658 results match your criteria sampled collections

Tobacco industry marketing adaptations to Singapore plain packaging.

Tob Control 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore, Singapore.

Background: Singapore has implemented plain packaging, a measure that strips all colours, logos and branding elements from tobacco packs. In other countries, tobacco companies responded to plain packaging with a variety of marketing tactics. Our goal was to describe the tobacco industry's marketing adaptations to Singapore plain packaging. Read More

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Population abundance in arctic grayling using genetics and close-kin mark-recapture.

Ecol Evol 2021 May 2;11(9):4763-4773. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Biology Dalhousie University Halifax NS Canada.

Arctic Grayling () are among the most widely distributed and abundant freshwater fish in the Yukon Territory of Canada, yet little information exists regarding their broad and fine-scale population structures or the number and size of these populations. The estimation of population abundance is fundamental for robust management and conservation, yet estimating abundance in the wild is often difficult. Here, we estimated abundance of an Arctic Grayling population using multiple genetic markers and the close-kin mark-recapture (CKMR) method. Read More

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Ancient horse genomes reveal the timing and extent of dispersals across the Bering Land Bridge.

Mol Ecol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Biomolecular Engineering, University Of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, United States.

The Bering Land Bridge (BLB) last connected Eurasia and North America during the Late Pleistocene. Although the BLB would have enabled transfers of terrestrial biota in both directions, it also acted as an ecological filter whose permeability varied considerably over time. Here we explore the possible impacts of this ecological corridor on genetic diversity within, and connectivity among, populations of a once wide-ranging group, the caballine horses (Equus spp. Read More

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A survey of (Hymenogastraceae) in Greenland.

MycoKeys 2021 19;79:17-118. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Frederik VII´s Vej 29, 3450 Allerød, Denmark.

This is the first study exclusively dedicated to the study of in Greenland. It is based on almost 400 collections, the great majority of which were collected by three of the co-authors over a period of 40 years and were lodged in the fungarium of the Natural History Museum in Copenhagen. The material was identified using molecular and morphological methods. Read More

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A Sentinel Serological Study in Selected Zoo Animals to Assess Early Detection of West Nile and Usutu Virus Circulation in Slovenia.

Viruses 2021 04 6;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Zaloška 4, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Monitoring infectious diseases is a crucial part of preventive veterinary medicine in zoological collections. This zoo environment contains a great variety of animal species that are in contact with wildlife species as a potential source of infectious diseases. Wild birds may be a source of West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu (USUV) virus, which are both emerging pathogens of rising concern. Read More

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The distribution of microbiomes and resistomes across farm environments in conventional and organic dairy herds in Pennsylvania.

Environ Microbiome 2020 Dec 9;15(1):21. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Kennett Square, PA, USA.

Background: Antimicrobial resistance is a serious concern. Although the widespread use of antimicrobials in livestock has exacerbated the emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARG) in farm environments, little is known about whether antimicrobial use affects distribution of ARG in livestock systems. This study compared the distribution of microbiomes and resistomes (collections of ARG) across different farm sectors in dairy herds that differed in their use of antimicrobials. Read More

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December 2020

Two complete mitochondrial genomes of butterflies obtained from historical specimens (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 Apr 5;6(4):1341-1343. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Life Science, Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC.

Museum specimens are collected for education, exhibition, and various multiple scientific purposes. However, millions of specimens remain in their collection boxes for years without being analyzed. Historical specimens have been known to contain low-quality DNA; hence, it is difficult to utilize their sequence information in phylogenetic studies. Read More

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Estimates of the population size and dispersal range of Anopheles arabiensis in Northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: implications for a planned pilot programme to release sterile male mosquitoes.

Parasit Vectors 2021 Apr 19;14(1):205. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Centre for Emerging Zoonotic & Parasitic Diseases, National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Background: Anopheles arabiensis is a major malaria vector, recently implicated as contributing to ongoing residual malaria transmission in South Africa, which feeds and rests both indoors and outdoors. This species is, therefore, not effectively targeted using core malaria vector control interventions alone. Additionally, increasing resistance to available insecticides necessitates investigations into complementary non-insecticide-based vector control methods for outdoor-resting mosquitoes. Read More

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Seasonality of Aedes albopictus in North and Central Mississippi.

