is a challenge. Sustainably producing animal-sourced foods while supplying sufficient protein to meet the requirements of a healthy diet is a particular challenge. This paper informs the development of pathways to sustainable animal production by examining trends in animal-sourced foods since 2000, including the significance of animal- relative to plant-protein sources. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

An Economic Analysis of the Impact of Homecare Drug Administration for Biologic Interventions Available for Plaque Psoriasis in the UK.

Dermatol Ther (Heidelb) 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

York Health Economics Consortium, York, UK.

Introduction: In the UK, biologic interventions for plaque psoriasis can either be administered in a hospital setting or following delivery to a patient's home. To date, limited research has been undertaken on how the administration route affects the overall treatment costs and the implications for this on UK clinical practice. The objective was to explore the cost implications of different administration routes for plaque psoriasis biologic interventions in the UK. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

BRIDGING THE GAP BETWEEN PILOT AND SCALE-UP: A MODEL OF ANTENATAL TESTING FOR CURABLE SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS FROM BOTSWANA.

Sex Transm Dis 2021 Jul 24. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Assistant Professor, Division of Infectious Diseases and Global Health, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego Assistant Professor, Fielding School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, USA Associate Professor, Division of Infectious Diseases and Global Health, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA USA Senior Research Associate, Botswana Harvard Aids Institute Partnership Sexual & Reproductive Health Lead Physician, Botswana UPenn Partnership Professor (Hon), Women's Health Research Unit, Division of Social/Behavioural Sciences, School of Public Health, UCT Clinical Reader in International Sexual and Reproductive Health, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine Deputy Director, UK Faculty of Sexual and Reproductive Health Care Clinical Effectiveness Unit Deputy Dean of Research and Graduate Studies, Faculty of Medicine, University of Botswana, Acting Dean, School of Medicine, University of Botswana Professor, Fielding School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, USA Professor Emeritus, Luskin School of Public Policy, University of California, Los Angeles, USA.

Introduction: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) are common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) associated with adverse outcomes - yet most countries do not test and conduct syndromic management, which lacks sensitivity and specificity. Innovations allow for expanded STI testing; however, cost is a barrier.

Methods: Using inputs from a pilot program in Botswana, we developed a model among a hypothetical population of 50,000 pregnant women to compare one-year costs and outcomes associated with three antenatal STI testing strategies: 1) point-of-care, 2) centralized laboratory hubs, and 3) a mixed approach (point-of-care at high-volume sites, and hubs elsewhere); and syndromic management. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[Vehicle Air Pollutant Emission Inventory and Characterization in Henan Province from 2016 to 2019].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2021 Aug;42(8):3663-3675

College of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China.

Based on the collected urban motor vehicle activity ownership and traffic flow of highways, combined with the mileage and source profiles of VOCs, using the emission factor method, we established high-resolution emission inventories from 2016 to 2019 for urban and 2016-based highway motor vehicles, respectively, in Henan Province, China. The results showed that gasoline vehicles, particularly minibuses and ordinary motorcycles, were the main contributors of CO, VOCs, and NH, whereas heavy-duty and light-duty diesel trucks emitted SO, NO, and PM. Vehicles with China 1, China 3, and China 4 emission standards contributed significantly to pollutant emissions in the fleet. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[Analysis of Ultraviolet Aerosol Index in Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2021 Aug;42(8):3652-3662

Key Laboratory of Resource Environment and Sustainable Development of Oasis, Gansu Province, College of Geography and Environmental Science, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, China.

This study examines the current aerosol pollution scenario in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao (GHM) Greater Bay Area, based on OMAERUV daily data products, to define the spatial and temporal distribution from 2008 to 2019 and predict variation trends of the ultraviolet aerosol index (UVAI). Changes and potential source areas were analyzed, and their influencing factors were identified. The annual time series of UVAI in the GHM Greater Bay Area showed a downward trend, with an average annual decrease of 2. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cost and greenhouse gas emissions of current, healthy, flexitarian and vegan diets in Aotearoa (New Zealand).

BMJ Nutr Prev Health 2021 9;4(1):275-284. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Population Health, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

Objective: To compare the costs and climate impact (greenhouse gas emissions) associated with current and healthy diets and two healthy and environmentally friendly dietary patterns: flexitarian and vegan.

