1,304 results match your criteria sap flow


Oncideres saga Dalman: first record damaging Stryphnodendron adstringens Mart. Coville (Fabaceae) in Brazil.

Braz J Biol 2021 4;82:e239747. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Departamento de Engenharia Florestal, Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri -UFVJM, Diamantina, Minas Gerais, Brasil.

Oncideres females girdle tree branches of the Fabaceae family, interrupting the sap flow and turning the wood conditions ideal for their larvae development. The bark of Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Coville, a species native to the Brazilian Cerrado, is widely used in the traditional medicine. Read More

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The dynamics of stem water storage in the tops of Earth's largest trees-Sequoiadendron giganteum.

Tree Physiol 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.

Water stored in tree stems (i.e., trunks and branches) is an important contributor to transpiration that can improve photosynthetic carbon gain and reduce the probability of cavitation. Read More

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Multiplex recombinase polymerase amplification assay developed using unique genomic regions for rapid on-site detection of genus Clavibacter and C. nebraskensis.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 8;11(1):12017. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Plant and Environmental Protection Sciences, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, 96822, USA.

Clavibacter is an agriculturally important bacterial genus comprising nine host-specific species/subspecies including C. nebraskensis (Cn), which causes Goss's wilt and blight of maize. A robust, simple, and field-deployable method is required to specifically detect Cn in infected plants and distinguish it from other Clavibacter species for quarantine purposes and timely disease management. Read More

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A double-ratio method (DRM) to measure fast, slow and reverse sap flows.

Tree Physiol 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Plant Sciences, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, United States.

Sap velocity measurements are useful in fields ranging from plant water relations to hydrology at a variety of scales. Techniques based on pulses of heat are among the most common methods to measure sap velocity, but most lack ability to measure velocities across a wide range, including very high, very low and negative velocities (reverse flow). We propose a new method, the double-ratio method (DRM), which is robust across an unprecedented range of sap velocities and provides real-time estimates of the thermal diffusivity of wood. Read More

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The impact of hydraulic retention time on the performance of two configurations of anaerobic pond for municipal sewage treatment.

Environ Technol 2021 May 31:1-40. Epub 2021 May 31.

Cranfield Water Science Institute, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire, UK, MK43 0AL.

Anaerobic ponds have the potential to contribute to low carbon wastewater treatment, however are currently restricted by long hydraulic residence time (HRT) which leads to large land requirements. A two stage anaerobic pond (SAP) design was trialled against a single stage control (CAP) over four HRTs down to 0.5 days, to determine the lowest HRT at which the ponds could operate effectively. Read More

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Hydrologic evaluation of a poplar phytoextraction system.

Int J Phytoremediation 2021 May 30:1-11. Epub 2021 May 30.

Motorola Solutions Inc, Chicago, IL, USA.

This paper reports the results of a seven-year study of a phytoremediation system consisting of 349 hybrid poplars ( x 'DN-21') that were emplaced to reduce the migration of impacted groundwater toward a nearby stream. For the relatively small tree stand, the achievement of hydraulic containment was challenged by several factors, including topographic constraints on tree placement, spatial heterogeneity in depth-to-groundwater, and lack of controls on surface runoff. However, the interpretation of measured diurnal water table fluctuations indicated substantial and increasing levels of groundwater extraction, consistent with poplar sap flow measurements collected during two growing seasons. Read More

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[Effects of environment and canopy structure on stem sap flow in a plantation.]

Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2021 May;32(5):1681-1689

College of Soil and Water Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China.

Accurately quantifying the impacts of environmental factors and canopy structure on stem sap flow is of great significance for deeply understanding water use strategies of trees in changing environment. The stem sap flow of plantation was observed using thermal diffusion probes from June to September of 2019 in the Xiangshuihe small watershed of Liupan Mountains, with the meteorological conditions, root-zone soil water content and canopy structure being simultaneously recorded. We first analyzed the relationships of sap flow rate () to potential evapotranspiration (PET), relative extract water (REW) and canopy leaf area index (LAI), and then quantified their relative contribution to . Read More

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[Dynamics and influencing factors of stem diameter micro-variations during the growing season in two typical forestation species in the loess hilly region, China.]

Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2021 May;32(5):1673-1680

State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on Loess Plateau, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China.

Using DC3 high-resolution dendrometer and Granier-type thermal dissipation probes, we measured stem diameter micro-variations and xylem sap flow of two typical forestation species, and , for a growing season in the loess hilly region of China. The main environmental factors (soil water content, solar radiation, air temperature and relative humidity) were monitored. The linkage between diameter micro-variations and transpiration water use were analyzed with respect to their responses to environmental factors. Read More

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Increased hydraulic constraints in Eucalyptus plantations fertilized with potassium.