J Am Mosq Control Assoc 2021 03;37(1):34-37

Container-breeding mosquitoes are increasingly important in public health due to recent outbreaks of Zika virus, chikungunya, and dengue. This paper documents seasonality of the most prevalent container-breeding mosquito species in Mississippi-Aedes albopictus. Ten sites in 5 counties in both northern and central Mississippi (20 sites, 10 counties total) were sampled by larval dipping and oviposition traps biweekly from September 2016 to June 2019, totaling 22 months and potentially yielding 440 egg or larval collections. Read More

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A Hemimysis Driven Novel Ecosystem at a Modified Rubble Mound Breakwater: An Engineering With Nature Demonstration Project.

Integr Environ Assess Manag 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

School of Freshwater Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 600 East Greenfield Ave., Milwaukee, WI, U.S.A., 53204.

The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) repairs aging breakwater structures as part of routine maintenance to maintain safe navigation in Great Lakes commercial ports. A USACE repair to an existing breakwater structure in Milwaukee Harbor (Wisconsin, USA) implementing Engineering With Nature (EWN) principles created complex rocky habitat by strategically placing cobble-sized stone over conventional 5.4 to 9. Read More

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Postmortem submersion interval (PMSI) estimation from the microbiome of sus scrofa bone in a freshwater lake.

J Forensic Sci 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Forensic Science, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA.

While many studies have developed microbial succession-based models for the prediction of postmortem interval (PMI) in terrestrial systems, similar well-replicated long-term decomposition studies are lacking for aquatic systems. Therefore, this study sought to identify temporal changes in bacterial community structure associated with porcine skeletal remains (n = 198) for an extended period in a fresh water lake. Every ca. Read More

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Dengue-2 and Guadeloupe Mosquito Virus RNA Detected in () spp. Collected in a Vehicle Impound Yard in Santo André, SP, Brazil.

Insects 2021 Mar 16;12(3). Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Setor de Pós-Graduação, Pesquisa e Inovação, Centro Universitário Saúde ABC (FMABC), Fundação ABC, Santo André 09060-870, Brazil.

In 2018-2019, we conducted mosquito collections in a municipal vehicle impound yard, which is 10 km from the Serra do Mar Environmental Protection Area in Santo André, SP, Brazil. Our aim is to study arboviruses in the impound yard, to understand the transmission of arboviruses in an urban environment in Brazil. We captured the mosquitoes using human-landing catches and processed them for arbovirus detection by conventional and quantitative RT-PCR assays. Read More

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Non-Destructive Detection of Pentachlorophenol Residues in Historical Wooden Objects.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Mar 27;13(7). Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Ljubljana, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Wood is a natural polymeric material that is an important constituent of many heritage collections. Because of its susceptibility to biodegradation, it is often chemically treated with substances that can be harmful to human health. One of the most widely used wood preservatives was pentachlorophenol (PCP), which is still present in museum objects today, although its use has been restricted for about forty years. Read More

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Barcode UK: A complete DNA barcoding resource for the flowering plants and conifers of the United Kingdom.

Mol Ecol Resour 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

National Botanic Garden of Wales, Llanarthne, UK.

DNA barcoding and metabarcoding provide new avenues for investigating biological systems. These techniques require well-curated reference libraries with extensive coverage. Generating an exhaustive national DNA barcode reference library can open up new avenues of research in ecology, evolution and conservation, yet few studies to date have created such a resource. Read More

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Influence of Schirmer strip wetness on volume absorbed, volume recovered, and total protein content in canine tears.

Vet Ophthalmol 2021 Mar 15. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA.

Objective: Determine the protein content and volume of tears sampled by Schirmer strips wetness ranging from 20 to 35 mm.

Animals Studied: Ten healthy beagle dogs.

Procedures: Each dog underwent 20 tear collections per day (10 sessions in each eye, spaced by ≥1 h) for 4 separate days, providing 200 tear samples for each length of wetness evaluated: 20, 25, 30, and 35 mm. Read More

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Environmental drivers of meiofaunal natural variability, Egypt, Southeastern Mediterranean.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 Mar 13;193(4):185. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Oceanography Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.

Sandy beaches are challenging ecosystems, in which biota experience extreme physical conditions. We sampled meiofauna in conjunction with environmental factors that are well-known to affect faunal associations to describe the ecological state of sandy beaches that experience natural and human-made disturbances. We applied a random stratified sampling design with monthly collections (1800 cores) at three beaches on the Alexandria, Egypt, coast during two sampling periods over 1 year from November to April and May to September. Read More

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Sampling efficiency of a protocol to measure Odonata diversity in tropical streams.

