3,128 results match your criteria scattering profiles

Characterization and purification of pentameric chimeric protein particles using asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation coupled with multiple detectors.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

C2P s.r.o. (NEXARS), The Campus Science Park, Palachovo náměstí 726/2, 625 00, Brno, Czech Republic.

Porcine circovirus causes the post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome. Despite the existence of commercial vaccines, the development of more effective and cheaper vaccines is expected. The usage of chimeric antigens allows serological differentiation between naturally infected and vaccinated animals. Read More

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Optical Modulation of Electron Beams in Free Space.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Mar;126(12):123901

ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona), Spain.

We exploit free-space interactions between electron beams and tailored light fields to imprint on-demand phase profiles on the electron wave functions. Through rigorous semiclassical theory involving a quantum description of the electrons, we show that monochromatic optical fields focused in vacuum can be used to correct electron beam aberrations and produce selected focal shapes. Stimulated elastic Compton scattering is exploited to imprint the required electron phase, which is proportional to the integral of the optical field intensity along the electron path and depends on the transverse beam position. Read More

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Concepts for nondestructive and depth-resolved X-ray residual stress analysis in the near-surface region of nearly single crystalline materials with mosaic structure.

J Appl Crystallogr 2021 Feb 1;54(Pt 1):22-31. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Germany.

Two evaluation concepts for nondestructive depth-resolved X-ray residual stress analysis in the near-surface region of materials with cubic symmetry and nearly single crystalline structure are introduced by simulated examples. Both concepts are based on the same data acquisition strategy, which consists in the determination of lattice-spacing depth profiles along the 〈〉 poles by stepwise sample rotation around the scattering vector. Segmentation of these profiles parallel to the sample surface provides the lattice strain state as a function of depth. Read More

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February 2021

Microcalcification-Based Tumor Malignancy Evaluation in Fresh Breast Biopsies with Hyperspectral Stimulated Raman Scattering.

Anal Chem 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics and Department of Physics, Human Phenome Institute, Multiscale Research Institute of Complex Systems, Academy for Engineering and Technology, Key Laboratory of Micro and Nano Photonic Structures, Ministry of Education, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China.

Precise evaluation of breast tumor malignancy based on tissue calcifications has important practical value in the disease diagnosis, as well as the understanding of tumor development. Traditional X-ray mammography provides the overall morphologies of the calcifications but lacks intrinsic chemical information. In contrast, spontaneous Raman spectroscopy offers detailed chemical analysis but lacks the spatial profiles. Read More

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An extended lidar-based cirrus cloud retrieval scheme: first application over an Arctic site.

Opt Express 2021 Mar;29(6):8553-8580

Accurate and precise characterization of cirrus cloud geometrical and optical properties is essential for better constraining their radiative footprint. A lidar-based retrieval scheme is proposed here, with its performance assessed on fine spatio-temporal observations over the Arctic site of Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard. Two contributions related to cirrus geometrical (dynamic Wavelet Covariance Transform (WCT)) and optical properties (constrained Klett) are reported. Read More

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The integrated diagnostic suite of the C-2W experimental field-reversed configuration device and its applications.

Rev Sci Instrum 2021 Mar;92(3):033548

TAE Technologies, Inc., 19631 Pauling, Foothill Ranch, California 92610, USA.

In the current experimental device of TAE Technologies, C-2W (also called "Norman"), record breaking advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas are produced and sustained in steady state utilizing variable energy neutral beams (15-40 keV, total power up to 20 MW), advanced divertors, bias electrodes, and an active plasma control system. This fully operational experiment is coupled with a fully operational suite of advanced diagnostic systems. The suite consists of 60+ individual systems spanning 20 categories, including magnetic sensors, Thomson scattering, interferometry/polarimetry, spectroscopy, fast imaging, bolometry, reflectometry, charged and neutral particle analysis, fusion product detection, and electric probes. Read More

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Non-targeted detection of butter adulteration using pointwise UHPLC-ELSD and UHPLC-UV fingerprints with chemometrics.

