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How Common Is the Exponential Decay Pattern of Motor Skill Acquisition? A Brief Investigation.

Motor Control 2021 May 13:1-11. Epub 2021 May 13.

University of Utah.

Motor performance is classically described as improving nonlinearly with practice, demonstrating rapid improvements early in practice with stabilization later, which is commonly modeled by exponential decay functions. However, retrospective analyses of our previously collected data challenge this theoretical model of motor skill acquisition, suggesting that a majority of individual learners actually demonstrate patterns of motor improvement different from this classical model. A convenience sample of young adults, older adults, and people with Parkinson disease trained on the same functional upper-extremity task. Read More

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Childhood trauma is linked to decreased temporal stability of functional brain networks in young adults.

J Affect Disord 2021 May 2;290:23-30. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Psychiatry, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China; Mental Health Institute of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China; China National Clinical Research Center on Mental Disorders, Changsha, Hunan, China. Electronic address:

Background: Both childhood trauma and disruptions in brain functional networks are implicated in the development of psychiatric disorders in early adulthood. However, the relationships between these two factors remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate whether and how childhood trauma would relate to changes of functional network dynamics in young adults. Read More

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The effect of lower airway inflammation on inflammatory cytokine gene expression in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and whole blood in racing Thoroughbreds.

Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2021 May 9;237:110266. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA.

Background: Immunological mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of mild to moderate equine asthma (MEA) are not completely understood. There are limited data on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and blood inflammatory cytokine profiles in racehorses with MEA, and the effect of racing on inflammatory cytokines is unknown.

Hypothesis/objectives: We hypothesized that inflammatory cytokine gene expression in BALF and resting blood would be higher in racehorses with lower airway inflammation compared to healthy controls, and that gene expression in blood collected immediately post-race would be increased compared to resting blood in racehorses with lower airway inflammation. Read More

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A grounded theory study: Exploring health care professionals decision making when managing end stage heart failure care.

J Adv Nurs 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

School of Nursing and Allied Health, Liverpool John Moore University, Liverpool, UK.

Aim: To explore how healthcare professionals in an acute medical setting make decisions when managing the care of patients diagnosed with end stage heart failure, and how these decisions impact directly on the patient's end of life experience.

Design: A constructivist grounded theory approach was adopted.

Method: A purposive sample was used to recruit participants that included 16 registered nurses, 15 doctors and 16 patients. Read More

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Effect of continuous positive airway pressure on albuminuria in patients with obstructive sleep apnea: a meta-analysis.

Sleep Breath 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Nanri Branch of the First Hospital of Putian City, Putian, Fujian, China.

Purpose: A relationship between albuminuria and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been documented in previous studies. Nevertheless, the impact of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on albuminuria in subjects with OSA is debated. This meta-analysis was carried out to investigate whether or not CPAP treatment affected urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) in subjects with OSA. Read More

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Complementary, Traditional and Spiritual Practices Used by Cancer Patients in Turkey When Coping with Pain: An Exploratory Case Study.

J Relig Health 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

SBÜ Ankara Dr.Sami Ulus Women, Children's Health And Diseases Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.

This study was conducted to determine the complementary and traditional-spiritual practices applied by individuals diagnosed with cancer when experiencing significant pain. This descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted with 110 patients who were receiving chemotherapy treatment in a university hospital outpatient treatment unit (Chemotherapy Unit) between 1st March and 30th June 2019. The study sample size was calculated using the 'unknown-population sample selection formula' (n = t·p·q·/d). Read More

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Fast and accurate automated recognition of the dominant cells from fecal images based on Faster R-CNN.

Sci Rep 2021 May 14;11(1):10361. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Public Health, Chengdu Medical College, Chengdu, 610500, Sichuan, China.

Fecal samples can easily be collected and are representative of a person's current health state; therefore, the demand for routine fecal examination has increased sharply. However, manual operation may pollute the samples, and low efficiency limits the general examination speed; therefore, automatic analysis is needed. Nevertheless, recognition exhaustion time and accuracy remain major challenges in automatic testing. Read More

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Comprehensive dataset of shotgun metagenomes from oxygen stratified freshwater lakes and ponds.

Sci Data 2021 May 14;8(1):131. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, Science for Life Laboratory, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.

Stratified lakes and ponds featuring steep oxygen gradients are significant net sources of greenhouse gases and hotspots in the carbon cycle. Despite their significant biogeochemical roles, the microbial communities, especially in the oxygen depleted compartments, are poorly known. Here, we present a comprehensive dataset including 267 shotgun metagenomes from 41 stratified lakes and ponds mainly located in the boreal and subarctic regions, but also including one tropical reservoir and one temperate lake. Read More

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Depression, anxiety and stress among undergraduate students during COVID-19 outbreak and "home-quarantine".

Nurs Open 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Community Health Department, Faculty of Nursing, Jordan University, Zarqa, Jordan.

Aim: Many people including students affected physically and psychologically by coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak and "home-quarantine." This study aimed at assessing the prevalence and predictors of depression, anxiety and stress among university students in Jordan during "home-quarantine" due to the outbreak of COVID-19.

Design: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study. Read More

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The Large Uterus Classification System (LUCS): A Prospective Observational Study.

BJOG 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Insubria, F. Del Ponte Hospital, Varese, Italy.

Objective: To investigate the Large Uterus Classification System (LUCS) ability to predict surgical outcomes and complications in total laparoscopic hysterectomies (TLHs) for large uteri.

Design: Prospective observational study.

Setting: Two referral centres. Read More

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Nursing Education Amid a Pandemic: Mental Health in a Time of Virtual Learning.

Nurse Educ 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Author Affiliations: Professor (Dr Amerson) and Senior Lecturers (Mss Burgess and Ravan), Clinical Assistant Professor (Dr Fisher) and Associate Professor (Dr Ward), School of Nursing, and Assistant Professor (Dr Bible), School of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences, Clemson University, South Carolina.

Background: The unprecedented pandemic presented new stresses and challenges in nursing education impacting the mental health of nursing students.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between virtual learning and the mental health of nursing students.

Method: This study used a descriptive, cross-sectional design with a convenience sample of 256 nursing students enrolled in a baccalaureate program. Read More

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A family with partially penetrant multicentric carpotarsal osteolysis due to gonadal mosaicism: First reported case.

Am J Med Genet A 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, School of Life Course Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King's College London, London, UK.

Multicentric carpotarsal osteolysis (MCTO) is an autosomal dominant condition characterized by carpal-tarsal abnormalities; over half of affected individuals also develop renal disease. MCTO is caused by mutations of MAFB; however, there is no clear phenotype-genotype correlation. We describe the first reported family of variable MCTO phenotype due to mosaicism: the proband had classical skeletal features and renal involvement due to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), and the father had profound renal impairment due to FSGS, necessitating kidney transplantation. Read More

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The prevalence of potential drug-drug interactions in adults with intellectual disability.

J Intellect Disabil Res 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Division of Health Research, Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK.

Background: There is a high use of medications in adults with intellectual disability (ID). One implication of taking multiple medications is the potential for drug-drug interactions (DDIs). However, despite this being well highlighted in the mainstream literature, little is known about the incidence or associations of DDIs in the ID population. Read More

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COVID-19 lockdown and seasonal allergic rhinitis: our experience in 40 patients.

Acta Biomed 2021 May 12;92(2):e2021215. Epub 2021 May 12.

University Hospital of Foggia.

Introduction: The aim of this article was to study the course of seasonal allergic rhinitis during COVID-19 lockdown in order to understand if being quarantined at home for a long time can constitute a protective factor for allergic patients.

Materials And Methods: Telehealth consultations were performed by the departments of Otolaryngology of Foggia and Bari University Hospitals. Participants took part in a phone interview and were asked about their sinonasal symptoms during the COVID-19 lockdown, by answering the sinonasal outcome test (I-SNOT-22) questionnaire. Read More

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Bedsharing in Early Childhood: Frequency, Partner Characteristics, and Relations to Sleep.

J Genet Psychol 2021 May 14:1-20. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Psychological & Brain Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts, USA.

Bedsharing (sharing a bed with others during sleep) in early childhood (3-5 years old) is common across Western and non-Western societies alike. Though prior work indicates that bedsharing may relate to impairments in child sleep quantity or quality, the majority of studies conducted in young children are limited to parent-child bedsharing and rely almost exclusively on caregiver reports to measure child sleep. Here, the authors endeavored to gain further insights into the diversity of bedsharing practices among children in the United States, including how different bedsharing partners (caregivers, siblings) might impact actigraphy-derived measures of children's sleep. Read More

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EXPRESS: Combined Spectroscopic Analysis of Terrestrial Analogs from a Simulated Astronaut Mission Using the Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Raman Sensor: Implications for Mars.

Appl Spectrosc 2021 May 14:37028211016892. Epub 2021 May 14.

York University Faculty of Science and Engineering, Centre for Research in Earth and Space Science , 4700 Keele St, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

One of the primary objectives of planetary exploration is the search for signs of life (past, present, or future). Formulating an understanding of the geochemical processes on planetary bodies may allow us to define the precursors for biological processes, thus providing insight into the evolution of past life on Earth and other planets, and perhaps a projection into future biological processes. Several techniques have emerged for detecting biomarker signals on an atomic or molecular level, including laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), Raman spectroscopy, laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIF), and attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, each of which addresses complementary aspects of the elemental composition, mineralogy, and organic characterization of a sample. Read More

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Children's oral health-related behaviours and early childhood caries: A latent class analysis.

Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Division of Pediatric and Public Health, Adams School of Dentistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Objective: In this cross-sectional study in a large community-based sample of preschool-age children, we sought to identify distinct clusters of modifiable early childhood oral health-related behaviours (OHBs) and quantify their association with clinical and parent-reported measures of early childhood oral health.

Methods: We relied upon a questionnaire (n = 8033; 11% in Spanish) and clinical oral health data (n = 6404; early childhood caries [ECC] prevalence = 54%] collected in the context of an epidemiologic study of early childhood oral health among 3- to 5-year-old children in North Carolina. Latent class analysis was used to identify clusters of modifiable OHBs based on parents' responses to 6 questionnaire items pertaining to their children's oral hygiene, diet and dental home. Read More

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Performances, feasibility and acceptability of nasopharyngeal swab, saliva and oral-self sampling swab for the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Microbiology unit, Hôpital d'Instruction des Armées Sainte Anne, Toulon, France.

Molecular diagnosis on nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) is the current standard for COVID-19 diagnosis, but saliva may be an alternative specimen to facilitate access to diagnosis. We compared analytic performances, feasibility and acceptability of NPS, saliva, and oral-self sampling swab for the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). A prospective, multicenter study was conducted in military hospitals in France among adult outpatients attending COVID-19 diagnosis centers or hospitalized patients. Read More

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Retrospective surveillance of porcine circovirus 4 in pigs in Inner Mongolia, China, from 2016 to 2018.

Arch Virol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Institute of Military Veterinary medicine, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Changchun, 130122, China.

A novel circovirus designated "porcine circovirus type 4" (PCV4) was recently reported in pigs with severe clinical disease in Hunan Province, China. Relatively little is known about the molecular epidemiology of this recently discovered virus. In order to assess the prevalence of PCV4 infection in pigs and to analyze its genomic characteristics, 1683 clinical samples were collected in Inner Mongolia, China, from 2016 to 2018. Read More

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European Childhood Obesity Risk Evaluation (CORE) index based on perinatal factors and maternal sociodemographic characteristics: the Feel4Diabetes-study.

Eur J Pediatr 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Health Science and Education, Harokopio University, 70 El Venizelou Ave, 176 71 Kallithea, Athens, Greece.

The aim of this study was to develop and examine the predictive accuracy of an index that estimates obesity risk in childhood based on perinatal factors and maternal sociodemographic characteristics. Analysis was conducted by using cross-sectional and retrospective data collected from a European cohort of 2775 schoolchildren and their families participating in the Feel4Diabetes-study. The cohort was randomly divided by using two-thirds of the sample for the development of the index and the remaining one third for assessing its predictive accuracy. Read More

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Comparison of traditional methods and high-throughput genetic sequencing in the detection of pathogens in pulmonary infectious diseases.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(8):702

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University, School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: The major causes of pulmonary infections are various microorganisms. This study aimed to compare the positive rates of pathogenic microorganism DNA/RNA high-throughput genetic sequencing (PMseq), which is an emerging technique, with traditional methods for pulmonary disease detection, and to investigate the differences in different sample types.

Methods: Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and venous blood samples from 104 patients were collected for detection. Read More

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Real-world big data demonstrates prevalence trends and developmental patterns of myopia in China: a retrospective, multicenter study.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(7):554

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Myopia is a complex disease caused by a combination of multiple pathogenic factors. Prevalence trends and developmental patterns of myopia exhibit substantial variability that cannot be clearly assessed using limited sample sizes. This study aims to determine the myopia prevalence over the past 60 years and trace the myopia development in a school-aged population using medical big data. Read More

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"Our Home Is a Muddy Structure": Perceptions of Housing and Health Risks Among Older Adults in Contrasting Neighborhoods in Ghana.

Front Public Health 2021 22;9:650861. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Aging occurs in a variety of social and physical environmental settings that affect health. However, despite their rapidly growing populations, public health research in sub-Saharan Africa has yet to address the role of residential environments in the health and well-being of older adults. In this study, we utilized an ethnographic research methodology to explore barriers and facilitators to health among older adults residing in two contrasting neighborhoods in Accra, Ghana. Read More

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Identifying Genomic Alterations in Small Cell Lung Cancer Using the Liquid Biopsy of Bronchial Washing Fluid.

Front Oncol 2021 26;11:647216. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Respiratory Ward One, Shanxi Provincial Cancer Hospital, Taiyuan, China.

With the rapid development of cancer genomics and immunomics, some new treatments of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) are emerging. However, there are limitations to the clinical use of tumor tissue. Our study aimed to evaluate the potential use of bronchial washing fluid (BWF) in the liquid biopsy of SCLC. Read More

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Adverse Childhood Experiences, Depression, Resilience, & Spirituality in African-American Adolescents.

J Child Adolesc Trauma 2021 Jun 4;14(2):209-221. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

UTHealth School of Public Health, Houston, TX USA.

Research shows that exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) is common among adolescents and that exposure to ACEs is associated with an increased risk of depression in adolescents. Furthermore, it is unknown whether resilience and spirituality moderate the association between ACEs and depression in African-American adolescents. Thus, the present study examined the prevalence of ACEs and the association between ACEs and the risk for depression in African-American adolescents and examined whether this association is moderated by resilience and spirituality. Read More

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Screening and Identification of Key Microenvironment-Related Genes in Non-functioning Pituitary Adenoma.

Front Genet 2021 27;12:627117. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Purpose: Non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA) is a very common type of intracranial tumor, which can be locally invasive and can have a high recurrence rate. The tumor microenvironment (TME) shows a high correlation with tumor pathogenesis and prognosis. The current study aimed to identify microenvironment-related genes in NFPAs and assess their prognostic value. Read More

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Personality to Prescription Drug Misuse in Adolescents: Testing Affect Regulation, Psychological Dysregulation, and Deviance Proneness Pathways.

Front Psychiatry 2021 27;12:640766. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Psychiatry, Université de Montréal, Montréal, PQ, Canada.

Fifteen to 25-year-olds are the age group most likely to misuse prescription drugs. Few studies have tested theory-driven models of adolescent risk for prescription drug misuse. Moreover, rarely are distinct pathways to different forms of prescription drug misuse considered. Read More

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Use of AUDIT-C alcohol screening tool in NHS general dental practices in North London.

Br Dent J 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, UCL, UK.

Background The numerous health risks of excessive alcohol consumption are well documented. Individuals at risk of harm from alcohol consumption can be identified through alcohol screening tools; however, there is limited research regarding their use in general dental practices.Methods Data were collected as part of a feasibility trial evaluating delivery of brief alcohol advice in general dental practices in North London. Read More

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Rumen volatile fatty acid molar proportions, rumen epithelial gene expression, and blood metabolite concentration responses to ruminally degradable starch and fiber supplies.

J Dairy Sci 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Animal and Poultry Science, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg 24061. Electronic address:

The objective of this work was to characterize rumen volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations, rumen epithelial gene expression, and blood metabolite responses to diets with different starch and fiber sources. Six ruminally cannulated yearling Holstein heifers (body weight = 330 ± 11.3 kg) were arranged in a partially replicated Latin square experiment with 4 treatments consisting of different starch [barley (BAR) or corn (CRN)] and fiber [timothy hay (TH) or beet pulp (BP)] sources. Read More

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[Determination of o-toluidine in workplace air by solvent desorption-gas chromatography].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2021 Mar;50(2):310-314

Occupational Hygiene Technology Services Co. , Ltd. , Nanhai West Oil Corporation, Zhanjiang 524057, China.

Objective: To establish solvent desorption gas chromatograph method for o-toluidine determination in workplace air.

Methods: The o-toluidine vapour in workplace air was collected with silicone tube, and desorbed with absolute ethanol. Then the desorption solution was separated with polyethylene glycol HP-INNOWax capillary column(30 m×0. Read More

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