4,259 results match your criteria sarin soman

Acute gene expression changes in the mouse hippocampus following a combined Gulf War toxicant exposure.

Life Sci 2021 Jul 19:119845. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Laboratory of Molecular Biology, VA New Jersey Health Care System, Research & Development (Mailstop 15), Bldg. 16, Rm. 16-176, 385 Tremont Ave, East Orange, NJ 07018, United States of America; Rutgers School of Graduate Studies, Newark, NJ 07103, United States of America; Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Bay Pines VA Healthcare System, Research and Development, 151, Bldg. 22, Rm. 123, 10000 Bay Pines Blvd, Bay Pines, FL 33744, United States of America; Pharmacology, Physiology, and Neuroscience, Rutgers-New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ 07103, United States of America. Electronic address:

Aims: Approximately 30% of the nearly 700,000 Veterans who were deployed to the Gulf War from 1990 to 1991 have reported experiencing a variety of symptoms including difficulties with learning and memory, depression and anxiety, and increased incidence of neurodegenerative diseases. Combined toxicant exposure to acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors has been studied extensively as a likely risk factor. In this study, we modeled Gulf War exposure in male C57Bl/6J mice with simultaneous administration of three chemicals implicated as exposure hazards for Gulf War Veterans: pyridostigmine bromide, the anti-sarin prophylactic; chlorpyrifos, an organophosphate insecticide; and the repellant N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). Read More

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Trend Analysis on Road Traffic Collision Occurrence in Nigeria.

Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2021 Jul 21:1-7. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

BIDMC Fellowship in Disaster Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.

Objectives: Road traffic collisions (RTC) result in a significant number of preventable deaths worldwide. In 2010, the United Nations General Assembly launched, "The Decade of Action for Road Safety (2011-2020)" with the stated goal to "reduce road traffic deaths and injuries by 50% by 2020." This study aims to analyze trends in RTC numbers and subsequent deaths with respect to road safety laws in Nigeria and to suggest suitable interventions. Read More

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Optimization of man power deployment for Covid-19 screening in a tertiary care hospital: A study of utility of queuing analysis.

Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2021 Jul 21:1-13. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Pathology, Hindu Rao Hospital, Delhi, India.

Objectives: The recent Covid-19 pandemic has burdened the healthcare facilities, especially in the presence of limited infrastructure. We aimed at applying a queuing model to the Covid-19 screening area so as to optimize the screening services and ensuring that no patient is refused the service.

Methods: The mean arrival time of patients, number of physicians, mean screening time and queue characteristics were observed and entered in the M/M/c/K queuing model using R programming to optimize the number of physicians required in the screening area. Read More

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Combined approach for embolization of otherwise unmanageable gastric varices.

Ann Gastroenterol 2021 Jul-Aug;34(4):510-515. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Radiology Department, Fondazione IRCCS Cà Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan (Anna Maria Ierardi, Gianpaolo Carrafiello).

Background: This study aimed to determine the feasibility, safety and effectiveness of combined percutaneous transhepatic obliteration (PTO) and balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) therapy for the treatment of patients with high-risk bleeding gastric varices.

Methods: Ten patients were retrospectively reviewed. All the patients presented gastric varices, according to the Sarin classification, at high risk of bleeding, and not otherwise manageable. Read More

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Erratum to "Combined Balloon-, Plug- and Coil-assisted Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration of Multiple Portosystemic Shunts to Treat Recurrent Hepatic Encephalopathy: A Case Report" [J Clin Exp Hepatol 10 (2020) 402-406].

J Clin Exp Hepatol 2021 Jul-Aug;11(4):518. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Department of Hepatology, Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, D-1, Vasant Kunj, New Delhi, 110070, India.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1016/j.jceh. Read More

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December 2020

Liver Transplantation Society of India Guidelines for the Management of Acute Liver Injury Secondary to Yellow Phosphorus-Containing Rodenticide Poisoning Using the Modified Delphi Technique of Consensus Development.

J Clin Exp Hepatol 2021 Jul-Aug;11(4):475-483. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Department of Hepatology, Institute of Liver & Biliary Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Background: Acute liver failure caused by the ingestion of yellow phosphorus-containing rodenticide has been increasing in incidence over the last decade and is a common indication for emergency liver transplantation in Southern and Western India and other countries. Clear guidelines for its management are necessary, given its unpredictable course, potential for rapid deterioration and variation in clinical practice.

Methods: A modified Delphi approach was used for developing consensus guidelines under the aegis of the Liver Transplantation Society of India. Read More

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October 2020

Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Sleep-Wake Abnormalities in Patients with Cirrhosis.

J Clin Exp Hepatol 2021 Jul-Aug;11(4):453-465. Epub 2020 Oct 24.