Food Chem 2021 Mar 20;356:129604. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Institute of Food and Nutraceutical Science, Department of Food Science and Technology, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China. Electronic address:

A non-targeted chemometric method was devised to detect possible butter adulteration without prior knowledge of the adulterant and marker compounds. Nine common edible oils including vegetable oils, animal fats and margarines were selected as potential adulterants to build a unified classification model. The samples were analyzed using the high-performance liquid chromatography hyphenated with an evaporative light scattering detector (UHPLC-ELSD) and an ultraviolet detector (UHPLC-UV), with the pointwise chromatograms instead of individual peaks for modelling. Read More

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Structural Analysis of Melt-Spun Polymer-Optical Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Fibres by Small-Angle X-ray Scattering and Monte-Carlo Simulation.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Mar 3;13(5). Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Hochschule für Technik, Wirtschaft und Kultur Leipzig (HTWK), Zschochersche Str. 69, 04229 Leipzig, Germany.

The structural properties, mainly the spatial variation of density and chain interaction, of melt-spun polymer optical fibres (POFs) are investigated by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and compared to Monte-Carlo polymer simulations. The amorphous PMMA POFs had been subjected to a rapid cooling in a water quench right after extrusion in order to obtain a radial refractive-index profile. Four fibre samples with different processing parameters are investigated and the SAXS data analysed via Guinier approach. Read More

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Discrete Ordinate Adding Method (DOAM), a new solver for Advanced Radiative transfer Modeling System (ARMS).

Opt Express 2021 Feb;29(3):4700-4720

Satellite data assimilation requires a computationally fast and accurate radiative transfer model. Currently, three fast models are commonly used in the Numerical Weather Prediction models (NWP) for satellite data assimilation, including Radiative Transfer for TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (RTTOV), Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM), and Advanced Radiative transfer Modeling System (ARMS). ARMS was initiated in 2018 and is now becoming the third pillar supporting many users in NWP and remote sensing fields. Read More

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February 2021

Near-Field Characterization of Higher-Order Topological Photonic States at Optical Frequencies.

Adv Mater 2021 Mar 18:e2004376. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Electrical Engineering, Grove School of Engineering, City College of the City University of New York, 140th Street and Convent Avenue, New York, NY, 10031, USA.

Higher-order topological insulators (HOTIs) represent a new type of topological system, supporting boundary states localized over boundaries, two or more dimensions lower than the dimensionality of the system itself. Interestingly, photonic HOTIs can possess a richer physics than their original condensed matter counterpart, supporting conventional HOTI states based on tight-binding coupling, and a new type of topological HOTI states enabled by long-range interactions. Here, a new mechanism to establish all-dielectric infrared HOTI metasurfaces exhibiting both types of HOTI states is proposed, supported by a topological transition accompanied by the emergence of topological Wannier-type polarization. Read More

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Coordinate transformation method for modeling three-dimensional photonic structures with curved boundaries.

Haitao Liu

Opt Express 2021 Jan;29(2):1516-1531

The coordinate transformation method (C method) is a powerful tool for modeling photonic structures with curved boundaries of discontinuities. As a modal method upon the Fourier basis, the C method has superior computational efficiency and rich physical intuitiveness compared to other full-wave numerical methods. But presently the C method is limited to two-dimensional (2D) structures if the boundaries between adjacent z-invariant layers are of generally different profiles [with (x,y,z) being the Cartesian coordinate]. Read More

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January 2021

Spontaneous Ouzo Emulsions Coexist with Pre-Ouzo Ultraflexible Microemulsions.

Langmuir 2021 Apr 16;37(13):3817-3827. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Institut Laue-Langevin, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 20156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9, France.

Even in the absence of surfactants, polymers, or particles, spontaneous emulsions produced by dilution with water can be stable over days. This "Ouzo effect" used by the industry is obtained by rapid dilution from an identified "pre-Ouzo" domain of composition where weak aggregates are present: nanometer-sized clusters covered by a surface layer enriched in a hydrotrope such as ethanol. In these systems, Ostwald ripening is not an effective destabilizing mechanism. Read More

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Scattered Light Imaging: Resolving the substructure of nerve fiber crossings in whole brain sections with micrometer resolution.

