2,538 results match your criteria scavenged 10 μm


Echinacea purpurea polysaccharide prepared by fractional precipitation prevents alcoholic liver injury in mice by protecting the intestinal barrier and regulating liver-related pathways.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China; Synergetic Innovation Center for Food Safety and Nutrition, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China. Electronic address:

Oxidative damage and intestinal dysbiosis are regarded as crucial culprits in alcoholic liver disease (ALD). This study aimed to examine the protective effects of Echinacea purpurea polysaccharides (EPPs) against ALD and explore the underlying mechanisms based on hepatic oxidative stress, inflammation, and intestinal barrier function. Three polysaccharide fractions, namely, EPP40, EPP60, and EPP80, were obtained by stepwise ethanol precipitation, and their antioxidant activity in vitro was investigated. Read More

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Does -Butyl Alcohol Really Terminate the Oxidative Activity of OH in Inorganic Redox Chemistry?

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri 63130, United States.

The hydroxyl radical, OH, is one of the most reactive free radicals and plays significant roles in the oxidative degradation of organic pollutants and the electron transfer of inorganic ions in natural and engineered environmental processes. To quantitatively determine the contribution of OH to oxidative reactions, a specific scavenger, such as -butyl alcohol (TBA), is usually added to eliminate OH effects. Although TBA is commonly assumed to transform OH into oxidatively inert products, this study demonstrates that utilizing TBA as an OH scavenger generates the secondary peroxyl radical (ROO), influencing the oxidation of transition metals, such as Mn. Read More

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Organic Matter from Redoximorphic Soils Accelerates and Sustains Microbial Fe(III) Reduction.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Institute of Geosciences, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Burgweg 11, D-07749 Jena, Germany.

Microbial reduction of Fe(III) minerals is a prominent process in redoximorphic soils and is strongly affected by organic matter (OM). We herein determined the rate and extent of microbial reduction of ferrihydrite (Fh) with either adsorbed or coprecipitated OM by . We focused on OM-mediated effects on electron uptake and alterations in Fh crystallinity. Read More

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Help from the sky: Can vultures contribute to Cystic Echinococcosis control in endemic areas?

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Jul 15;15(7):e0009615. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Dipartimento di Medicina Veterinaria, Università degli Studi di Sassari, Sassari, Italy.

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is endemic in Sardinia and constitutes a serious public health concern due to high prevalence in livestock and humans. Despite sustained efforts, control of the disease had been unsuccessful in the region. Problematic carcass disposal due to soaring incineration costs and free access of dogs to infected carrion are dominant factors, fueling endemicity among other. Read More

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Sulfated extract of Abelmoschus esculentus: A potential cancer chemopreventive agent.

Curr Pharm Biotechnol 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Radiological Sciences Department, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Taif University, P.O. Box 11099, Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Abelmoschus esculentus (AE) (okra), is an edible plant used in many food applications.

Objective: This study explored whether sulfated AE (SAE) has promising cancer chemopreventive activities that may recommend it as a functional food supplement ‎instead of (or in addition to) AE for the population at risk of cancer and in the health food industry.

Methods: Cytochrome P450-1A (CYP1A)‎ was estimated by fluorescence enzymatic reaction, using β-naphthoflavone-treated cells (CYP1A inducer). Read More

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Development of a free radical scavenging bacterial consortium to mitigate oxidative stress in cnidarians.

Microb Biotechnol 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

School of Biosciences, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic., Australia.

Corals are colonized by symbiotic microorganisms that profoundly influence the animal's health. One noted symbiont is a single-celled alga (in the dinoflagellate family Symbiodiniaceae), which provides the coral with most of its fixed carbon. Thermal stress increases the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by Symbiodiniaceae during photosynthesis. Read More

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The biocompatible validity of amino acid ionic liquid mediated gold nanoparticles for enhanced activity and structural stability of papain.

Dalton Trans 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, Delhi - 110007, India.

