13,617 results match your criteria scavenger receptor

Virus-Derived Peptides for Hepatic Enzyme Delivery.

Mol Pharm 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Basel, Basel 4056, Switzerland.

Recently, a lipopeptide derived from the hepatitis B virus (HBV) large surface protein has been developed as an HBV entry inhibitor. This lipopeptide, called MyrcludexB (MyrB), selectively binds to the sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) on the basolateral membrane of hepatocytes. Here, the feasibility of coupling therapeutic enzymes to MyrB was investigated for the development of enzyme delivery strategies. Read More

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Ferritinophagy is involved in the zinc oxide nanoparticles-induced ferroptosis of vascular endothelial cells.

Autophagy 2021 Apr 12:1-20. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

College of Pharmacy, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People's Republic of China.

Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) hold great promise for biomedical applications. Previous studies have revealed that ZnONPs exposure can induce toxicity in endothelial cells, but the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we report that ZnONPs can induce ferroptosis of both HUVECs and EA. Read More

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Mechanism of Cdk5-synaptophysin-SNARE pathway in acute and chronic inflammatory pain.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(3):1075-1084. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Pain Management, Hebei General Hospital Shijiazhuang 050051, Hebei Province, China.

Purpose: Currently, there is no favorable treatment plan for inflammatory pain, so exploring new analgesics is still a research hotspot in this area. Cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a pain-related protein kinase, but its mechanism in inflammatory pain has not been clarified. This research aimed to explore the mechanism of Cdk5-synaptophysin (Syn)-soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitivity factor (NSF) attachment protein receptor (SNARE) in acute and chronic inflammatory pain. Read More

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Stabilin-1 is required for the endothelial clearance of small anionic nanoparticles.

Nanomedicine 2021 Apr 7:102395. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Supramolecular & Biomaterials Chemistry, Leiden Institute of Chemistry (LIC), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9502, 2300, RA, Leiden, The Netherlands; Division of BioTherapeutics, Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research (LACDR), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9502, 2300, RA, Leiden, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Clearance of nanoparticles (NPs) after intravenous injection - mainly by the liver - is a critical barrier for the clinical translation of nanomaterials. Physicochemical properties of NPs are known to influence their distribution through cell-specific interactions; however, the molecular mechanisms responsible for liver cellular NP uptake are poorly understood. Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and Kupffer cells are critical participants in this clearance process. Read More

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Apolipoprotein M promotes cholesterol uptake and efflux from mouse macrophages.

FEBS Open Bio 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Clinical Medical Research Center, Third Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Changzhou, 213003, China.

Apolipoprotein M (ApoM) exhibits various anti-atherosclerotic functions as a component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles. Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) is a classic HDL receptor that mediates selective cholesterol uptake and enhances the efflux of cellular cholesterol to HDL. However, the effect of ApoM on cholesterol transport in macrophages remains unclear. Read More

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C-Phycocyanin-derived Phycocyanobilin as a Potential Nutraceutical Approach for Major Neurodegenerative Disorders and COVID-19-induced Damage to the Nervous System.

Curr Neuropharmacol 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Catalytic Longevity Foundation, 811 B Nahant Ct. San Diego, CA 92019. United States.

The edible cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis and its chief biliprotein C-Phycocyanin have shown protective activity in animal models of diverse human health diseases, often reflecting antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. The beneficial effects of C-Phycocyanin seem likely to be primarily attributable to its covalently attached chromophore Phycocyanobilin (PCB). Within cells, biliverdin is generated from free heme and it is subsequently reduced to bilirubin. Read More

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New scavenger to fine-tune insulin action in β cells.

Cell Metab 2021 Apr;33(4):707-708

Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 630 West 168(th) Street, New York, NY 10032, USA. Electronic address:

Insulin receptor signaling is crucial for β cell homeostasis. In a recent issue of Nature, Ansarullah et al. (2021) have identified the insulin inhibitory receptor (inceptor), which balances insulin signaling by promoting insulin receptor internalization. Read More

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The adaptor protein GIPC1 stabilizes the scavenger receptor SR-B1 and increases its cholesterol uptake.

J Biol Chem 2021 Mar 31:100616. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Molecular and Medical Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, 1 Wen Yuan Road, Nanjing, China 210023. Electronic address:

The scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-B1), a high-density lipoprotein (HDL) receptor, is a membrane glycoprotein that mediates selective uptake of HDL-cholesterol and cholesterol ester (CE) into cells. SR-B1 is subject to posttranslational regulation, however, the underlying mechanism(s) still remain obscure. Here, we identified a novel SR-B1-interacting protein, GIPC1 (GAIP-interacting protein, C terminus 1), that interacts with SR-B1 and stabilizes SR-B1 by negative regulation of its proteasomal and lysosomal degradation pathways. Read More

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Transcriptome of microglia reveals a species-specific expression profile in bovines with conserved and new signature genes.