Neuroimage 2021 Mar 11;233:117952. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-1), Forschungszentrum Jülich, Wilhelm-Johnen-Straße, Jülich 52425, Germany.

For developing a detailed network model of the brain based on image reconstructions, it is necessary to spatially resolve crossing nerve fibers. The accuracy hereby depends on many factors, including the spatial resolution of the imaging technique. 3D Polarized Light Imaging (3D-PLI) allows the three-dimensional reconstruction of nerve fiber tracts in whole brain sections with micrometer in-plane resolution, but leaves uncertainties in pixels containing crossing fibers. Read More

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Single Protein Encapsulated Doxorubicin as an Efficacious Anticancer Therapeutic.

Adv Ther (Weinh) 2020 Nov 12;3(11). Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Department of Surgery, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California.

Small-molecule chemotherapeutics are potent and effective against a variety of malignancies, but common and severe side effects restrict their clinical applications. Nanomedicine approaches represent a major focus for improving chemotherapy, but have met limited success. To overcome the limitations of chemotherapy drugs, we have developed a novel Single Protein Encapsulation (SPE)-based drug formulation and delivery platform and tested its utility in improving doxorubicin (DOX) treatment. Read More

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November 2020

: a general method to deconvolve X-ray scattering data from evolving mixtures.

IUCrJ 2021 Mar 6;8(Pt 2):225-237. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, 259 East Avenue, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

Mixtures of biological macromolecules are inherently difficult to study using structural methods, as increasing complexity presents new challenges for data analysis. Recently, there has been growing interest in studying evolving mixtures using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) in conjunction with time-resolved, high-throughput or chromatography-coupled setups. Deconvolution and interpretation of the resulting datasets, however, are nontrivial when neither the scattering components nor the way in which they evolve are known . Read More

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Can the biomolecular corona induce an allergic reaction?-A proof-of-concept study.

Biointerphases 2021 Feb 3;16(1):011008. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Radiology, Pediatric Molecular Imaging, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305.

Ferumoxytol nanoparticles are being used clinically for the treatment of anemia and molecular imaging in patients. It is well documented that while most patients tolerate ferumoxytol well, a small percentage of patients (i.e. Read More

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February 2021

Normal-Phase HPLC-ELSD to Compare Lipid Profiles of Different Wheat Flours.

Foods 2021 Feb 16;10(2). Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Biochemistry (LFCB) and Leuven Food Science and Nutrition Research Centre (LFoRCe), KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20 Box 2486, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.

Normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is widely used in combination with evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD) for separating and detecting lipids in various food samples. ELSD responses of different lipids were evaluated to elucidate the possibilities and challenges associated with quantification by means of HPLC-ELSD. Not only the number and type of polar functional groups but also the chain length and degree of unsaturation of (free or esterified) fatty acids (FAs) had a significant effect on ELSD responses. Read More

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February 2021

Plasmonically Calibrated Label-Free Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy for Improved Multivariate Analysis of Living Cells in Cancer Subtyping and Drug Testing.

Anal Chem 2021 03 5;93(10):4601-4610. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, United States.

Plasmonic nanostructure-enabled label-free surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) emerges as a rapid nondestructive molecular fingerprint characterization technique for complex biological samples. However, label-free SERS bioanalysis faces challenges in reliability and reproducibility due to SERS signals' high susceptibility to local optical field variations at plasmonic hotspots, which can bias correlations between the measured spectroscopic features and the actual molecular concentration profiles of complex biochemical matrices. Herein, we report that plasmonically enhanced electronic Raman scattering (ERS) signals from metal nanostructures can serve as a SERS calibration internal standard to improve multivariate analysis of living biological systems. Read More

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Normal Tissue Injury Induced by Photon and Proton Therapies: Gaps and Opportunities.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 Feb 25. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Radiation Research Program, Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis, National Cancer Institute, 9609 Medical Center Dr., MSC 9727, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Despite technological advances in radiotherapy and cancer treatment, patients still experience adverse effects. Proton therapy has emerged as a valuable radiotherapy modality, which can improve treatment outcomes. As normal tissue injury is an important determinant of the outcome, for this review, we analyzed two databases, (i) clinical trials registered in ClinicalTrials. Read More