During the past few decades, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have attracted a lot of attention owing to their biomedical applications, like therapeutics and drug delivery; however, the detailed biomolecular interactions and structural alteration of naturally occurring biomolecules, such as enzymes, in AuNPs remain unknown. The effects of various additives on the thermal and structural properties, and activity of proteins/enzymes have been scavenged and communicated intensively in the literature; however, the synthesis of ionic liquid (IL) mediated AuNPs solely for the purpose of enzyme activity boosting and stability modulation has not yet been reported. In the current study, we explore the role of cholinium tryptophan [CHO][Trp] and tetraethyl tryptophan [TEA][Trp]IL-mediated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on the activity enhancement and structural stability of papain. Read More

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Antioxidant-rich fraction of Amomum subulatum fruits mitigates experimental methotrexate-induced oxidative stress by regulating TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 proinflammatory cytokines.

J Food Biochem 2021 Jul 11:e13855. Epub 2021 Jul 11.

Laboratory of Immunopharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Division of Cancer Research, Regional Cancer Centre, Medical College Campus (Research Centre, University of Kerala), Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.

The culinary spice Amomum subulatum was assessed for its phytochemical composition, in vitro antioxidant potential, and in vivo ameliorating effect against methotrexate (MTX)-induced toxicities. Phytochemical analysis of methanolic extract of A. subulatum dry fruits (MEAS) confirmed the presence of different bioactive secondary metabolites. Read More

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Moving Past Quinone-Methides: Recent Advances toward Minimizing Electrophilic Byproducts from COS/H2S Donors.

Authors:
Michael Pluth

Curr Top Med Chem 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Materials Science Institute, Knight Campus for Accelerating Scientific Impact, Institute of Molecular Biology. University of Oregon. Eugene, OR, United States.

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an important biomolecule that plays key signaling and protective roles in different physiological processes. With the goals of advancing both the available research tools and the associated therapeutic potential of H2S, researchers have developed different methods to deliver H2S on-demand in different biological contexts. A recent approach to develop such donors has been to design compounds that release carbonyl sulfide (COS), which is quickly converted to H2S in biological systems by the ubiquitous enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA). Read More

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Association of measures of body fat with serum alpha-tocopherol and its metabolites in middle-aged individuals.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2021 Jul 18;31(8):2407-2415. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: The accumulation of fat increases the formation of lipid peroxides, which are partly scavenged by alpha-tocopherol (α-TOH). Here, we aimed to investigate the associations between different measures of (abdominal) fat and levels of urinary α-TOH metabolites in middle-aged individuals.

Methods And Results: In this cross-sectional analysis in the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity study (N = 511, 53% women; mean [SD] age of 55 [6. Read More

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Protein Family Content Uncovers Lineage Relationships and Bacterial Pathway Maintenance Mechanisms in DPANN Archaea.

Front Microbiol 2021 1;12:660052. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, United States.

DPANN are small-celled archaea that are generally predicted to be symbionts, and in some cases are known episymbionts of other archaea. As the monophyly of the DPANN remains uncertain, we hypothesized that proteome content could reveal relationships among DPANN lineages, constrain genetic overlap with bacteria, and illustrate how organisms with hybrid bacterial and archaeal protein sets might function. We tested this hypothesis using protein family content that was defined in part using 3,197 genomes including 569 newly reconstructed genomes. Read More

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GlmS mediated knock-down of a phospholipase expedite alternate pathway to generate phosphocholine required for phosphatidylcholine synthesis in Plasmodium falciparum.

Biochem J 2021 Jun 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, New Delhi, New Delhi, India.

Phospholipid synthesis is crucial for membrane proliferation in malaria parasites during the entire cycle in the host cell. The major phospholipid of parasite membranes, phosphatidylcholine (PC), is mainly synthesized through the Kennedy pathway. The phosphocholine required for this synthetic pathway is generated by phosphorylation of choline derived from catabolism of the lyso-phosphatidylcholine (LPC) scavenged from the host milieu. Read More

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Degradation of biological macromolecules supports uncultured microbial populations in Guaymas Basin hydrothermal sediments.