Plant Cell Environ 2021 May 25. Epub 2021 May 25.

CIRAD, UMR Eco&Sols, Montpellier, France.

Fertilization is commonly used to increase growth in forest plantations, but it may also affect tree water relations and responses to drought. Here, we measured changes in biomass, transpiration, sapwood-to-leaf area ratio (A :A ) and sap flow driving force (ΔΨ) during the 6-year rotation of tropical plantations of Eucalyptus grandis under controlled conditions for throughfall and potassium (K) fertilization. K fertilization increased final tree height by 8 m. Read More

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Salix psammophila afforestations can cause a decline of the water table, prevent groundwater recharge and reduce effective infiltration.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 11;780:146336. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Key Laboratory of Subsurface Hydrology and Ecological Effects in Arid Region, Chang'an University, Ministry of Education, PR China; Center for Hydrogeology and Geothermics (CHYN), University of Neuchâtel, Switzerland.

Afforestation can reduce desertification and soil erosion. However, the hydrologic implications of afforestation are not well investigated, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. China has the largest area of afforestation in the world, with one-third of the world's total plantation forests. Read More

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Cohabiting Plant-Wearable Sensor In Situ Monitors Water Transport in Plant.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 05 9;8(10):2003642. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science Zhejiang University Hangzhou 310058 China.

The boom of plant phenotype highlights the need to measure the physiological characteristics of an individual plant. However, continuous real-time monitoring of a plant's internal physiological status remains challenging using traditional silicon-based sensor technology, due to the fundamental mismatch between rigid sensors and soft and curved plant surfaces. Here, the first flexible electronic sensing device is reported that can harmlessly cohabitate with the plant and continuously monitor its stem sap flow, a critical plant physiological characteristic for analyzing plant health, water consumption, and nutrient distribution. Read More

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Alleviation of acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury by inhibiting the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells.

World J Gastroenterol 2021 May;27(18):2141-2159

Department of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan Province, China.

Background: Previous reports have suggested that the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway is involved in the development of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP)-related acute lung injury (ALI). Inhibition of p38 by SB203580 blocked the inflammatory responses in SAP-ALI. However, the precise mechanism associated with p38 is unclear, particularly in pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell (PMVEC) injury. Read More

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Xylem, phloem and transpiration flows in developing European plums.

PLoS One 2021 20;16(5):e0252085. Epub 2021 May 20.

Institute for Horticultural Production Systems, Leibniz-University Hannover, Hannover, Germany.

Neck shrivel is a quality disorder of European plum (Prunus × domestica L.). It has been suggested that backflow in the xylem (from fruit to tree) could contribute to the incidence of neck shrivel in plum. Read More

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Prediction model for sap flow in cacao trees under different radiation intensities in the western Colombian Amazon.

Sci Rep 2021 May 18;11(1):10512. Epub 2021 May 18.

Estación Experimental de Zonas Áridas, Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Carretera de Sacramento s/n, E-04120 La Cañada de San Urbano, Almería, Spain.

In this study, we measured diurnal patterns of sap flow (V) in cacao trees growing in three types of agroforestry systems (AFs) that differ in the incident solar radiation they receive. We modeled the relationship of V with several microclimatic characteristics of the AFs using mixed linear models. We characterized microclimatic variables that may have an effect on diurnal patterns of sap flow: air relative humidity, air temperature, photosynthetically active radiation and vapor pressure deficit. Read More

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Optical coherence tomography and coronary angioscopy assessment of healed coronary plaque components.

Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 May 16. Epub 2021 May 16.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan.

Purpose: Histopathological or intracoronary image assessment of healed plaques (HPs) has been reported. However, the lesion characteristics of HPs remains undetermined yet. We assessed the healed plaque components in patients with coronary artery lesions using multiple imaging modalities. Read More

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Raman spectroscopy reveals high phloem sugar content in leaves of canopy red oak trees.

New Phytol 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Dept. of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, 02138, USA.

A robust understanding of phloem functioning in tall trees evades us because current methods for collecting phloem sap do not lend themselves to measuring actively photosynthesizing canopy leaves. We show that Raman spectroscopy can be used as a quantitative tool to assess sucrose concentration in leaf samples. Specifically, we found that Raman spectroscopy can predict physiologically relevant sucrose concentrations (adjusted R of 0. Read More

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Harvesting water from unsaturated atmospheres: deliquescence of salt secreted onto leaf surfaces drives reverse sap flow in a dominant arid climate mangrove, Avicennia marina.

New Phytol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Plant Science Division, Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, Acton, ACT, 2601, Australia.