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February 2021

Advances in microfluidic synthesis and coupling with synchrotron SAXS for continuous production and real-time structural characterization of nano-self-assemblies.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2021 May 18;201:111633. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Bioengineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ege University, 35100, Bornova, Izmir, Turkey. Electronic address:

Microfluidic platforms have become highly attractive tools for synthesis of nanoparticles, including lipid nano-self-assemblies, owing to unique features and at least three important aspects inherent to miniaturized micro-devices. Firstly, the fluids flow under controlled conditions in the microchannels, providing well-defined flow profiles and shorter diffusion lengths that play important roles in enhancing the continuous production of lipid and polymer nanoparticles with relatively narrow size distributions. Secondly, various geometries adapted to microfluidic device designs can be utilized for enhancing the colloidal stability of nanoparticles and improving their drug loading. Read More

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Artificial red blood cells increase large vessel wall damage and decrease surrounding dermal tissue damage in a rabbit auricle model after subsequent flashlamp-pumped pulsed-dye laser treatment.

J Dermatol 2021 Feb 25. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Plastic, Reconstructive, and Aesthetic Surgery, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba, Japan.

Artificial red blood cells (i.e. hemoglobin [Hb] vesicles [Hb-Vs]) function effectively as photosensitizers in flashlamp-pumped pulsed-dye laser (PDL) treatment for port-wine stains in animal models. Read More

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February 2021

Tuning morphology, surface, and nanocrystallinity of rare earth vanadates by one-pot colloidal conversion of hydroxycarbonates.

Nanoscale 2021 Mar 25;13(9):4931-4945. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas (Unicamp), PO Box 6154, 13083-970 Campinas, SP, Brazil.

We show that particle size, morphology, nanocrystallinity, surface area, and defect density of (Y,Eu)VO structures can be tuned by one-pot colloidal conversion of rare earth hydroxycarbonates in water/ethylene glycol (EG) suspensions. Using small angle X-ray scattering, transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering, we show how volume fractions of EG direct the amorphous to crystalline conversion at 1 atm/95 °C by controlling size and aggregation of hydroxycarbonate precursors. A template effect due to a Kirkendall-type conversion occurs for low EG contents, yielding solids with high densities of oxygen defects, as demonstrated by O uptakes in thermogravimetry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy profiles. Read More

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Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering in binary mixtures of disparate-mass constituents: SF_{6}-He,SF_{6}-D_{2}, and SF_{6}-H_{2}.

Phys Rev E 2021 Jan;103(1-1):013102

Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Caixa Postal 19044, Curitiba 81531-990, Brazil.

The spectral distribution of light scattered by microscopic thermal fluctuations in binary mixture gases was investigated experimentally and theoretically. Measurements of Rayleigh-Brillouin spectral profiles were performed at a wavelength of 532 nm and at room temperature, for mixtures of SF_{6}-He,SF_{6}-D_{2}, and SF_{6}-H_{2}. In these measurements, the pressure of the gases with heavy molecular mass (SF_{6}) is set at 1 bar, while the pressure of the lighter collision partner was varied. Read More

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January 2021

Lévy flights of photons with infinite mean free path.

Phys Rev E 2021 Jan;103(1):L010101

Université Côte d'Azur, CNRS, Institut de Physique de Nice, F-06560 Valbonne, France.

Multiple scattering of light by resonant vapor is characterized by Lévy-type superdiffusion with a single-step size distribution p(x)∝1/x^{1+α}. We investigate Lévy flight of light in a hot rubidium vapor collisional-broadened by 50 torr of He gas. The frequent collisions produce Lorentzian absorptive and emissive profiles with α<1 and a corresponding divergent mean step size. Read More

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January 2021

Surface adsorption and solution aggregation of a novel lauroyl-l-carnitine surfactant.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Jun 3;591:106-114. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Biological Physics Laboratory, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL, UK. Electronic address:

Hypothesis: l-carnitine plays a crucial role in the cellular production of energy by transporting fatty acids into mitochondria. Acylated l-carnitines are amphiphilic and if appropriate physical properties were demonstrated, they could replace many currently used surfactants with improved biocompatibility and health benefits.