ISME J 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Ecosystems Center and Bay Paul Center, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA, USA.

Hydrothermal sediments contain large numbers of uncultured heterotrophic microbial lineages. Here, we amended Guaymas Basin sediments with proteins, polysaccharides, nucleic acids or lipids under different redox conditions and cultivated heterotrophic thermophiles with the genomic potential for macromolecule degradation. We reconstructed 20 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) of uncultured lineages affiliating with known archaeal and bacterial phyla, including endospore-forming Bacilli and candidate phylum Marinisomatota. Read More

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Wearing the devil down: Rate of tooth wear varies between wild and captive Tasmanian devils.

Zoo Biol 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Mammalian carnivores rely on their sharp teeth to effectively kill and consume prey. However, over time this causes wear and breakage that alters tooth shape, reducing their effectiveness. Extreme tooth wear and damage is especially prevalent in species that scavenge carcasses, like the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii), which are well known for their voracious appetites and ability to consume almost all of a carcass, including bone. Read More

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Unconjugated Bilirubin Attenuates DSS-Induced Colitis Potentially Enhancement of Bilirubin Reabsorption.

Front Pharmacol 2021 20;12:654808. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Gastroenterology, Guangzhou Digestive Disease Center, Guangzhou First People's Hospital, School of Medicine, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, China.

Studies increasingly show that ulcerative colitis (UC) is a consequence of an imbalance between oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity. Bilirubin exerts an anti-inflammatory effect by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS), although the exact mechanism is not completely understood. The aim of this study was to determine the role of serum bilirubin in UC using patient data and a mouse model of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Read More

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Scavenging of submicron aerosol particles in a suburban atmosphere: The raindrop size factor.

Environ Pollut 2021 May 18;285:117371. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Physics, IMARENAB University of León, 24071, León, Spain. Electronic address:

This paper studies the below-cloud scavenging caused by precipitation on ultrafine and accumulation modes, as well as the role of the different raindrop sizes in an urban environment. The equipment used to measure aerosol particles and raindrop variables includes a scanning mobility particle sizer spectrometer-SMPS and a Laser Precipitation Monitor (LPM), respectively. An analysis of the scavenging efficiency and the scavenging coefficient (λ) by modes and rain intensities was carried out. Read More

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Oxidative stress and peripartum outcomes (Review).

Exp Ther Med 2021 Jul 17;22(1):771. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Obstetrics-Gynecology, 'George Emil Palade' University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Science and Technology, 540142 Targu-Mures, Romania.

Pregnancy, labor and childbirth are accompanied by excessive oxidative aggression. The excessive formation of free radicals [reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), chlorine reactive species (CRS)] causes cellular oxidative damage, which can be scavenged by enzymatic or non-enzymatic antioxidants in normal healthy pregnancy, physiological labor and delivery without any complications. An imbalance between the pro-oxidant and antioxidant factors may lead to oxidative stress, which contributes to the development of many diseases. Read More

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Natural antioxidants attenuate mycolactone toxicity to RAW 264.7 macrophages.

Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2021 May 26:15353702211015628. Epub 2021 May 26.

West African Centre for Cell Biology of Infectious Disease (WACCBIP), Department of Biochemistry, Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Ghana, Accra 0000, Ghana.

produces a macrolide exotoxin, mycolactone which suppresses immune cells activity, is toxic to most cells and the key virulence factor in the pathogenesis of Buruli ulcer disease. Mycolactone is reported to mediate the production of reactive oxygen species in keratinocytes; cells that play critical role in wound healing. Increased levels of reactive oxygen species have been shown to disrupt the well-ordered process of wound repair; hence, the function of wound-healing cells such as macrophages, keratinocytes, and fibroblast could be impaired in the presence of the reactive oxygen species mediator, mycolactone. Read More

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Water-insoluble carbonaceous components in rainwater over an urban background location in Northern India during pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 22. Epub 2021 May 22.

