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Age-Dependent Changes in Total and Free Water Content of In Vivo Human Lenses Measured by Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2021 Jul;62(9):33

Department of Physiology, School of Medical Sciences, New Zealand National Eye Centre, University of Auckland, New Zealand.

Purpose: To use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure age-dependent changes in total and free water in human lenses in vivo.

Methods: Sixty-four healthy adults aged 18 to 86 years were recruited, fitted with a 32-channel head receiver coil, and placed in a 3 Tesla clinical MR scanner. Scans of the crystalline lens were obtained using a volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination sequence with dual flip angles, which were corrected for field inhomogeneity post-acquisition using a B1-map obtained using a turbo-FLASH sequence. Read More

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Correlated Imaging of the Equine Hyoid Apparatus Using CT, Micro-CT, and Histology.

Front Vet Sci 2021 5;8:652563. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department for Small Animals and Horses, Clinical Unit of Diagnostic Imaging, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Detailed radiological evaluation of the normal hyoid apparatus by computed tomography (CT) has not yet been conducted. Thus, it is unclear what type of junction connects the different parts of the equine hyoid apparatus. To describe the normal CT anatomy of the equine hyoid apparatus, and to determine the junction type that connects the different parts of the hyoid apparatus. Read More

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Learning walks in an Australian desert ant, Melophorus bagoti.

J Exp Biol 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia.

The Central Australian ant Melophorus bagoti is the most thermophilic ant in Australia and forages solitarily in the summer months during the hottest period of the day. For successful navigation, desert ants of many species are known to integrate a path and learn landmark cues around the nest. Ants perform a series of exploratory walks around the nest before their first foraging trip, during which they are presumed to learn about their landmark panorama. Read More

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Beam-Specific Spot Guidance and Optimization for PBS Proton Treatment of Bilateral Head and Neck Cancers.

Int J Part Ther 2021 25;8(1):50-61. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

California Protons Cancer Therapy Center, San Diego, CA, USA.

Purpose: A multi-field optimization (MFO) technique that uses beam-specific spot placement volumes (SPVs) and spot avoidance volumes (SAVs) is introduced for bilateral head and neck (H&N) cancers. These beam-specific volumes are used to guide the optimizer to consistently achieve optimal organ-at-risk (OAR) sparing with target coverage and plan robustness.

Materials And Methods: Implementation of this technique using a 4-beam, 5-beam, and variant 5-beam arrangement is discussed. Read More

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Acetabular volume and femoral coverage change following Dega-like osteotomy in treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip.

J Pediatr Orthop B 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Pediatric Orthopaedics, Dana Children's Hospital, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, and The Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel Department of Paediatric Orthopaedics, Sheffield Children's Hospital, Western Bank, Sheffield, UK.

Objectives: Although Dega's acetabuloplasty has become a commonly used osteotomy, there is still an ongoing debate regarding its impact on the volume and depth of the acetabulum. The purpose of our study was to assess the postoperative images of the transverse acetabular plane and version obtained from developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) patients after a modified Dega osteotomy.

Methods: We performed a retrospective study of the morphologic indices obtained from the pelvic X-rays and computer tomography (CT) scans of patients with DDH, who were operated in our institution between July 2005 and October 2013, using the modified Dega osteotomy. Read More

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Direct Access and Skill Mix Can Reduce Telephone Interruptions and Imaging Wait Times: Improving Radiology Service Effectiveness, Safety and Sustainability.

Curr Probl Diagn Radiol 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Chelsea and Westminster Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Imaging Department, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, Chelsea, London.

Unnecessary telephone calls to reporting radiologists impede organizations' workflow and may be associated with a higher chance of errors in reports. We conducted a prospective study in two cycles, which identified vetting plain CT heads as the most common reason for these calls and vetting CT urinary tracts (KUB) was also frequent. Clear vetting and protocolling guidelines exist for both of these scans, which do not routinely require discussion with a radiologist. Read More

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Skeletal muscle mass at C3 may not be a strong predictor for skeletal muscle mass at L3 in sarcopenic patients with head and neck cancer.

PLoS One 2021 19;16(7):e0254844. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Republic of Korea.

Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using skeletal muscle mass (SMM) at C3 (C3 SMM) as a diagnostic marker for sarcopenia in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients.

Methods: We evaluated 165 HNC patients and 42 healthy adults who underwent 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography scans. The paravertebral muscle area at C3 and skeletal muscle area at L3 were measured by CT. Read More

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Full-body MR imaging: a retrospective study on a novel diagnostic approach for children sustaining high-energy trauma.

Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery, BG Klinikum Unfallkrankenhaus Berlin gGmbH, Trauma Hospital Berlin, Warener Straße 7, 12683, Berlin, Germany.