Department of Hepatology and Liver Transplantation, New Delhi, India.

Background & Aims: Sleep-wake abnormalities [poor nighttime sleep and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS)] are common in patients with cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of sleep-wake abnormalities and clinical factors associated with these abnormalities in a group of patients with cirrhosis.

Methods: 1098 patients with cirrhosis [Child Turcotte Pugh (CTP) class A, 22. Read More

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October 2020

Dynamic assessments of hepatic encephalopathy and ammonia levels predict mortality in acute-on-chronic liver failure.

Hepatol Int 2021 Jul 18. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Department of Medicine, Ankara University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.

Background: We evaluated the dynamics of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and ammonia estimation in acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) patients due to a paucity of evidence.

Methods: ACLF patients recruited from the APASL-ACLF Research Consortium (AARC) were followed up till 30 days, death or transplantation, whichever earlier. Clinical details, including dynamic grades of HE and laboratory data, including ammonia levels, were serially noted. Read More

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Use of a Checklist Approach on a Telecobalt in an Attempt to Reduce Human Errors in Radiotherapy Delivery and Improve Therapeutic Ratio.

J Med Phys 2021 Jan-Mar;46(1):1-6. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Command Hospital (CC), Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Background: The process of radiotherapy treatment planning and delivery involves multiple steps and professionals causing it to be prone to errors. Radiotherapy centers equipped with old telecobalt machines have certain peculiar challenges to workflow. We designed and tested a checklist for radiotherapy technicians (RTTs) to reduce chances of error during treatment delivery on a telecobalt machine. Read More

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Role of Red Cell Indices in Screening for Beta Thalassemia Trait: an Assessment of the Individual Indices and Application of Machine Learning Algorithm.

Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus 2021 Jul 27;37(3):453-457. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Department of Pathology, Hindu Rao Hospital, Delhi, India.

Antenatal screening for beta thalassemia trait (BTT) followed by counseling of couples is an efficient way of thalassemia control. Since high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is costly, other cost-effective screening methods need to be devised for this purpose. The present study was aimed at evaluating the utility of red cell indices and machine learning algorithms including an artificial neural network (ANN) in detection of BTT among antenatal women. Read More

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Plasma Exchange in Acute and Acute on Chronic Liver Failure.

Semin Liver Dis 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Hepatology, Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Liver failure in the context of acute (ALF) and acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) is associated with high mortality in the absence of a liver transplant. For decades, therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is performed for the management of immune-mediated diseases. TPE has emerged as an attractive extracorporeal blood purification technique in patients with ALF and ACLF. Read More

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Budd-Chiari syndrome: consensus guidance of the Asian Pacific Association for the study of the liver (APASL).

Hepatol Int 2021 Jun 8;15(3):531-567. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Budd Chiari syndrome (BCS) is a diverse disease with regard to the site of obstruction, the predisposing thrombophilic disorders and clinical presentation across the Asia-Pacific region. The hepatic vein ostial stenosis and short segment thrombosis are common in some parts of Asia-Pacific region, while membranous obstruction of the vena cava is common in some and complete thrombosis of hepatic veins in others. Prevalence of myeloproliferative neoplasms and other thrombophilic disorders in BCS varies from region to region and with different sites of obstruction. Read More

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A Quality Improvement Initiative: Improving First-hour Breastfeeding Initiation Rate among Healthy Newborns.

Pediatr Qual Saf 2021 Jul-Aug;6(4):e433. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Obstetrics and Gynecological Nursing, Maharishi Markandeshwar deemed to be University, Mullana, Ambala, Haryana, India.

Introduction: "No matter where a newborn takes his or her first breath, the desire to give that baby the best start in life is universal." The best gift a mother can give her baby is the gift of health. The gift of health can be given to the baby through early and adequate breastfeeding. Read More

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Changing atmospheric acidity as a modulator of nutrient deposition and ocean biogeochemistry.

Sci Adv 2021 Jul 7;7(28). Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Marine Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Anthropogenic emissions to the atmosphere have increased the flux of nutrients, especially nitrogen, to the ocean, but they have also altered the acidity of aerosol, cloud water, and precipitation over much of the marine atmosphere. For nitrogen, acidity-driven changes in chemical speciation result in altered partitioning between the gas and particulate phases that subsequently affect long-range transport. Other important nutrients, notably iron and phosphorus, are affected, because their soluble fractions increase upon exposure to acidic environments during atmospheric transport. Read More

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Status and Recommendations for Incorporating Biomarkers for Cutaneous Neurofibromas into Clinical Research.

Neurology 2021 Jul 6. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Dermatology, Stanford University Medical Center, Redwood City CA

Objective: METHODS: , the cNF working group performed a review of existing data on genetic biomarkers for cNFs in the setting of Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1). We also reviewed criteria for successful biomarker application in the clinic. The group then met during a series of meetings to develop a consensus report. Read More

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BIMP affects tubulin structure and causes abnormalities in cell division.