The mangrove Avicennia marina adjusts internal salt concentrations by foliar salt secretion. Deliquescence of accumulated salt causes leaf wetting that may provide a water source for salt-secreting plants in arid coastal wetlands where high nocturnal humidity can usually support deliquescence whereas rainfall events are rare. We tested the hypotheses that salt deliquescence on leaf surfaces can drive top-down rehydration, and that such absorption of moisture from unsaturated atmospheres makes a functional contribution to dry season shoot water balances. Read More

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Distribution of systemically administered nanoparticles during acute pancreatitis: effects of particle size and disease severity.

Pharmazie 2021 May;76(5):180-188

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhengzhou University, China; Key Laboratory of Targeting Therapy and Diagnosis of Critical Diseases, China; Collaborative Innovation Center of New Drug Research and Safety Evaluation, China;, Email:

Nanoparticles (NPs) promise to address current limitations for treating acute pancreatitis (AP) inflammatory cell-mediated sequestration. However, very few studies have explored the influence of NP size on their behavior in different stages of AP. The present work investigated the biodistribution of IR780 loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) with sizes of 60, 150 or 300 nm after intravenous administration to rats of mild AP (MAP) or severe AP (SAP). Read More

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How tree species, tree size, and topographical location influenced tree transpiration in northern boreal forests during the historic 2018 drought.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Jul 5;27(13):3066-3078. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.

Trees in northern latitude ecosystems are projected to experience increasing drought stress as a result of rising air temperatures and changes in precipitation patterns in northern latitude ecosystems. However, most drought-related studies on high-latitude boreal forests (>50°N) have been conducted in North America, with few studies quantifying the response in European and Eurasian boreal forests. Here, we tested how daily whole-tree transpiration (Q, Liters day ) and Q normalized for mean daytime vapor pressure deficit (Q , Liters day kPa ) were affected by the historic 2018 drought in Europe. Read More

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Prediction of stroke-associated pneumonia by the A2DS2, AIS-APS, and ISAN scores: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Expert Rev Respir Med 2021 May 27:1-12. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Neurosurgery, Zhuji People's Hospital of Zhejiang Province, Shaoxing Zhejiang Province, P.R. China.

: Different scoring systems (A2DS2, AISAPS, ISAN) have been designed to predict the risk of in-hospital stroke-associated pneumonia (SAP). Studies have assessed the accuracy of these scores for predicting SAP. We performed this meta-analysis to consolidate the evidence on the predictive accuracies for SAP of the A2DS2, AISAPS, and ISAN scores. Read More

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Sensitivity and threshold dynamics of Pinus strobus and Quercus spp. in response to experimental and naturally-occurring severe droughts.

Tree Physiol 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Natural Resources and the Environment, University of New Hampshire, 56 College Rd, Durham, NH 03824 USA.

Increased drought frequency and severity are a pervasive global threat, yet the capacity of mesic temperate forests to maintain resilience in response to drought remains poorly understood. We deployed a throughfall removal experiment to simulate a once in a century drought in New Hampshire, USA, which coupled with the region-wide 2016 drought, intensified moisture stress beyond that experienced in the lifetimes of our study trees. To assess the sensitivity and threshold dynamics of two dominant northeastern tree genera (Quercus and Pinus), we monitored sap flux density (Js), leaf water potential and gas exchange, growth, and intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) for one pretreatment year (2015) and two treatment years (2016-17). Read More

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Water Use by Chinese Pine Is Less Conservative but More Closely Regulated Than in Mongolian Scots Pine in a Plantation Forest, on Sandy Soil, in a Semi-Arid Climate.

Front Plant Sci 2021 9;12:635022. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Institute of Desertification Studies, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing, China.

The diversity of plant water use patterns among species and ecosystems is a matter of widespread debate. In this study, Chinese pine (, ) and Mongolian Scots pine ( var. , ), which is co-exist in the shelterbelt plantations in the Horqin Sandyland in northern China, were chosen for comparison of water use traits by monitoring xylem sap flow alongside recordings of the associated environmental factors over four growing seasons. Read More

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Climate and functional traits jointly mediate tree water-use strategies.

New Phytol 2021 07 21;231(2):617-630. Epub 2021 May 21.

CREAF, Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Vallès), Catalonia, 08193, Spain.

Tree water use is central to plant function and ecosystem fluxes. However, it is still unknown how organ-level water-relations traits are coordinated to determine whole-tree water-use strategies in response to drought, and whether this coordination depends on climate. Here we used a global sap flow database (SAPFLUXNET) to study the response of water use, in terms of whole-tree canopy conductance (G), to vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and to soil water content (SWC) for 142 tree species. Read More

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SLAMs Negatively Regulate IL-21 Production in Tfh-Like Cells from Allergic Rhinitis Patients.

J Asthma Allergy 2021 13;14:361-369. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, The Affiliated People's Hospital, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, People's Republic of China.