Purpose: Severe accidents are the leading cause of long-term impairment and death in children. A common diagnostic procedure for children exposed to high-injury trauma is full-body contrast-enhanced CT (fbCT). However, the number of fbCT without detected injuries is relevant. Read More

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Serum glial fibrillary acidic protein as a biomarker of brain injury in premature neonates.

Bosn J Basic Med Sci 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Hormone Laboratory, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, "Aretaieio" Hospital, Athens, Greece.

Neonatal brain injury is a serious adverse outcome of prematurity. Early detection of high risk premature neonates to develop neonatal brain injury is not currently feasible. The predictive value of many biomarkers has been tested, but none is used currently in clinical practice. Read More

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Differences between TNM classification and 2-[F]FDG PET parameters of primary tumor in NSCLC patients.

Rep Pract Oncol Radiother 2021 9;26(3):445-450. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Affidea Poznań, Poland.

Background: The aim of the study was to compare the TNM classification with 2-[F]FDG PE T biological parameters of primary tumor in patients with NSCLC.

Materials And Methods: Retrospective analysis was performed on a group of 79 newly diagnosed NSCLC patients. PET scans were acquired on Gemini TF PET/CT scanner 60-70 min after injection of 2-[F]FDG with the mean activity of 364 ± 75 MBq, with the area being examined from the vertex to mid-thigh. Read More

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Bone density and body composition in small for gestational age children with adequate catch up growth: A preliminary retrospective case control study.

Bone 2021 Jul 14;153:116114. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Endocrinology Unit, Paediatric University Hospital Department, "Bambino Gesù" Children's Hospital, IRCCS, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Fetal growth patterns and birth weight (BW) have been associated with bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) throughout infancy and childhood up to early adulthood. We hypothesized that in small for gestational age (SGA) children, compensatory infant catch-up growth to normal height centiles counteracts the adverse consequences of low BW on bone accrual.

Aim: To evaluate BMD and BMC of SGA children born at term who experienced a normal catch-up growth as compared to children born appropriate for gestational age (AGA). Read More

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Full field-of-view, high-resolution, photon-counting detector CT: technical assessment and initial patient experience.

Phys Med Biol 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, UNITED STATES.

We report a comprehensive evaluation of a full field-of-view (FOV) photon-counting detector (PCD) CT system using phantoms, and qualitatively assess image quality in patient examples. A whole-body PCD-CT system with 50 cm FOV, 5.76 cm z-detector coverage and two acquisition modes (standard: 144 × 0. Read More

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The Caucasian Hump: Radiologic Study of the Osteocartilaginous Vault versus Surface Anatomy. Clinical Implications in Structured and Preservation Rhinoplasty.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

From the Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery and Neuroradiology Departments, Centro Hospitalar Universitário do Porto; the Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar, Universidade do Porto; and Hospital da Luz Arrábida.

Background: The relation between the osteocartilaginous nasal vault and nasal hump characteristics has not been fully investigated.

Methods: Measurements were collected from computed tomographic nasal scans in the midsagittal plane in adult Caucasian patients seeking rhinoplasty because of nasal hump from January of 2015 to December of 2018. Measurements were compared to sex- and age-matched patients not seeking rhinoplasty (control group). Read More

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Manufacturing and evaluation of a multi-purpose Iranian head and neck anthropomorphic phantom called MIHAN.

Med Biol Eng Comput 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Medical Radiation Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.

A new multi-purpose Iranian head and neck (MIHAN) anthropomorphic phantom was designed and manufactured to be used in diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Geometry of MIHAN phantom was determined based on the average dimensions acquired by CT scans of twenty patients without any medical problems in their head and neck site. Because the phantom was expected to be used with different modalities with a wide range of photon energies, attenuation coefficients of some selected materials were determined using Monte Carlo simulation. Read More

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Towards Wide Range Tracking of Head Scanning Movement in Driving.

Intern J Pattern Recognit Artif Intell 2020 Dec 20;34(13). Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Schepens Eye Research Institute of Massachusetts Eye and Ear, Boston, MA, USA, Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Gaining environmental awareness through lateral head scanning (yaw rotations) is important for driving safety, especially when approaching intersections. Therefore, head scanning movements could be an important behavioral metric for driving safety research and driving risk mitigation systems. Tracking head scanning movements with a single in-car camera is preferred hardware-wise, but it is very challenging to track the head over almost a 180° range. Read More

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December 2020

Appropriateness of Computed Tomography Scanning in the Diagnosis of Craniosynostosis.

J Craniofac Surg 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

MedStar Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA University of Chicago, Chicago, IL University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC Sackler School of Medicine at Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel Keck School of Medicine at the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA.

Introduction: Although physicians from a variety of specialties encounter infants with possible craniosynostosis, judicious use of computed tomography (CT) imaging is important to avoid unnecessary radiation exposure and healthcare expense. The present study seeks to determine whether differences in specialty of ordering physician affects frequency of resulting diagnostic confirmations requiring operative intervention.