Leg Med (Tokyo) 2021 Jun 8;53:101929. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Forensic Medicine, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan. Electronic address:

Although organophosphorus agents are used worldwide as pesticides, there have been many reports of pesticide poisoning. Nerve agents are organophosphorus agents that interfere with neurotransmission and have been used as chemical weapons in wars. These agents mainly irreversibly inhibit the action of acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter, and are believed to cause acute symptoms of poisoning. Read More

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The Milan System for Reporting Salivary Gland Cytopathology: An outcome of retrospective application to three years' cytology data of a tertiary care hospital.

Cytojournal 2021 6;18:12. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Pathology, Hindu Rao Hospital, New Delhi, India.

Objectives: Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the salivary gland lesions has diverse and sometimes overlapping features that pose a diagnostic challenge for the cytopathologists. The Milan System for Reporting Salivary Gland Cytopathology (MSRSGC) has been introduced to bring uniformity in the reporting of salivary gland FNAC and improve the clinic-pathologic communication resulting in better patient management. The aim of the present study was to assess the application of the MSRSGC on FNAC specimens of salivary gland lesions at a tertiary care hospital. Read More

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Constraints on Cosmic Strings Using Data from the Third Advanced LIGO-Virgo Observing Run.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Jun;126(24):241102

SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XQ, United Kingdom.

We search for gravitational-wave signals produced by cosmic strings in the Advanced LIGO and Virgo full O3 dataset. Search results are presented for gravitational waves produced by cosmic string loop features such as cusps, kinks, and, for the first time, kink-kink collisions. A template-based search for short-duration transient signals does not yield a detection. Read More

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UiO-66-NH and Zeolite-Templated Carbon Composites for the Degradation and Adsorption of Nerve Agents.

Molecules 2021 Jun 23;26(13). Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Agency for Defense Development, P.O. Box 35, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34186, Korea.

Composites of metal-organic frameworks and carbon materials have been suggested to be effective materials for the decomposition of chemical warfare agents. In this study, we synthesized UiO-66-NH/zeolite-templated carbon (ZTC) composites for the adsorption and decomposition of the nerve agents sarin and soman. UiO-66-NH/ZTC composites with good dispersion were prepared via a solvothermal method. Read More

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Terrorism-Related Chemical, Biological, Radiation, and Nuclear Attacks: A Historical Global Comparison Influencing the Emergence of Counter-Terrorism Medicine.

Prehosp Disaster Med 2021 Aug 30;36(4):399-402. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Director, BIDMC Disaster Medicine Fellowship; Department of Emergency Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center; Associate Professor, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MassachusettsUSA.

Background: Terrorist attacks are growing in complexity, increasing concerns around the use of chemical, biological, radiation, and nuclear (CBRN) agents. This has led to increasing interest in Counter-Terrorism Medicine (CTM) as a Disaster Medicine (DM) sub-specialty. This study aims to provide the epidemiology of CBRN use in terrorism, to detail specific agents used, and to develop training programs for responders. Read More

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Descriptive Epidemiology of Unintentional Childhood Injuries in India: An ICMR Taskforce Multisite Study.

Indian Pediatr 2021 Jun;58(6):517-524

Ramaiah Medical College, Bangalore, Karnataka.

Background: Children 0-14 years constitute about 31.4% of Indian population, among whom the magnitude and risk factors of childhood injuries have not been adequately studied.

Objective: To study the prevalence of and assess the factors associated with unintentional injuries among children aged 6 month - 18 years in various regions. Read More

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"Upgrading self-esteem: Effectiveness of cognitive enhancement package among psychiatric inpatients."

Arch Psychiatr Nurs 2021 Aug 27;35(4):395-400. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

MM College of Nursing, Maharishi Markandeshwar Deemed to be University, Mullana, India.

Objective: To assess and compare the self-esteem before and after administration of cognitive enhancement package among psychiatric inpatients.

Design & Method: Quantitative approach, Non-Equivalent control group pre-test and post-test design under quasi experimental research design was used for study. Total 60 psychiatric inpatients whose scores came out to be 25 and less in Rosenberg Self-esteem scale were enrolled in the study. Read More

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Comparative accuracy of prognostic models for short-term mortality in acute-on-chronic liver failure patients: CAP-ACLF.

Hepatol Int 2021 Jun 25;15(3):753-765. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Medicine, Ankara University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.

Background: Multiple predictive models of mortality exist for acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) patients that often create confusion during decision-making. We studied the natural history and evaluated the performance of prognostic models in ACLF patients.