Department of Environmental Sciences, Hindu College, University of Delhi, Delhi, 110007, India.

The carbonaceous content of rainwater was investigated in samples collected at an urban background site in northern India. Sampling was performed on an event basis during two seasons: pre-monsoon (PM) and monsoon (MN) season covering May-June and July-August, respectively, in 2016. The concentrations of different fractions of water-insoluble organic carbon (WIOC) and elemental carbon (EC) were precisely determined, and the sources of WIOC and EC were also analysed. Read More

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Genomics, Exometabolomics, and Metabolic Probing Reveal Conserved Proteolytic Metabolism of and Three Candidate Species From China and Japan.

Front Microbiol 2021 3;12:632731. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Biological Sciences, Center of Ecosystem Science and Society, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ, United States.

JAD2, the only cultured representative of the order , is abundant in Great Boiling Spring (GBS), NV, United States, and close relatives inhabit geothermal systems globally. However, no defined medium exists for JAD2 and no single carbon source is known to support its growth, leaving key knowledge gaps in its metabolism and nutritional needs. Here, we report comparative genomic analysis of the draft genome of JAD2 and eight closely related metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) from geothermal sites in China, Japan, and the United States, representing " Thermoflexus japonica," " Thermoflexus tengchongensis," and " Thermoflexus sinensis. Read More

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Toxoplasma LIPIN is essential in channeling host lipid fluxes through membrane biogenesis and lipid storage.

Nat Commun 2021 05 17;12(1):2813. Epub 2021 May 17.

Apicolipid Team, Institute for Advanced Biosciences, CNRS UMR5309, Université Grenoble Alpes, INSERM U1209, Grenoble, France.

Apicomplexa are obligate intracellular parasites responsible for major human diseases. Their intracellular survival relies on intense lipid synthesis, which fuels membrane biogenesis. Parasite lipids are generated as an essential combination of fatty acids scavenged from the host and de novo synthesized within the parasite apicoplast. Read More

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In vitro cellular activity of maghemite/cerium oxide magnetic nanoparticles with antioxidant properties.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2021 Aug 6;204:111824. Epub 2021 May 6.

Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Czech Academy of Sciences, Heyrovského nám. 2, 162 06, Prague 6, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

Magnetic γ-FeO/CeO nanoparticles were obtained by precipitation of Ce(NO) with ammonia in the presence of γ-FeO seeds. The formation of CeO nanoparticles on the seeds was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy linked with selected area electron diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering. The γ-FeO/CeO particle surface was functionalized with PEG-neridronate to improve the colloidal stability in PBS and biocompatibility. Read More

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Non-thermal plasma-induced DMPO-OH yields hydrogen peroxide.

Arch Biochem Biophys 2021 Jul 6;705:108901. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Pathology and Biological Responses, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Showa-Ku, Nagoya, 466-8550, Japan; Center for Low-temperature Plasma Sciences, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 464-8603, Japan. Electronic address:

Recent developments in electronics have enabled the medical applications of non-thermal plasma (NTP), which elicits reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), such as hydroxyl radical (OH), hydrogen peroxide (HO), singlet oxygen (O), superoxide (O), ozone, and nitric oxide at near-physiological temperatures. In preclinical studies or human clinical trials, NTP promotes blood coagulation, eradication of bacterial, viral and biofilm-related infections, wound healing, and cancer cell death. To elucidate the solution-phase biological effects of NTP in the presence of biocompatible reducing agents, we employed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to quantify OH using a spin-trapping probe, 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO); O using a fluorescent probe; and O and HO using luminescent probes in the presence of thiols or tempol. Read More

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Ciprofloxacin and dexamethasone in combination attenuate S. aureus induced brain abscess via neuroendocrine-immune interaction of TLR-2 and glucocorticoid receptor leading to behavioral improvement.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 May 4;97:107695. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Physiology, Immunology Laboratory, University of Calcutta, University Colleges of Science and Technology, Calcutta, West Bengal, India. Electronic address:

Staphylococcus aureus induced brain abscess is a critical health concern throughout the developing world. The conventional surgical intervention could not regulate the abscess-induced brain inflammation. Thus further study over the alternative therapeutic strategy for treating a brain abscess is of high priority. Read More

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Withanone Ameliorates Stress Symptoms in Caenorhabditis Elegans by Acting through Serotonin Receptors.