Design: Modelling study.

Setting: Aotearoa (New Zealand). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Automatic Prediction of Recurrence of Major Cardiovascular Events: A Text Mining Study Using Chest X-Ray Reports.

J Healthc Eng 2021 9;2021:6663884. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Methodology and Statistics, Faculty of Social Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.

Methods: We used EHR data of patients included in the Second Manifestations of ARTerial disease (SMART) study. We propose a deep learning-based multimodal architecture for our text mining pipeline that integrates neural text representation with preprocessed clinical predictors for the prediction of recurrence of major cardiovascular events in cardiovascular patients. Text preprocessing, including cleaning and stemming, was first applied to filter out the unwanted texts from X-ray radiology reports. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A two-stage Bayesian adaptive design for minimum effective dose (MinED)-based dosing-finding trials.

Contemp Clin Trials 2021 Jul 22;108:106504. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA. Electronic address:

Conventional phase I designs for finding a phase II recommended dose (P2RD) based on toxicity alone is problematic because the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) is not necessarily the optimal dose. Instead, recently attention has been given to find the minimum effective dose (MinED) - defined as the lowest effective dose. Traditional paradigms for the MinED studies are conducted as dose-ranging or dose-response trials which involve several doses and randomize patients among doses to find the MinED. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Energy, environment and economy assessment of medical waste disposal technologies in China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 9;796:148964. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

College of Energy and Safety Engineering, Tianjin Chengjian University, Tianjin 300384, China; Tianjin Key Laboratory of Building Green Functional Materials, Tianjin 300384, China.

Medical waste (MW) has exploded since the COVID-19 pandemic and aroused great concern to MW disposal. Meanwhile, the energy recovery for MW disposal is necessary due to high heat value of MW. Harmless disposal of MW with economically and environmentally sustainable technologies along with higher energy recovery is urgently required, and their energy recovery efficiencies and environmental impacts reduction due to energy recovery are key issues. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Africa and the Nexus of poverty, malnutrition and diseases.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Jul 14:1-16. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Food Science & Technology, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria.

This review examines the nexus of poverty, malnutrition and diseases in Africa, the challenges, implications and their mitigation. The paper takes a critical look at available literatures on the primary causes, modes, implications and solutions to the problems of poverty, malnutrition and diseases in Africa continent. Poverty and malnutrition are outcomes of uncontrolled rapid population growth, inefficient agricultural and industrial practices, high debt profile of many African countries due to poor governance and corruption, diseases such as AIDS epidemic, malaria, Ebola virus and COVID-19 pandemic, poor and inadequate health infrastructure and armed conflicts. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Health and environmental impacts of drinking water choices in Barcelona, Spain: A modelling study.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 5;795:148884. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

ISGlobal, Barcelona, Spain; CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain; Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), Barcelona, Spain.

Quantitative evidence of health and environmental tradeoffs between individuals' drinking water choices is needed to inform decision-making. We evaluated health and environmental impacts of drinking water choices using health impact and life cycle assessment (HIA, LCA) methodologies applied to data from Barcelona, Spain. We estimated the health and environmental impacts of four drinking water scenarios for the Barcelona population: 1) currently observed drinking water sources; a complete shift to 2) tap water; 3) bottled water; or 4) filtered tap water. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Charging Strategies to Minimize Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Electrified Delivery Vehicles.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Jul 9;55(14):10108-10120. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Center for Sustainable Systems, School for Environment and Sustainability, University of Michigan, 440 Church Street, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, United States.

Electrification of delivery fleets has emerged as an important opportunity to reduce the transportation sector's environmental impact, including reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. When, where, and how vehicles are charged, however, impact the reduction potential. Not only does the carbon intensity of the grid vary across time and space, but charging decisions also influence battery degradation rates, resulting in more or less frequent battery replacement. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Evaluating Point-of-Care Nucleic Acid Tests in Adult Human Immunodeficiency Virus Diagnostic Strategies: A Côte d'Ivoire Modeling Analysis.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2021 Jun 13;8(6):ofab225. Epub 2021 May 13.

Medical Practice Evaluation Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnostic strategy requires 6 rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). Point-of-care nucleic acid tests (POC NATs) are costlier, less sensitive, but more specific than RDTs.