Background: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is characterized by type I hypersensitivity that is mediated by IgE-induced humoral responses. Follicular helper T cells (Tfh) comprise the key helper T cell (Th) subset that promotes antibody production. Signaling lymphocytic activation molecules (SLAMs) participate in regulation of the differentiation and function of Tfh cells, but whether this regulation is involved in the pathogenesis of AR is unknown. Read More

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Functional hydraulic sectoring in grapevines as evidenced by sap flow, dye infusion, leaf removal and micro-computed tomography.

AoB Plants 2021 Apr 9;13(2):plab003. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Department of Viticulture and Enology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

The supply of water to a plant canopy is dependent on the xylem pathway connecting roots to leaves. In some plants, sectored xylem pathways can restrict resource distribution, resulting in variable quality of organs in the shoots, yet little is known about the effects of sectoring in crop cultivars. In this study, we combined sap flow measurements and infusion of xylem-specific dyes to document functional conductive area and flow pathways from roots to shoots of 20-year-old Thompson Seedless and 8-year-old Chardonnay grapevines. Read More

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Leaf and tree responses of young European aspen trees to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration vary over the season.

Tree Physiol 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Laboratory of Plant Ecology, Department of Plants and Crops, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure links 653, 9000 Ghent, Belgium.

Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration (eCO2) commonly stimulates net leaf assimilation, decreases stomatal conductance and has no clear effect on leaf respiration. However, effects of eCO2 on whole-tree functioning and its seasonal dynamics remain far more uncertain. To evaluate temporal and spatial variability in eCO2 effects, one-year-old European aspen trees were grown in two treatment chambers under ambient (aCO2, 400 ppm) and elevated (eCO2, 700 ppm) CO2 concentrations during an early (spring 2019) and late (autumn 2018) seasonal experiment (ESE and LSE, respectively). Read More

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Effect of kallikrein on microcirculation of rats with pancreatic ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI).

Pak J Pharm Sci 2020 Sep;33(5):1981-1986

Department of General Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Hebei University, Baoding, China.

The common pathway for pancreatitis onset is pancreatic ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI), which plays an especially significant role in the evolution process from acute edematous pancreatitis (AP) towards severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). This study explored the effect of Kallikrein (PK) on pancreatic ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). Male Wistar rats were taken as study objects, and a SAP -IRI combined model was established through retrograde infusion of 5% sodium taurocholate in biliopancreatic duct combining 30 min splenic artery clipping; drug intervention was carried out by pumping PK into rat caudal vein. Read More

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September 2020

Effects of meteorological factors and groundwater depths on plant sap flow velocities in karst critical zone.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 27;781:146764. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

School of Electronic Engineering and Automation, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004, China.

Determining water supply intensity of fracture/conduits is one of the difficulties involved in the research of plant transpiration water consumption in the Karst Critical Zone (KCZ). Our aims were to evaluate the effect of groundwater depth on plant sap flow velocities in KCZ. Thus, four sampled plots with different groundwater depth (GD) in boreholes KCZ7 (4 to 10 m GD), KCZ5 (2 to 9 m GD), KCZ1 (0 to 8 m GD) and KCZ3 (2 to 5 m GD), were selected, and the plant stem sap flow velocity in each plot were also monitored continuously and automatically using heat ratio techniques. Read More

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Xylem transport of root-derived CO caused a substantial underestimation of belowground respiration during a growing season.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Jun 12;27(12):2991-3000. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.

Previous research has indicated that a potentially large portion of root-respired CO can move internally through tree xylem, but these reports are relatively scarce and have generally been limited to short observations. Our main objective was to provide a continuous estimate of the quantity and variability of root-respired CO that moves either internally through the xylem (F ) or externally through the soil to the atmosphere (F ) over most of a growing season. Nine trees were measured in a Populus deltoides stand for 129 days from early June to mid-October. Read More

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Does scion-rootstock compatibility modulate photoassimilate and hormone trafficking through the graft junction in melon-pumpkin graft combinations?

Plant Sci 2021 May 17;306:110852. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

French Associates Institute for Agriculture and Biotechnology of Drylands, Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Sede Boqer Campus, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O.B. 653, Beer Sheva, 84104, Israel. Electronic address:

The effect of the rootstock on the acropetal and basipetal transport of photoassimilates and hormones was studied in the 'Kiran' (Ki) melon cultivar grafted onto pumpkin rootstocks with different degrees of compatibility. A complementary experiment was performed to compare the incompatible combination (as evidenced by plant collapse at the fruit ripening stage), designated Ki/r53, with self-grafted r53/r53 as a model compatible combination. Both experiments showed the accumulation of a number of amino acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols in the scion of the incompatible Ki/r53 grafts. Read More

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