Pharmacopsychiatry 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Institute of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany.

Introduction: Depression is responsible for 800 000 deaths worldwide, a number that will rise significantly due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Affordable novel drugs with less severe side effects are urgently required. We investigated the effect of withanone (WN) from Withania somnifera on the serotonin system of wild-type and knockout Caenorhabditis elegans strains using in silico, in vitro, and in vivo methods. Read More

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Anti-obesity, antioxidant and in silico evaluation of Justicia carnea bioactive compounds as potential inhibitors of an enzyme linked with obesity: Insights from kinetics, semi-empirical quantum mechanics and molecular docking analysis.

Biophys Chem 2021 Jul 28;274:106607. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria.

Obesity is a global health problem characterized by excessive fat deposition in adipose tissues and can be managed by targeting pancreatic lipase (PL) activity. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro antioxidant and anti-obesity potentials of methanolic leaf extract of Justicia carnea(MEJC) using lipase inhibition kinetics model. In silico evaluations of MEJC bioactive compounds as potential drug-like agents and inhibitors of PL were also investigated using SwissADME prediction tool, semi-empirical quantum mechanics(SQM), molecular electrostatic potential(MEP) and molecular docking analysis. Read More

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Thin cell layer cultures of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii L159I-N230Y, pgrl1 and pgr5 mutants perform enhanced hydrogen production at sunlight intensity.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Aug 27;333:125217. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Institute of Plant Biology, Biological Research Centre, Szeged, Temesvári krt. 62, H-6726 Szeged, Hungary. Electronic address:

Photobiological hydrogen (H) production is a promising renewable energy source. HydA hydrogenases of green algae are efficient but O-sensitive and compete for electrons with CO-fixation. Recently, we established a photoautotrophic H production system based on anaerobic induction, where the Calvin-Benson cycle is inactive and O scavenged by an absorbent. Read More

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In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies of photocatalytic oxidation of As(III) to less toxic As(V) by TiO nanotubes.

J Synchrotron Radiat 2021 May 13;28(Pt 3):849-853. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan.

Arsenic in groundwater caused the black-foot disease (BFD) in many countries in the 1950-1960s. It is of great importance to develop a feasible method for removal of arsenic from contaminated groundwater in BFD endemic areas. Photocatalytic oxidation of As(III) to less toxic As(V) is, therefore, of significance for preventing any arsenic-related disease that may occur. Read More

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Photoelectrochemical cross-dehydrogenative coupling of benzothiazoles with strong aliphatic C-H bonds.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 May;57(36):4424-4427

Department of Chemistry, University of Pavia, viale Taramelli 12, Pavia 27100, Italy.

A photoelectrochemical strategy for the cross-dehydrogenative coupling of unactivated aliphatic hydrogen donors (e.g. alkanes) with benzothiazoles is reported. Read More

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Tracking light-induced electron transfer toward O in a hybrid photoredox-laccase system.

iScience 2021 Apr 31;24(4):102378. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Université Paris-Saclay, CEA, CNRS, Institute for Integrative Biology of the Cell (I2BC), 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France.

Photobiocatalysis uses light to perform specific chemical transformations in a selective and efficient way. The intention is to couple a photoredox cycle with an enzyme performing multielectronic catalytic activities. Laccase, a robust multicopper oxidase, can be envisioned to use dioxygen as a clean electron sink when coupled to an oxidation photocatalyst. Read More

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