Glia 2021 Apr 3. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Clinical Research and Veterinary Public Health, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Evidence is growing that microglia adopt different roles than monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) during CNS injury. However, knowledge about their function in the pathogenesis of neuroinfections is only rudimentary. Cattle are frequently affected by neuroinfections that are either zoonotic or related to diseases in humans, and, hence, studies of bovine neuroinfections as a natural disease model may generate fundamental data on their pathogenesis potentially translatable to humans. Read More

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Single-Cell Expression Landscape of SARS-CoV-2 Receptor and Host Proteases in Normal and Malignant Lung Tissues from Pulmonary Adenocarcinoma Patients.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Mar 12;13(6). Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Translational Molecular Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent of the COVID-19 pandemic. Severely symptomatic COVID-19 is associated with lung inflammation, pneumonia, and respiratory failure, thereby raising concerns of elevated risk of COVID-19-associated mortality among lung cancer patients. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the major receptor for SARS-CoV-2 entry into lung cells. Read More

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Functional and Transcriptional Adaptations of Blood Monocytes Recruited to the Cystic Fibrosis Airway Microenvironment In Vitro.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 3;22(5). Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.

Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease is dominated by the recruitment of myeloid cells (neutrophils and monocytes) from the blood which fail to clear the lung of colonizing microbes. In prior in vitro studies, we showed that blood neutrophils migrated through the well-differentiated lung epithelium into the CF airway fluid supernatant (ASN) mimic the dysfunction of CF airway neutrophils in vivo, including decreased bactericidal activity despite an increased metabolism. Here, we hypothesized that, in a similar manner to neutrophils, blood monocytes undergo significant adaptations upon recruitment to CFASN. Read More

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Sea Anemone Kunitz-Type Peptides Demonstrate Neuroprotective Activity in the 6-Hydroxydopamine Induced Neurotoxicity Model.

Biomedicines 2021 Mar 10;9(3). Epub 2021 Mar 10.

G.B. Elyakov Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 159 Pr. 100 let Vladivostoku, 690022 Vladivostok, Russia.

Kunitz-type peptides from venomous animals have been known to inhibit different proteinases and also to modulate ion channels and receptors, demonstrating analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-histamine and many other biological activities. At present, there is evidence of their neuroprotective effects. We have studied eight Kunitz-type peptides of the sea anemone to find molecules with cytoprotective activity in the 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity model on neuroblastoma Neuro-2a cells. Read More

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CXCL10 Is an Agonist of the CC Family Chemokine Scavenger Receptor ACKR2/D6.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Mar 2;13(5). Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Infection and Immunity, Immuno-Pharmacology and Interactomics, Luxembourg Institute of Health (LIH), L-4354 Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg.

Atypical chemokine receptors (ACKRs) are important regulators of chemokine functions. Among them, the atypical chemokine receptor ACKR2 (also known as D6) has long been considered as a scavenger of inflammatory chemokines exclusively from the CC family. In this study, by using highly sensitive β-arrestin recruitment assays based on NanoBiT and NanoBRET technologies, we identified the inflammatory CXC chemokine CXCL10 as a new strong agonist ligand for ACKR2. Read More

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The Roles of Superoxide on At-Level Spinal Cord Injury Pain in Rats.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 6;22(5). Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Department of Physiology, College of Korean Medicine, Daegu Haany University, Daegu 42158, Korea.

Background: In the present study, we examined superoxide-mediated excitatory nociceptive transmission on at-level neuropathic pain following spinal thoracic 10 contusion injury (SCI) in male Sprague Dawley rats.

Methods: Mechanical sensitivity at body trunk, neuronal firing activity, and expression of superoxide marker/ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs)/CamKII were measured in the T7/8 dorsal horn, respectively.

Results: Topical treatment of superoxide donor t-BOOH (0. Read More

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FOXO regulates the expression of antimicrobial peptides and promotes phagocytosis of hemocytes in shrimp antibacterial immunity.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Apr 2;17(4):e1009479. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Cells and Developmental Biology, School of Life Sciences, Shandong University, Qingdao, Shandong, China.