PLoS One 2021 9;16(3):e0248216. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Laboratory of Ecology and Conservation, Pós-graduação em Ecologia, Universidade Federal do Pará and Goeldi Museum, Belém, Brazil.

Odonata can be sampled following different types of protocols. In Brazil, the most used protocol is the scanning in fixed areas method, where a 100-meter transect is delimited in one of the stream margins, subdivided into 20 segments measuring 5 meters. Despite being universally used, the methodological efficiency or limitations of this protocol for Odonata has never been tested. Read More

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Diversification of the mygalomorph spider genus Aname (Araneae: Anamidae) across the Australian arid zone: Tracing the evolution and biogeography of a continent-wide radiation.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2021 Jul 2;160:107127. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Collections and Research Centre, Western Australian Museum, Welshpool, WA 6106, Australia; School of Biological Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia.

The assembly of the Australian arid zone biota has long fascinated biogeographers. Covering over two-thirds of the continent, Australia's vast arid zone biome is home to a distinctive fauna and flora, including numerous lineages which have diversified since the Eocene. Tracing the origins and speciation history of these arid zone taxa has been an ongoing endeavour since the advent of molecular phylogenetics, and an increasing number of studies on invertebrate animals are beginning to complement a rich history of research on vertebrate and plant taxa. Read More

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The anurans and squamates assemblage from Final Natufian Eynan (Ain Mallaha, Israel) with an emphasis on snake-human interactions.

PLoS One 2021 25;16(2):e0247283. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

National Natural History Collections, Institute of Earth Sciences, Institute of Archaeology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel.

During the Natufian period, more than 12,000 years ago, Eynan (Ain Mallaha) was an important human settlement in the Hula Valley, Israel. This study concentrates on the anuran and squamate assemblage from the ultimate stage of the Natufian period at the site, the Final Natufian. Over five thousand bones assigned to at least sixteen taxa were studied from a sampled segment of the excavated open-air site. Read More

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February 2021

Outcomes from international field trials with Male Aedes Sound Traps: Frequency-dependent effectiveness in capturing target species in relation to bycatch abundance.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Feb 25;15(2):e0009061. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Verily Life Sciences, San Francisco, California, United States of America.

Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus vector dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. With both species expanding their global distributions at alarming rates, developing effective surveillance equipment is a continuing priority for public health researchers. Sound traps have been shown, in limited testing, to be highly species-specific when emitting a frequency corresponding to a female mosquito wingbeat. Read More

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February 2021

Taxonomic sampling and rare genomic changes overcome long-branch attraction in the phylogenetic placement of pseudoscorpions.

Mol Biol Evol 2021 Feb 10. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Integrative Biology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, 53706, USA.

Long-branch attraction is a systematic artifact that results in erroneous groupings of fast-evolving taxa. The combination of short, deep internodes in tandem with LBA artifacts has produced empirically intractable parts of the Tree of Life. One such group is the arthropod subphylum Chelicerata, whose backbone phylogeny has remained unstable despite improvements in phylogenetic methods and genome-scale datasets. Read More

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February 2021

Genetic diversity of native and cultivated Ugandan Robusta coffee (Coffea canephora Pierre ex A. Froehner): Climate influences, breeding potential and diversity conservation.

PLoS One 2021 8;16(2):e0245965. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

IRD-UMR DIADE (Univ. Montpellier, CIRAD, IRD), Montpellier, France.

Wild genetic resources and their ability to adapt to environmental change are critically important in light of the projected climate change, while constituting the foundation of agricultural sustainability. To address the expected negative effects of climate change on Robusta coffee trees (Coffea canephora), collecting missions were conducted to explore its current native distribution in Uganda over a broad climatic range. Wild material from seven forests could thus be collected. Read More

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February 2021

Examining the utility of DNA barcodes for the identification of tallgrass prairie flora.

Appl Plant Sci 2021 Jan 24;9(1):e11405. Epub 2021 Jan 24.

Department of Natural Resource Management South Dakota State University 1390 College Avenue Brookings South Dakota 57007 USA.

Premise: The tallgrass prairies of North America are one of the most threatened ecosystems in the world, making efficient species identification essential for understanding and managing diversity. Here, we assess DNA barcoding with high-throughput sequencing as a method for rapid plant species identification.