Methods: Prospectively collected data of ACLF patients from APASL-ACLF Research Consortium (AARC) was analyzed for 30-day outcomes. Read More

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Release of protein-bound nerve agents by excess fluoride from whole blood: GC-MS/MS method development, validation, and application to a real-life denatured blood sample.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2021 Apr 15;1179:122693. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Bundeswehr Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Neuherbergstraße 11, D-80937 Munich, Germany. Electronic address:

In analogy to the fluoride-induced regeneration of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibited by nerve agents a method was developed and optimized for whole blood samples. Compared to the plasma method, regeneration grade was found to be higher for cyclosarin (GF), i-butylsarin from VR, and n-butylsarin from CVX, but lower for sarin (GB), fluorotabun from tabun (GA), and ethylsarin from VX. Regeneration grade of soman (GD) is the same for both matrices because it is released from serum albumin and not from cholinesterases. Read More

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J Hepatol 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Gastroenterology, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, CIBERehd, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Corticosteroids are the only effective therapy for severe alcohol-associated hepatitis (AH), defined as MELD score >20. However, there are patients who may be too sick to benefit from therapy.

Aim: To identify the range of MELD score within which steroids are effective treatment for AH. Read More

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Product Inhibition and the Catalytic Destruction of a Nerve Agent Simulant by Zirconium-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jul 23;13(26):30565-30575. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208, United States.

Rapid degradation/destruction of chemical warfare agents, especially ones containing a phosphorous-fluorine bond, is of notable interest due to their extreme toxicity and typically rapid rate of human incapacitation. Recent studies of the hydrolytic destruction of a key nerve agent simulant, dimethyl 4-nitrophenylphosphate (DMNP), catalyzed by Zr-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), have suggested deactivation of the active sites due to inhibition by the products as the reaction progresses. In this study, the interactions of two MOFs, NU-1000 and MOF-808, and two hydrolysis products, dimethyl phosphate (DMP) and ethyl methyl phosphonate (EMP), from the hydrolysis of the simulant (DMNP) and nerve agent ethyl methylphosphonofluoridate (EMPF), resembling the hydrolysis degradation product of the G-series nerve agent, Sarin (GB), have been investigated to deconvolute the effect of product inhibition from other effects on catalytic activity. Read More

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Intrapartum Fetal Heart Monitoring Practices in Selected Facilities in Aspirational Districts of Jharkhand, Odisha and Uttarakhand.

J Obstet Gynaecol India 2021 Apr 17;71(2):143-149. Epub 2021 Jan 17.

USAID-VRIDDHI/IPE Global, B-84, Defence Colony, New Delhi, 110024 India.

Background: The risk of mortality for the mother and the newborn is aggravated during birth in low- and middle-income countries due to preventable causes, which can be addressed with increased quality of care practices. One such practice is intrapartum fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring, which is crucial for the early detection of fetal ischemia, but is inadequately monitored in low- and middle-income countries. In India, there is currently a lack of sufficient data on FHR monitoring. Read More

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Gaming to relieve tension or anxiety and associations with health functioning, substance use and physical violence in high school students.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 Aug 27;140:461-467. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Psychiatry, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, 06510, United States; The Connecticut Council on Problem Gambling, Wethersfield, CT, 06109, United States; The Connecticut Mental Health Center, New Haven, CT, 06519, United States; Department of Neuroscience and Child Study Center, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, 06510, United States. Electronic address:

Gaming is popular among youth and gaming disorders have been introduced recently into psychiatric nomenclature systems. Motivations underlying gaming may include involvement to reduce negative emotional states and thus may link to psychiatric and overall health. Thus, the extent to which adolescents engage in gaming to relieve anxiety warrants additional investigation. Read More

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The Role of Cartridge-Based Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (CBNAAT), Line Probe Assay (LPA), Liquid Culture, Acid-Fast Bacilli (AFB) Smear and Histopathology in the Diagnosis of Osteoarticular Tuberculosis.

Indian J Orthop 2021 May 25;55(Suppl 1):157-166. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

National Institute of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases, Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi, Delhi 110030 India.

Background: There is a paucity of data on the role of molecular methods in the diagnosis of osteoarticular tuberculosis. The present study was conducted to define the role of molecular (CBNAAT, LPA), phenotypic (AFB smear and culture) and histopathological evaluation in the diagnosis of osteoarticular TB.

Methods: Seventy-seven consecutive cases of osteoarticular tuberculosis were grouped into presumptive TB cases (group A) and presumptive drug-resistant cases (group B). Read More

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Research collaboration is needed to inform quarantine policies for health-care workers.

Lancet 2021 Jun 7;397(10292):2334. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Health Intervention and Technology Assessment Program, Department of Health, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi 11000, Thailand; Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore, Singapore.

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