Methods: Radiology databases from 2 institutions were queried for CT reports or indications that included "craniosynostosis" or "plagiocephaly. Read More

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Does Coronal Suturectomies and Occipital Barrel Staves Make a Difference in Early Reconstruction for Sagittal Craniosynostosis?

J Craniofac Surg 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Surgical Sciences, Plastic Surgery, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden Cleft Palate and Craniofacial Center, Department of Plastic Surgery, Töölö Hospital, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Background: Various surgical methods are used for early treatment of nonsyndromic sagittal craniosynostosis. The craniofacial centers in Uppsala and Helsinki fundamentally both use the H-Craniectomy: Renier's technique. However, the Helsinki group systematically adds coronal suturectomies to prevent secondary coronal synostosis and posterior barrel staves to address posterior bulleting. Read More

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Upper Quadrant Pain and Disability Associated With a Cross-Sectional Area of Deep and Superficial Neck Muscles: A Computed Tomography Study.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2021 Jul 7. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Ergonomics, Israel Institute for Occupational Safety and Hygiene, Tel Aviv, Israel Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel Department of Occupational Medicine, Maccabi Healthcare Services, Rishon Lezion, Israel School of Nursing Sciences, Academic College of Tel Aviv-Jaffa, Jaffa, Israel Department of Radiology, Barzilai University Medical Center, Ashkelon, Israel.

Study Design: An analytical cross-sectional computed tomography (CT) study.

Objective: To investigate the association of the cross-sectional area (CSA) and density of neck muscles (sternocleidomastoid, upper trapezius, levator scapulae, anterior scalene, longus coli, longus capitis) with upper quadrant pain and disability.

Summary Of Background Data: Neck pain, a common condition, causes substantial disability to individuals. Read More

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Deformable image registration to assist clinical decision for radiotherapy treatment adaptation for head and neck cancer patients.

Biomed Phys Eng Express 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Inst of Communication & Computer Systems, National Technical University of Athens, 9, Iroon Polytechniou Str., Zografos, 15773 Athens, Athens, 15773, GREECE.

Head and neck (H&N) cancer patients often present anatomical and geometrical changes in tumors and organs at risk (OARs) during radiotherapy treatment. These changes may result in the need to adapt the existing treatment planning, using an expert's subjective opinion, for offline adaptive radiotherapy and a new treatment planning before each treatment, for online adaptive radiotherapy. In the present study, a fast methodology is proposed to assist in planning adaptation clinical decision using tumor and parotid glands percentage volume changes during treatment. Read More

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Impact of implementation of the national institute for health and clinical excellence (NICE) head injury guideline in a tertiary care center emergency department: A pre and post-intervention study.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(7):e0254754. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of General Practice and Emergency Medicine, Kathmandu University School of Medical Sciences, Dhulikhel, Kavrepalanchok, Bagmati Province, Nepal.

Introduction: Head injury, a common presentation to the emergency department (ED), is a substantial problem in developing countries like Nepal. The current national institute for health and clinical excellence (NICE) guideline revised in January 2014 focuses on effective clinical assessment and early management of head injuries according to their severity in all age groups. This study assessed the impact of implementing this guideline on the proportions of computed tomography (CT) head scans, guideline adherence, and confidence level of the attending physicians. Read More

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A study on the association between accessory maxillary ostium and maxillary sinus mucosal thickening using cone beam computed tomography.

Head Face Med 2021 Jul 14;17(1):28. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

College of Dentistry, Gulf Medical University, Ajman, United Arab Emirates.

Background: Accessory maxillary ostium (AMO) has a major role to play in the aetiology of maxillary sinusitis. Mucosal thickening is one of the key radiographic features of chronic maxillary sinusitis. The aim of this study was to identify the location of the AMOs and investigate the association between Mucosal Thickening [MT] and AMO using Cone Beam Computed Tomography [CBCT]. Read More

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Association of Metformin With Volumetric Tumor Growth of Sporadic Vestibular Schwannomas.

Otol Neurotol 2021 08;42(7):1081-1085

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Objective: Recent research demonstrates a potential association between metformin use and reduced sporadic vestibular schwannoma (VS) growth in patients undergoing conservative observation. The current study was designed to elucidate the effect of metformin on tumor growth in sporadic VS using volumetric analyses.

Study Design: Retrospective cohort. Read More

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Clinically Applicable Segmentation of Head and Neck Anatomy for Radiotherapy: Deep Learning Algorithm Development and Validation Study.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Jul 12;23(7):e26151. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

DeepMind, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Over half a million individuals are diagnosed with head and neck cancer each year globally. Radiotherapy is an important curative treatment for this disease, but it requires manual time to delineate radiosensitive organs at risk. This planning process can delay treatment while also introducing interoperator variability, resulting in downstream radiation dose differences. Read More

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Bone quality and quantity of the mandibular symphyseal region in autogenous bone grafting using cone-beam computed tomography: a cross-sectional study.