Methods: We simulated a 1-time screening process in Côte d'Ivoire (CI; undiagnosed prevalence: 1. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Trends and projections of caesarean section rates: global and regional estimates.

BMJ Glob Health 2021 06;6(6)

Ministry of Education-Shanghai Key Laboratory of Children's Environmental Health, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: The caesarean section (CS) rate continues to increase across high-income, middle-income and low-income countries. We present current global and regional CS rates, trends since 1990 and projections for 2030.

Methods: We obtained nationally representative data on the CS rate from countries worldwide from 1990 to 2018. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

What is the burden of heterosexually-acquired HIV due to HSV-2? Global and regional model-based estimates of the proportion and number of HIV infections attributable to HSV-2 infection.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

MRC Centre for Global Infectious Disease Analysis, School of Public Health, Imperial College London. Department of Respiratory Sciences, University of Leicester. London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom Department of Sexual and Reproductive Health and Research, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Occupational Health, McGill University, Montréal (QC), Canada Bristol Veterinary School, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom Population Health Sciences, Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.

Background: Biological and epidemiological evidence suggest that herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) elevates HIV acquisition and transmission risk. We improved previous estimates of the contribution of HSV-2 to HIV infections by using a dynamic-transmission model.

Setting: WHO regions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Evolution and connectivity influence the persistence and recovery of coral reefs under climate change in the Caribbean, Southwest Pacific, and Coral Triangle.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Natural Resources, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA.

Corals are experiencing unprecedented decline from climate change-induced mass bleaching events. Dispersal not only contributes to coral reef persistence through demographic rescue but can also hinder or facilitate evolutionary adaptation. Locations of reefs that are likely to survive future warming therefore remain largely unknown, particularly within the context of both ecological and evolutionary processes across complex seascapes that differ in temperature range, strength of connectivity, network size, and other characteristics. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Adherence to Personal Protective Equipment Guidelines During the COVID-19 Pandemic Among Health-Care Personnel: A Louisiana Case Study.

Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2021 Jun 8:1-4. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the extent that appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE), per Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidance, was used during the coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic by health-care personnel (HCP) in Louisiana in 5 clinical settings.

Methods: An online questionnaire was distributed to the LA Nursery registry. Appropriate use of PPE in each of the 5 clinical scenarios was defined by the authors based on CDC guidelines. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cost-effectiveness of bariatric surgery and non-surgical weight management programmes for adults with severe obesity: a decision analysis model.

Int J Obes (Lond) 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Health Psychology, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK.

Objectives: To determine the most cost-effective weight management programmes (WMPs) for adults, in England with severe obesity (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m), who are more at risk of obesity related diseases.

Methods: An economic evaluation of five different WMPs: 1) low intensity (WMP1); 2) very low calorie diets (VLCD) added to WMP1; 3) moderate intensity (WMP2); 4) high intensity (Look AHEAD); and 5) Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, all compared to a baseline scenario representing no WMP. We also compare a VLCD added to WMP1 vs. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Continent-Wide Analysis of COVID 19: Total Cases, Deaths, Tests, Socio-Economic, and Morbidity Factors Associated to the Mortality Rate, and Forecasting Analysis in 2020-2021.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 May 18;18(10). Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Bahrain, Sakhir 32038, Bahrain.

Background: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first reported in China in December 2019 and has become a pandemic that resulted in more than one million deaths and infected over 35 million people worldwide. In this study, a continent-wide analysis of COVID-19 cases from 31st December 2019 to 14th June 2020 was performed along with socio-economic factors associated with mortality rates as well as a predicted future scenario of COVID-19 cases until the end of 2020.

Methods: Epidemiological and statistical tools such as linear regression, Pearson's correlation analysis, and the Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model were used in this study. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Assessment of alkaline stabilization processes in industrial waste streams using a model-based approach.

J Environ Manage 2021 Sep 21;293:112806. Epub 2021 May 21.

Process and Systems Engineering Centre (PROSYS), Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark. Building, 229, DK-2800, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark. Electronic address:

Chemical conditioning prior to disposal is a common practice in biotech companies to stabilize the biological waste generated during production. Nevertheless, the state of the art models used to analyze management strategies in water treatment systems (WTS) do not include the effect of high alkaline conditions during bio-solids processing. In this paper, the prediction capabilities of a novel model-based approach describing the effect of quicklime addition (CaO) on the waste streams of an industrial WTS is assessed. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Effect of extreme temperature changes on phenolic, flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity of tomato seedlings ( L.).