Invertebrates rely on innate immunity, including humoral and cellular immunity, to resist pathogenic infection. Previous studies showed that forkhead box transcription factor O (FOXO) participates in mucosal immune responses of mammals and the gut humoral immune regulation of invertebrates. However, whether FOXO is involved in systemic and cellular immunity regulation in invertebrates remains unknown. Read More

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Atherosclerosis: Conventional intake of cardiovascular drugs versus delivery using nanotechnology - A new chance for causative therapy?

J Control Release 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Regensburg, Universitätsstraße 31, 93053 Regensburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death in developed countries. The pathogenetic mechanism relies on a macrophage-based immune reaction to low density lipoprotein (LDL) deposition in blood vessels with dysfunctional endothelia. Thus, atherosclerosis is defined as a chronic inflammatory disease. Read More

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The P2X Receptor in Microglial Cells Modulates the Endolysosomal Axis, Autophagy, and Phagocytosis.

Front Cell Neurosci 2021 15;15:645244. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Basic and Translational Science, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States.

Microglial cells regulate neural homeostasis by coordinating both immune responses and clearance of debris, and the P2X receptor for extracellular ATP plays a central role in both functions. The P2X receptor is primarily known in microglial cells for its immune signaling and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. However, the receptor also affects the clearance of extracellular and intracellular debris through modifications of lysosomal function, phagocytosis, and autophagy. Read More

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Glycoursodeoxycholic Acid Ameliorates Atherosclerosis and Alters Gut Microbiota in Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Mice.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Apr 31;10(7):e019820. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Division of Vascular Surgery First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University Guangzhou China.

Background Although glycoursodeoxycholic acid (GUDCA) has been associated with the improvement of metabolic disorders, its effect on atherosclerosis remains elusive. This study aimed to investigate the role of GUDCA in the development of atherosclerosis and its potential mechanisms. Methods and Results Human THP-1 macrophages were used to investigate the effect of GUDCA on oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced foam cell formation in vitro. Read More

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Proteomics of serum extracellular vesicles identifies a novel COPD biomarker, fibulin-3 from elastic fibres.

ERJ Open Res 2021 Jan 22;7(1). Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Dept of Respiratory Medicine and Clinical Immunology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka, Japan.

There is an unmet need for novel biomarkers in the diagnosis of multifactorial COPD. We applied next-generation proteomics to serum extracellular vesicles (EVs) to discover novel COPD biomarkers. EVs from 10 patients with COPD and six healthy controls were analysed by tandem mass tag-based non-targeted proteomics, and those from elastase-treated mouse models of emphysema were also analysed by non-targeted proteomics. Read More

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January 2021

Circulating CD36 is increased in hyperlipidemic mice: Cellular sources and triggers of release.

Free Radic Biol Med 2021 Mar 26;168:180-188. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Inflammation and Immunity, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, OH, 44195, USA. Electronic address:

CD36 is a multifunctional transmembrane glycoprotein abundantly expressed in several cell types. Recent studies have identified CD36 in circulation (cCD36) in several chronic inflammatory diseases, including type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease, and proposed cCD36 to be a biomarker of disease activity. Whether cCD36 is present in hyperlipidemia, a condition characterized by oxidative stress and low-grade inflammation, is not known. Read More

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Critical contribution of macrophage scavenger receptor 1 to the uptake of nanostructured DNA by immune cells.

Nanomedicine 2021 Mar 24:102386. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Biopharmaceutics and Drug Metabolism, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan; Laboratory of Biopharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo University of Science, Noda, Chiba 278-8501, Japan. Electronic address:

Despite the efficient uptake of polypod-like nanostructured DNA, or polypodna, by macrophage-like RAW264.7 and other immune cells, the detailed mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Our previous study using HEK-Blue hTLR9 cells showed that transfection of macrophage scavenger receptor 1 (MSR1) increased the uptake of tetrapod-like structured DNA. Read More

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CXCR4 promotes B cell viability by the cooperation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α under hypoxic conditions.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Mar 26;12(4):330. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Sejong University, Seoul, 05006, Republic of Korea.

B cells that interact with T cells play a role in regulating the defense function by producing antibodies and inflammatory cytokines. C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) is a specific receptor for stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) that controls various B cell functions. Here, we investigated whether CXCR4 regulates B cell viability by inducing hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) under a hypoxic condition in WiL2-NS human B cells. Read More

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Cigarette smoke extract stimulates PCSK9 production in HepG2 cells via ROS/NF‑κB signaling.