Head Face Med 2021 Jul 12;17(1):26. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Bone volume plays a pivotal role in the success of dental implant treatment. Autogenous bone grafts should be harvested from reliable sites in the maxillofacial region. This study sought to assess the quantity and quality of bone in the mandibular symphysis for autogenous bone graft harvesting using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Read More

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The Characterisation of the Craniofacial Morphology of Infants Born With Zika Virus; Innovative Approach for Public Health Surveillance and Broad Clinical Applications.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 24;8:612596. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Scottish Craniofacial Research Group, Medical Devices Unit, NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom.

This study was carried out in response to the Zika virus epidemic, which constituted a public health emergency, and to the 2019 WHO calling for strengthened surveillance for the early detection of related microcephaly. The main aim of the study was to phenotype the craniofacial morphology of microcephaly using a novel approach and new measurements, and relate the characteristics to brain abnormalities in Zika-infected infants in Brazil to improve clinical surveillance. 3D images of the face and the cranial vault of 44 Zika-infected infants and matched healthy controls were captured using a 3D stereophotogrammetry system. Read More

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Establishment of Cephalic Index Using Cranial Parameters by Computed Tomography in a Sampled North Indian Population.

Cureus 2021 Jun 3;13(6):e15421. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Radiodiagnosis, Era's Lucknow Medical College and Hospital, Lucknow, IND.

Background: Cephalic index (CI) also called cranial index is the ratio of maximum breadth to a maximum length of head. The purpose of the study was to study anthropometry of cranial parameters using the computed tomography (CT) scans to establish the CI of the sampled population in North India.

Materials And Methods: The cross-sectional study was carried on the subjects of age group ranging from 6 to 95 years of either sex (total 1000 subjects; 540 male and 460 female) in the radio-diagnosis department of Era's Medical College Lucknow, UP, India. Read More

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Association of interleukin-1, interleukin-6, collagen type I alpha 1, and osteocalcin gene polymorphisms with early crestal bone loss around submerged dental implants: A nested case control study.

J Prosthet Dent 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Junior Research Fellow, Department of Centre for Advance Research, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Statement Of Problem: The reason for variations in peri-implant early crestal bone loss is unclear but may be due to genetic differences among individuals.

Purpose: The purpose of this nested case control study was to investigate the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms of interleukin-1, interleukin-6, collagen type I alpha1, and osteocalcin genes to early crestal bone loss around submerged dental implants.

Material And Methods: Dental implants were placed in the mandibular posterior region (single edentulous space) of 135 participants selected according to predetermined selection criteria. Read More

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Reliability of Distal Hamstring Tendon Length and Cross-sectional Area Using 3-D Freehand Ultrasound.

Ultrasound Med Biol 2021 Jul 7. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Laboratory of Neuromechanics, Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences at Serres, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Serres, Greece.

The objective of this study was to investigate the reliability of distal hamstring tendon morphology using freehand 3-D ultrasound (US). Freehand 3-D US scans were acquired for 16 young males and females, in two sessions, spaced a week apart. The length, volume, cross-sectional area (CSA) and echo intensity (EI) of the semitendinosus (ST), biceps femoris long and short head and semimembranosus (SM) tendons were acquired. Read More

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Virtual Analysis of Segmental Bimaxillary Surgery: A Validation Study.

J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Professor, Senior Oral Maxillofacial Surgeon and Head of Research, University of Southern Denmark, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Regional Health Research & University Hospital of Southern Denmark, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Finsensgade 35, 6700 Esbjerg, Denmark. Electronic address:

Purpose: Three-dimensional (3D) assessment of orthognathic surgery is often time consuming, relies on manual re-identification of anatomical landmarks or is limited to non-segmental osteotomies. The purpose of the present study was to propose and validate an automated approach for 3D assessment of the accuracy and postoperative outcome of segmental bimaxillary surgery.

Methods: A semi-automatic approach was developed and validated for virtual surgical analysis (VSA) of segmental bimaxillary surgery using a pair of pre- and postoperative (2 weeks) cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) scans. Read More

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Can computed tomography scanning in adults lead to an increased risk of thyroid cancer? A nationwide nested case-control study.

Eur Radiol 2021 Jul 10. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Center for Thyroid Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Republic of Korea.

Objective: To evaluate the association between computed tomography (CT) scanning and newly diagnosed thyroid cancer cases in relation to the confounding effect of the healthcare utilization rate.

Methods: This nested case-control study used the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort 2002-2015: 3557 adult thyroid cancer cases were matched to 17,785 controls by age, sex, and diagnosis date. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated for thyroid cancer associated with cumulative exposure to CT scanning > 3 years before cancer diagnosis. Read More

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