Experiments: This work evaluated the surface adsorption of lauroyl-l-carnitine (CLC) and its aggregation behavior. Read More

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Red light-induced structure changes in phytochrome A from Pisum sativum.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 2;11(1):2827. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa, 223-8522, Japan.

Phytochrome A (phyA) is a photoreceptor protein of plants that regulates the red/far-red light photomorphogenic responses of plants essential for growth and development. PhyA, composed of approximately 1100 amino acid residues, folds into photosensory and output signaling modules. The photosensory module covalently binds phytochromobilin as a chromophore for photoreversible interconversion between inactive red light-absorbing (Pr) and active far-red light-absorbing (Pfr) forms to act as a light-driven phosphorylation enzyme. Read More

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February 2021

Magnetophoresis of Magnetic Pickering Emulsions Under Low Field Gradient: Macroscopic and Microscopic Motion.

Langmuir 2021 Feb 26;37(5):1811-1822. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Nibong Tebal 14300, Penang, Malaysia.

Monodispersed iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) coated with polystyrenesulfonate (PSS) and cetrimonium bromide (CTAB) have been used to stabilize magnetic Pickering emulsions (MPEs). Magnetophoresis of MPEs under the influence of a low gradient magnetic field (∇ < 100 T/m) was investigated at the macroscopic and microscopic scale. At the macroscopic scale, for the case of pH 7, the MPE achieved a magnetophoretic velocity of 70. Read More

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February 2021

Drug Loading, Releasing Profiles, and Embolic Efficacy and Safety Evaluation of a Novel Drug-Eluting Microsphere (CalliSpheres).

Cancer Biother Radiopharm 2021 Jan 25. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Key Laboratory of Smart Drug Delivery, Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

To investigate morphology, physical property, loadability, stability, and release profiles of a novel drug-eluting microsphere, CalliSpheres, and explore its embolic efficacy and safety . CalliSpheres (50-150 μm, 100-300 μm, and 300-500 μm) and doxorubicin at different amounts (20, 40, 80, and 100 mg) and concentrations (5 and 10 mg/mL) were prepared for experiments. Dynamic light scattering and an Agilent 1260 high-performance liquid chromatography system were used to quantify bead diameters and the efficiency of drug loading and release, respectively. Read More

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January 2021

Differentiation of Honeydew Honeys from Blossom Honeys and According to Their Botanical Origin by Electrical Conductivity and Phenolic and Sugar Spectra.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Feb 21;69(4):1329-1347. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Food Chemistry Department, Technische Universität Dresden, Bergstrasse 66, 01069 Dresden, Germany.

Honeydew honey, due to its higher antibacterial and antioxidant activity in comparison to blossom honeys, is in high demand and of interest to consumers. Although a differentiation of blossom honeys from honeydew honeys by way of electrical conductivity is given in many cases, criteria for a differentiation of individual honeydew honeys, such as spruce, fir, and pine, however did not exist. For this reason, 93 authentic honeydew honeys and 63 non-honeydew honeys [35 blossom and 28 nectar-honeydew (mixed)] from 13 different botanical origins were collected within the framework of the current study, and their electrical conductivity and phenolic and sugar profiles were investigated. Read More

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February 2021

Interplay of Aging and Lot-to-Lot Variability on the Physical and Chemical Properties of Excipients: A Case Study of Mono- and Diglycerides.

Mol Pharm 2021 03 21;18(3):862-877. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Research Center Pharmaceutical Engineering (RCPE) GmbH, Inffeldgasse 13, 8010 Graz, Austria.

The present study investigates the chemical composition governing the physical properties of mono- and diglycerides (MDGs) at the microstructural level, as a function of aging and lot-to-lot variability. The physical structure of the MDG plays a vital role in ameliorating the emulsion stability and is widely explored in diverse research horizons related to the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries. In an effort to understand the mechanism of emulsion stabilization, physical properties were extensively evaluated in selective commercial lots to determine if there is a correlation between the chemical composition of MDG and physical properties. Read More

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