Mol Med Rep 2021 May 24;23(5). Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Vascular Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730, P.R. China.

Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure is a risk factor for dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis. Reduced expression of low‑density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) in hepatocytes may be one of the underlying mechanisms for these disorders. The aim of the present study was to investigate the molecular mechanism underlying the regulatory effect of CS extract (CSE) on proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) and low LDLR expression in HepG2 cells. Read More

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The role of macrophage scavenger receptor 1 (Msr1) in prion pathogenesis.

J Mol Med (Berl) 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

School of Basic Medical Sciences, Fudan University, Dong'An Road 130, Shanghai, 200032, China.

The progression of prion diseases is accompanied by the accumulation of prions in the brain. Ablation of microglia enhances prion accumulation and accelerates disease progression, suggesting that microglia play a neuroprotective role by clearing prions. However, the mechanisms underlying the phagocytosis and clearance of prion are largely unknown. Read More

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SCARA5 inhibits gastric cancer progression via epithelial-mesenchymal transition suppression.

J Cancer 2021 1;12(8):2412-2421. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Diagnostic Pathology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Weifang Medical University, Shandong Province, China.

Scavenger receptor class A member 5 (SCARA5) has been reported to be implicated in several types of cancer. However, its biological roles and mechanism of SCARA5 in gastric cancer (GC) have not been elucidated. In the present study, SCARA5 expression was found to be downregulated in GC which was associated with promoter methylation. Read More

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Angiodiversity and organotypic functions of sinusoidal endothelial cells.

Angiogenesis 2021 Mar 21. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Division of Vascular Oncology and Metastasis, German Cancer Research Center Heidelberg (DKFZ-ZMBH Alliance), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany.

'Angiodiversity' refers to the structural and functional heterogeneity of endothelial cells (EC) along the segments of the vascular tree and especially within the microvascular beds of different organs. Organotypically differentiated EC ranging from continuous, barrier-forming endothelium to discontinuous, fenestrated endothelium perform organ-specific functions such as the maintenance of the tightly sealed blood-brain barrier or the clearance of macromolecular waste products from the peripheral blood by liver EC-expressed scavenger receptors. The microvascular bed of the liver, composed of discontinuous, fenestrated liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC), is a prime example of organ-specific angiodiversity. Read More

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Long lasting protective effects of early l-arginine treatment on endothelium in an in vitro study.

Clin Nutr 2021 Mar 3;40(4):1519-1529. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Cardio-Diabetes and Core Lab Unit, Diabetes Research Institute, Department of Internal Medicine, IRCCS San Raffaele Institute, Via Olgettina 60, 20132, Milan, Italy; Cardio-Metabolism and Clinical Trials Unit, Diabetes Research Institute, Department of Internal Medicine, IRCCS San Raffaele Institute, Via Olgettina 60, 20132, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Excess nutrient supply, such as high fat and high glucose intake, promotes oxidative stress and advanced glycation end products accumulation. Oxidative stress and AGE accumulation cause pathological elevation of arginase activity and pro-inflammatory signaling implicated in endothelial dysfunction. Several studies showed positive effects of l-arginine supplementation in endothelial function but little is currently known about the role of l-arginine as prevention of endothelial dysfunction caused by excessive nutrient supply (overfeeding). Read More

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Lipid Metabolism in Tumor-Associated Natural Killer Cells.

Yu Chen Meihua Sui

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1316:71-85

School of Basic Medical Sciences and Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine; Cancer Center, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Accumulative data demonstrate that during the initiation and progression of tumors, several types of cellular components in tumor microenvironment, including tumor cells and immune cells, exhibit malfunctions in cellular energy metabolism. For instance, lipid metabolism impairments in immune cells are crucial in coordinating immunosuppression and tumor immune escape. In particular, excessive lipids have been shown to exhibit negative effects on innate immunity. Read More

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Insulin Rescued MCP-1-Suppressed Cholesterol Efflux to Large HDL2 Particles via ABCA1, ABCG1, SR-BI and PI3K/Akt Activation in Adipocytes.

Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 2021 Mar 19. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Cardiology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, No. 107, the West of Yanjiang Road, Yuexiu District, Guangzhou, 510120, China.

Purpose: Intracellular cholesterol imbalance plays an important role in adipocyte dysfunction of obesity. However, it is unclear whether obesity induced monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) causes the adipocyte cholesterol imbalance. In this study, we hypothesize that MCP-1 impairs cholesterol efflux of adipocytes to HDL2 and insulin rescues this process. Read More

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