Methods: Using herbarium collections representing the tallgrass prairie flora of Oak Lake Field Station, South Dakota, USA, we amplified and examined four common nuclear and plastid barcode regions (ITS, , , and ), individually and in combination, to test their success in identifying samples to family, genus, and species levels using BLAST searches of three databases of varying size. Read More

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January 2021

The entomological impact of passive metofluthrin emanators against indoor Aedes aegypti: A randomized field trial.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 01 26;15(1):e0009036. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Unidad Colaborativa de Bioensayos Entomológicos, Campus de Ciencias. Biológicas y Agropecuarias, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán, Mérida, Yucatán, México.

Background: In the absence of vaccines or drugs, insecticides are the mainstay of Aedes-borne disease control. Their utility is challenged by the slow deployment of resources, poor community compliance and inadequate household coverage. Novel application methods are required. Read More

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January 2021

A dense sample of fossil primates (Adapiformes, Notharctidae, Notharctinae) from the Early Eocene Willwood Formation, Wyoming: Documentation of gradual change in tooth area and shape through time.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2021 04 23;174(4):728-743. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Department of Anatomical Sciences, Renaissance School of Medicine, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, USA.

Objectives: The Willwood Formation of the southern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming is a fluvial rock sequence that spans approximately 3 million years of early Eocene time. It has yielded one the largest collections of fossil mammals in the world including thousands of dentitions of extinct lemur-like primates known as notharctines. In the southern Bighorn Basin, specimens of these primates have been collected on numerous paleontological expeditions and the stratigraphic levels yielding the dentitions have been carefully recorded. Read More

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Floral hosts of leaf-cutter bees (Megachilidae) in a biodiversity hotspot revealed by pollen DNA metabarcoding of historic specimens.

PLoS One 2021 21;16(1):e0244973. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa.

South Africa is a megadiverse country with three globally recognised biodiversity hotspots within its borders. Bees in particular show high diversity and endemism in the western part of the country. Not much is currently known about the floral host preferences of indigenous bees in South Africa, with data only available from observational studies. Read More

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Age-growth relationships, temperature sensitivity and palaeoclimate-archive potential of the threatened Altiplano cactus .

Conserv Physiol 2021 12;9(1):coaa123. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Botany, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071, USA.

The tall (>4 m), charismatic and threatened columnar cacti, pasacana [ (Vaupel) Friedrich & G.D. Rowley)], grows on the Bolivian Altiplano and provides environmental and economic value to these extremely cold, arid and high-elevation (~4000 m) ecosystems. Read More

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January 2021

Natural Bacterial Assemblages in Arabidopsis thaliana Tissues Become More Distinguishable and Diverse during Host Development.

mBio 2021 01 19;12(1). Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA

To study the spatial and temporal dynamics of bacterial colonization under field conditions, we planted and sampled during 2 years at two Michigan sites and surveyed colonists by sequencing 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Mosaic and dynamic assemblages revealed the plant as a patchwork of tissue habitats that differentiated with age. Although assemblages primarily varied between roots and shoots, amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) also differentiated phyllosphere tissues. Read More

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January 2021

Integration of georeferenced and genetic data for the management of biodiversity in sheep genetic resources in Brazil.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2021 Jan 15;53(1):126. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

EMBRAPA Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia, Parque Estação Biológica - PqEB - Av. W5 Norte (final), Caixa Postal 02372, Brasília, DF, 70770-917, Brazil.

There are few animal germplasm/gene bank collections in Brazil, and basic studies are needed to attend the future internal and external demands from international partners. The aim of this work was to validate a "proof of concept" that integrates spatial (georeferenced data) and genetic data regarding the local of origin from 3518 DNA samples from 17 different genetic groups or breeds of sheep in the Brazilian Germplasm bank. Spatialisation shows that not all genetic groups have samples in the bank, and collection is concentrated in the conservation nuclei spread nationwide. Read More

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January 2021

Temporal Occurrence of Plusiinae on Soybean in the Mississippi River Delta.

J Econ Entomol 2021 Apr;114(2):723-727

USDA-ARS, Southern Insect Management Research Unit, Stoneville, MS.

The subfamily Plusiinae of the moth family Noctuidae is made up 400 species worldwide. Two species of the subfamily, the soybean looper, Chrysodeixis includens (Walker), and the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), are important defoliating insect pests of various field crops and have been the subject of previous Plusiinae surveys in the Southern U.S. Read More

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