PeerJ 2021 12;9:e11193. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Entomology, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza, Greater Cairo, Egypt.

Background: Climatic changes are the most important abiotic factor affecting plant growth, crop quality and nutritional value. Plants exposed to thermal stress respond by accumulation of secondary metabolites/molecules (SMs). Tomato () is a cosmopolitan crop, eaten by most of the world's people because it is highly nutritious plant. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Biomarkers of exposure and effect in the armoured catfish Hoplosternum littorale during a rice production cycle.

Environ Pollut 2021 May 13;287:117356. Epub 2021 May 13.

Instituto Nacional de Limnología (CONICET-UNL), Ciudad Universitaria, 3000, Santa Fe, Argentina; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Argentina; Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias (FHUC-UNL), Ciudad Universitaria, 3000, Santa Fe, Argentina. Electronic address:

Fish cultivation in rice fields is a valuable resource in some rural areas of the world. Fish is a source of protein and an additional source of income for local farmers. However, the use of pesticides may impact fish and consumer health. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Left Ventricular Assist Device Multialarm Emergency: A High-Fidelity Simulation Case for Emergency Medicine Residents.

MedEdPORTAL 2021 05 5;17:11156. Epub 2021 May 5.

Assistant Residency Program Director, Department of Emergency Medicine, Stony Brook University Hospital.

Introduction: As left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) become more prevalent in the treatment of patients with end-stage heart failure, emergency physicians must become experts in the management and resuscitation of patients with LVADs. As with other high-acuity, low-occurrence scenarios, managing the unstable LVAD patient makes for an ideal topic for simulation-based resident education.

Methods: By incorporating a high-fidelity HeartMate 3 LVAD task trainer, our program developed and executed a novel LVAD simulation activity for our emergency medicine resident physicians. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Can the Macula be Attached if View Is Obscured by a Bullous Retinal Detachment? A Mathematical Consideration.

Transl Vis Sci Technol 2021 04;10(4):13

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, Miami, FL, USA.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if it is possible for the macula to remain attached if a bullous retinal detachment blocks the examiner's view to the macula.

Methods: A mathematical analysis compared the arc length of the attached retina versus the length of a detached retina necessary to obscure the macula (hang over the visual axis). The shape (oblate ellipsoid) and dimensions of the retina were based on a published study. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

LCA and economic study on the local oxygen supply in Central Europe during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 29;786:147401. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Energy and Fuels, Department of Coal Chemistry and Environmental Sciences, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland. Electronic address:

Medical oxygen is the key to survival for COVID-19 patients. To meet the pandemic-driven oxygen demand spike, local hospitals began searching for a suitable medical oxygen delivery system. Among the studies published on the impact of COVID-19 on a range of aspects, including the global economy and the environment, no study has been conducted on the environmental impact of medical oxygen supply to hospitals under epidemic conditions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Effectiveness of genomic selection for improving provitamin A carotenoid content and associated traits in cassava.

G3 (Bethesda) 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

National Crops Resources Research Institute, 9 km Gayaza-Zirobwe Road, Kampala, Uganda.

Global efforts are underway to develop cassava with enhanced levels of provitamin A carotenoids to sustainably meet increasing demands for food and nutrition where the crop is a major staple. Herein, we tested the effectiveness of genomic selection for rapid improvement of cassava for total carotenoids content and associated traits. We evaluated 632 clones from Uganda's provitamin A cassava breeding pipeline and 648 West African introductions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Competitive gene flow does not necessarily maximize the genetic gain of genomic breeding programs in the presence of genotype-by-environment interaction.

J Dairy Sci 2021 Jul 30;104(7):8122-8134. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Center for Quantitative Genetics and Genomics, Aarhus University, Blichers Alle 20, 8830 Tjele, Denmark; Danish Pig Research Centre, SEGES, Axeltorv 3, 1609 Copenhagen V, Denmark.

National and international across-population selection is often recommended and fairly common in the current breeding practice of dairy cattle, with the primary aims to increase genetic gain and genetic variability. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the strategy of truncation selection of sires across populations [i.e. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF