39,286 results match your criteria rural background


Alcohol Consumption and Stroke Risk in Men: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Rural Tianjin, China.

Neuroepidemiology 2021 Jun 15:1-9. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Neurology, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China.

Background: Although the protective effects of alcohol consumption against future cardiovascular disease have been published, the effects of alcohol on stroke risk remain controversial.

Method: We assessed the effects of alcohol consumption on stroke risk in a poorly educated, low-income population in rural China. Between 1991 and 2018, a population-based cohort study was conducted in rural Tianjin, China, to examine stroke risk. Read More

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Factors Associated with Contraceptive Use in Sub-Saharan Africa.

J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Health Social Welfare and Nutrition Division, President's Office Regional Administration and Local Government, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Globally 10% of women have an unmet need for contraception, with higher rates in sub-Saharan Africa. Programs to improve family planning (FP) outcomes require data on how service characteristics (, geographic access, quality) and women's characteristics are associated with contraceptive use. We combined data from health facility assessments (2018 and 2019) and a population-based regional household survey (2018) of married and in-union women ages 15-49 in the Kigoma Region of Tanzania. Read More

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Obesogenic Behaviors of Rural Children on School and Nonschool Days.

Child Obes 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

School of Social Work, College of Health Professions and Sciences, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA.

Children living in rural areas are at increased risk of overweight and obesity compared with their urban-dwelling counterparts. The purpose of this study was to provide preliminary evidence of rural children's obesogenic behaviors ( activity, sedentary behaviors, sleep, and diet) during school days, nonschool weekdays, and weekend days. A repeated measures 14-day observational study was conducted early March 2020. Read More

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Investigation of high correlation with carcass traits of SNPs of the PLCB1, C/EBPα, and TDRKH genes and the combinations of SNPs using the MDR method in the Hanwoo.

Genes Genomics 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Center for Bio-Medical Engineering Core Facility, Dankook University, Cheonan-si, 31116, Republic of Korea.

Background: Recently, many researchers focus on the best way to produce high-quality meat, as the trend in food consumption today is to focus on quality. In general, consumers' preferences in beef differ depending on taste and meatiness. Therefore, researchers are interested in how the marbling score affects the flavors of meat or the various factors that make up the meatiness to captivate the consumers' tastes. Read More

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The spectrum, prevalence and in-hospital outcomes of cardiovascular diseases in a South African district hospital: a retrospective study.

Cardiovasc J Afr 2021 Jun 10;32:1-6. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Cardiac Clinic, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Introduction: The increasing prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in South African rural communities is well reported. However, the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) leading to hospital admission and related in-hospital mortality in rural and semi-rural hospitals is unknown.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of hospital records for patients admitted to the Department of Internal Medicine at Dora Nginza Hospital in Port Elisabeth, South Africa between 1 April and 31 October 2016. Read More

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LISTEN UP (Locally Integrated Screening and Testing Ear aNd aUral Programme): a feasibility study protocol for a community pharmacy-based ear health intervention.

Pilot Feasibility Stud 2021 Jun 14;7(1):124. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

College of Medicine and Dentistry, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, Australia.

Background: Ear disease is a major cause of preventable hearing loss and is very common in rural communities, estimated to affect 1.3 million Australians. Rural community pharmacists are well placed to provide improved ear health care to people who are unable to easily access a general practitioner (GP). Read More

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A mixed method study to examine the mental health problems of college students who had left-behind experiences.

J Affect Disord 2021 May 21;292:149-160. Epub 2021 May 21.

School of Public Policy and Administration, Xi'an Jiaotong University, No.28 Xianning West Road, Xi'an, Shaanxi, 710049, China.

Background: China's rapid urbanization has created a large number of labour transferring from rural to urban areas and large numbers of college students with left-behind experience (LBE). LBE was an important influencing factor on college students' mental health.

Methods: A mixed method involving quantitative survey and qualitative interview was emplyed to explore the influence of LBE on mental health of college students. Read More

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Policy Challenges Facing the Scale Up of Integrated Community Case Management (iCCM) in Uganda.

Int J Health Policy Manag 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

School of Public Health, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda.

Background: Integrated Community Case Management (iCCM) of malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea is an equity focused strategy, to increase access to care for febrile illness in children under-5 years of age, in rural communities. Lay community members are trained to diagnose and treat malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea in children, and to identify and refer very ill children. Today, many low-income countries including Uganda, have a policy for iCCM which is being rolled out through public sector community health workers (CHWs). Read More

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Snakebite envenoming in different national contexts: Costa Rica, Sri Lanka, and Nigeria.

Toxicon X 2021 Jul 25;9-10:100066. Epub 2021 May 25.

Infectious and Tropical Diseases Unit, Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria.

Snakebite envenoming is a neglected tropical disease that predominantly affects impoverished rural communities in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The global efforts to reduce the impact of this disease must consider the local national contexts and, therefore, comparative studies on envenomings in different countries are necessary to identify strengths, weaknesses and needs. This work presents a comparative analysis of snakebite envenomings in Costa Rica, Sri Lanka, and Nigeria. Read More

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Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in urban and rural Ethiopia: Randomized household serosurveys reveal level of spread during the first wave of the pandemic.

EClinicalMedicine 2021 May 7;35:100880. Epub 2021 May 7.

Bacterial, Parasitic and Zoonotic Diseases Research Directorate, Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Gulelle Arbegnoch street, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Background: The spread of SARS-CoV-2 in Sub-Saharan Africa is poorly understood and to date has generally been characterised by a lower number of declared cases and deaths as compared to other regions of the world. Paucity of reliable information, with insights largely derived from limited RT-PCR testing in high-risk and urban populations, has been one of the biggest barriers to understanding the course of the pandemic and informed policy-making. Here we estimate seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in Ethiopia during the first wave of the pandemic. Read More

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The Implementation of a Collaborative Pediatric Telesimulation Intervention in Rural Critical Access Hospitals.

AEM Educ Train 2021 Jul 31;5(3):e10558. Epub 2021 Jan 31.

Department of Pediatrics Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Baltimore MD USA.

Background: Over 5.8 million pediatric visits to rural emergency department (EDs) occur each year in the United States. Most rural EDs care for less than five pediatric patients per day and are not well prepared for pediatrics. Read More

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Incidence Density and Predictors of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Among Individuals With Previous Tuberculosis History: A 15-Year Retrospective Cohort Study.

Front Public Health 2021 28;9:644347. Epub 2021 May 28.

Hangzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou, China.

To date, too little attention has been paid to monitoring and estimating the risk of incident multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) among individuals with a previous tuberculosis history (PTBH). The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of and risk factors for MDR-TB in those individuals. Between 2005 and 2020, a large, retrospective, population-based cohort study was performed in Hangzhou, China. Read More

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Pilot Study of Telehealth Delivered Rehabilitative Exercise for Youth With Concussion: The Mobile Subthreshold Exercise Program (MSTEP).

Front Pediatr 2021 28;9:645814. Epub 2021 May 28.

Center for Child Health, Behavior and Development, Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, WA, United States.

Concussion is common, and up to 30% of youth develop persistent symptoms. Preliminary data suggests treatment with rehabilitative exercise is beneficial, but most programs require frequent in-person visits, which is challenging for youth in rural areas, and has been made more difficult for all youth during the COVID-19 pandemic. We have adapted an exercise intervention to be delivered via telehealth using Zoom and personal fitness devices, which could ensure access to this type of treatment. Read More

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A retrospective study on the microbial spectrum and antibiogram of uropathogens in children in a secondary care hospital in Rural Vellore, South India.

J Family Med Prim Care 2021 Apr 29;10(4):1706-1711. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Community Health, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.

Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is common among children. Empiric antibiotics have to be started as early as possible or it may lead to an irreversible renal parenchymal damage and renal scarring in children. The objectives were to determine the prevalence and microbial profile of paediatric UTI and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. Read More

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Efficiency Analysis of New Rural Cooperative Medical System in China: Implications for the COVID-19 Era.

Front Psychol 2021 28;12:686954. Epub 2021 May 28.

School of Economics and Management, Hunan University of Science and Engineering, Yongzhou, China.

The sudden outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a huge impact on the Chinese residents' health and economic level. In the pandemic background, the country and its institutions have introduced pandemic-related insurance to stabilize the national situation. At this stage, insurance has played an increasingly important role in social life. Read More

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Psychological Distress Among Chinese College Students During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Does Attitude Toward Online Courses Matter?

Front Psychol 2021 28;12:665525. Epub 2021 May 28.

Institute of Sociology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing, China.

Due to the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), taking online courses has become a "new normality" for college students. This study paid particular attention to the role of college students' attitude toward online courses (ATOC) in shaping their psychological distress during the COVID-19 epidemic in China. Participants were from a national panel survey that has been administered before and during the COVID-19 epidemic. Read More

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Rural-urban differences in utilization of antenatal and delivery services in Ebonyi State, Nigeria.

Niger J Clin Pract 2021 Jun;24(6):925-936

Department of Community Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Ebonyi State University Abakaliki; Department of Community Medicine, Alex Ekwueme Federal University Teaching Hospital Abakaliki, Nigeria.

Background: The high maternal death burden in developing countries when compared to the developed could be attributed to differences in use of antenatal and skilled delivery care.

Aim: To assess the differences in utilization of antenatal and delivery services in urban and rural communities of Ebonyi state, Nigeria.

Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study design was used. Read More

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Strategies to ensure efficient laboratory functioning while navigating through the COVID-19 crisis in developing countries: An early experience from a tertiary care centre in India.

J Cancer Res Ther 2021 Apr-Jun;17(2):551-555

Department of Radiotherapy, Homi Bhabha Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Punjab (A Unit of Tata Memorial Centre), India.

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID 19) is a zoonotic viral infection that originated in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. It was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization shortly thereafter. This pandemic is going to have a lasting impact on the functioning of pathology laboratories due to the frequent handling of potentially infectious samples by the laboratory personnel. Read More

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Do Community Social Capital and Built Environment Associate With Homebound in Older Adults? The JAGES Niigata Study.

J Epidemiol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Center for Preventative Medical Sciences, Chiba University.

Background: Homebound status is one of the most important risk factors associated with functional decline and long-term care in older adults. Studies show that neighborhood built environment and community social capital may be related to homebound status. This study aimed to clarify the association between homebound status for community-dwelling older adults and community environment-including social capital and neighborhood built environment-in rural and urban areas. Read More

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Analysis of the correlation between occupational stress and mental health of primary and secondary school teachers.

Work 2021 Jun 6. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Department of Medicine III, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel, Vienna, Austria.

Background: With the rapid advancement of the educational reform, the requirements for primary and secondary school teachers are increasing, which makes the work pressure of teachers become greater, which can lead to a variety of mental health problems. It is the primary task to promote the psychological health of primary and secondary school teachers by analyzing the stress of teachers and putting forward reasonable countermeasures.

Objective: The study aimed to analyze the direct and indirect effects of occupational stress on the mental health level of primary and secondary school teachers. Read More

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Union, Employer, and compensation system gaps and failures: Workers with injuries perceptions.

Work 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

School of Human Kinetics, Laurentian University, Sudbury, ON, Canada.

Background: Workers who suffered a workplace injury and submitted a claim with the compensation board in Ontario often faced economic and non-economic costs that provoked depressive feelings, family strain, financial strain, and feelings of diminished self-worth.

Objective: This qualitative descriptive study aimed to understand the perceived gaps and failures associated with the support systems (e.g. Read More

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Food intake, physical activity and quality of life among children and youth.

Work 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Ipam/Universidade Europeia -Laureate International Universities, Portugal.

Background: The health-related quality of life construct (QoL) implies a relationship with eating habits (EA) and physical activity (PA). Sociodemographic and anthropometric variables (gender, age and Body Mass Index - BMI) are highlighted in the definition of healthy lifestyle habits promotion strategies.

Objective: We aim to characterize and relate PA, EA and QoL in children/youth and explore gender, age and BMI influences. Read More

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Continuity of care experiences: A national cross-sectional survey exploring the views and experiences of Australian students and academics.

Women Birth 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

College of Health and Biomedicine, Victoria University, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Continuity of Care Experiences (CoCEs) are a component of all entry-to-practice midwifery programs in Australia and facilitate an understanding of the central midwifery philosophy of woman-centred care and continuity of the therapeutic relationship. The aim of this research was to explore how CoCEs are viewed and experienced by students and academics across Australia.

Methods: Students enrolled in Australian midwifery programs and academics who teach into these programs were invited to participate in a cross sectional, web-based survey. Read More

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Cost of community-led larval source management and house improvement for malaria control: a cost analysis within a cluster-randomized trial in a rural district in Malawi.

Malar J 2021 Jun 13;20(1):268. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK.

Background: House improvement (HI) to prevent mosquito house entry, and larval source management (LSM) targeting aquatic mosquito stages to prevent development into adult forms, are promising complementary interventions to current malaria vector control strategies. Lack of evidence on costs and cost-effectiveness of community-led implementation of HI and LSM has hindered wide-scale adoption. This study presents an incremental cost analysis of community-led implementation of HI and LSM, in a cluster-randomized, factorial design trial, in addition to standard national malaria control interventions in a rural area (25,000 people), in southern Malawi. Read More

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Indoor bacterial, fungal and viral species and functional genes in urban and rural schools in Shanxi Province, China-association with asthma, rhinitis and rhinoconjunctivitis in high school students.

Microbiome 2021 Jun 12;9(1):138. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Protein Function and Regulation in Agricultural Organisms, College of Life Sciences, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510642, People's Republic of China.

Background: Studies in developed countries have reported that the prevalence of asthma and rhinitis is higher in urban areas than in rural areas, and this phenomenon is associated with urbanization and changing indoor microbiome exposure. Developing countries such as China have experienced rapid urbanization in past years, but no study has investigated microbiome exposure and urban-rural health effects in these countries.

Methods: Nine high schools from urban and rural areas were randomly selected in Shanxi Province, China, and classroom vacuum dust was collected for shotgun metagenomic sequencing. Read More

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First detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in Norway.

BMC Vet Res 2021 Jun 12;17(1):218. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Norwegian Veterinary Institute, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Several outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) caused by influenza A virus of subtype H5N8 have been reported in wild birds and poultry in Europe during autumn 2020. Norway is one of the few countries in Europe that had not previously detected HPAI virus, despite widespread active monitoring of both domestic and wild birds since 2005.

Results: We report detection of HPAI virus subtype H5N8 in a wild pink-footed goose (Anser brachyrhynchus), and several other geese, ducks and a gull, from south-western Norway in November and December 2020. Read More

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Economic empowerment and intimate partner violence: a secondary data analysis of the cross-sectional Demographic Health Surveys in Sub-Saharan Africa.

BMC Womens Health 2021 06 12;21(1):241. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been recognized as a defining human rights, development and public health issue of our time. Economic empowerment is one of the most promising interventions to reduce IPV in sub-Saharan Africa, yet the evidence around economic factors that are key to ensure a reduction in IPV are still mixed. Furthermore, there is a lack of clarity on what kinds of economic empowerment works for which population group. Read More

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Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of tobacco and alcohol use in four sub-Saharan African countries: a cross-sectional study of middle-aged adults.

BMC Public Health 2021 Jun 12;21(1):1126. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Sydney Brenner Institute for Molecular Bioscience and Division of Human Genetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Background: Substance misuse is a global public health problem. In addition to social and economic concerns, consumption of tobacco and alcohol is associated with susceptibility to cardiovascular, respiratory, and infectious diseases, cancers, and risk of transition to substance use disorders. African data suggest regional differences in the prevalence and patterns of substance use, but a number of key questions remain. Read More

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HIV and cardiovascular disease in sub-Saharan Africa: Demographic and Health Survey data for 4 countries.

BMC Public Health 2021 Jun 12;21(1):1122. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine, Froedtert & The Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Rd, Milwaukee, WI, 53226-3596, USA.

Background: Investigate the relationship between two common cardiovascular diseases and HIV in adults living in sub-Saharan Africa using population data provided through the Demographic and Health Survey.

Methods: Data for four sub-Saharan countries were used. All adults asked questions regarding diagnosis of HIV, diabetes, and hypertension were included in the sample totaling 5356 in Lesotho, 3294 in Namibia, 9917 in Senegal, and 1051 in South Africa. Read More

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Changes in Levels and Determinants of Maternal Health Service Utilization in Ethiopia: Comparative Analysis of Two Rounds Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys.

Matern Child Health J 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Health Promotion and Community Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Texas A&M Health Science Center, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843-1266, USA.

Background: Antenatal care (ANC), delivery by skilled birth attendants, and postnatal care (PNC) are critical components of maternal health services for reducing maternal mortality. The study aimed to compare the utilization of maternal health services in the two most recent rounds of Ethiopia Demographic and Health Surveys (EDHS) and identify the factors influencing the utilization of these services using the 2016 EDHS.

Methods: Two rounds of EDHS data in 2011 and 2016 were used to estimate the proportion of women who had ANC, delivered by skilled birth attendants, and had a postnatal checkup and other characteristics of the surveyed population. Read More

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