19,266 results match your criteria rtms


Mapping local and long-distance resting connectivity markers of TMS-related inhibition reduction in schizophrenia.

Neuroimage Clin 2021 Apr 30;31:102688. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States.

Short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) is a biomarker for altered motor inhibition in schizophrenia, but the manner in which distant sites influence the inhibitory cortical-effector response remains elusive. Our study investigated local and long-distance resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) markers of SICI in a sample of N = 23 patients with schizophrenia and N = 29 controls. Local functional connectivity was quantified using regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis and long-range connectivity was estimated using seed-based rsFC analysis. Read More

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Transcranial magnetic stimulation alters multivoxel patterns in the absence of overall activity changes.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

School of Psychology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has become one of the major tools for establishing the causal role of specific brain regions in perceptual, motor, and cognitive processes. Nevertheless, a persistent limitation of the technique is the lack of clarity regarding its precise effects on neural activity. Here, we examined the effects of TMS intensity and frequency on concurrently recorded blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signals at the site of stimulation. Read More

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An active role of inferior frontal cortex in conscious experience.

Curr Biol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Psychiatry, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, 10117 Berlin, Germany; Berlin Institute of Health, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin and Max Delbrück Center, 10178 Berlin, Germany; Bernstein Center for Computational Neuroscience, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, 10117 Berlin, Germany; Berlin School of Mind and Brain, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 10099 Berlin, Germany; Einstein Center for Neurosciences Berlin, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, 10117 Berlin, Germany.

In the search for the neural correlates of consciousness, it has remained controversial whether prefrontal cortex determines what is consciously experienced or, alternatively, serves only complementary functions, such as introspection or action. Here, we provide converging evidence from computational modeling and two functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments that indicated a key role of inferior frontal cortex in detecting perceptual conflicts caused by ambiguous sensory information. Crucially, the detection of perceptual conflicts by prefrontal cortex turned out to be critical in the process of transforming ambiguous sensory information into unambiguous conscious experiences: in a third experiment, disruption of neural activity in inferior frontal cortex through transcranial magnetic stimulation slowed down the updating of conscious experience that occurs in response to perceptual conflicts. Read More

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[Future therapeutic strategies for olfactory disorders: electrical stimulation, stem cell therapy, and transplantation of olfactory epithelium-an overview].

HNO 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Universitäts-HNO Klinik Dresden, Dresden, Deutschland.

Olfactory disorders may be temporary or permanent and can have various causes. Currently, many COVID-19 patients report a reduced or complete loss of olfactory function. A wide range of treatment options have been investigated in the past, such as olfactory training, acupuncture, medical therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation, or surgical excision of olfactory epithelium, e. Read More

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Is the response to rTMS largely the result of non-specific effects?

Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2021 May;55(5):445-450

Academic Department of Psychiatry, Kolling Institute, Northern Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

The efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the treatment of depression is disputed. This is partly because, to date, insufficient good-quality studies have been conducted, and a definitive clinical profile for which rTMS is best suited is yet to be determined. However, another equally important reason for questioning the efficacy of rTMS is that the clinical response to its application is thought to be the result of predominantly non-specific and placebo effects. Read More

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Does single session transcranial magnetic stimulation alter fractional anisotropy in obsessive-compulsive disorder? A preliminary observation.

Psychiatry Res 2021 Apr 26;301:113970. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

K.S. Mani Centre for Cognitive Neurosciences and fMRI Centre, Central Institute of Psychiatry, Ranchi 834006, Jharkhand, India.

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Navigated repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation improves the outcome of postsurgical paresis in glioma patients - A randomized, double-blinded trial.

Brain Stimul 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Neurosurgery, Technical University of Munich, Germany, School of Medicine, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Germany; TUM Neuroimaging Center, Technical University of Munich, Germany, School of Medicine, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Navigated repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (nrTMS) is effective therapy for stroke patients. Neurorehabilitation could be supported by low-frequency stimulation of the non-damaged hemisphere to reduce transcallosal inhibition.

Objective: The present study examines the effect of postoperative nrTMS therapy of the unaffected hemisphere in glioma patients suffering from acute surgery-related paresis of the upper extremity (UE) due to subcortical ischemia. Read More

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rTMS for depression: The difficult transition from research to clinical practice.

Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2021 May 13:48674211011242. Epub 2021 May 13.

U1172 - LilNCog - Lille Neuroscience & Cognition, Université de Lille, Inserm, CHU Lille, Lille, France.

The publication of the 2020 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists clinical practice guidelines for the management of mood disorders was followed by a series of correspondences discussing the place of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the sequence care for the routine treatment of depression. The controversy has led to an intense debate about the positioning of this neuromodulation technique in the clinical armamentarium for depression in the Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. The many arguments presented by the authors to defend their respective points of view can be summarised in two main key issues: (i) the interpretation of the level of evidence of rTMS for depression and (ii) the characterisation of patients who could benefit from this treatment. Read More

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Short-Term Immobilization Promotes a Rapid Loss of Motor Evoked Potentials and Strength That Is Not Rescued by rTMS Treatment.

Front Hum Neurosci 2021 26;15:640642. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Psychology, Faculty of Science & Technology, Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom.

Short-term limb immobilization results in skeletal muscle decline, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. This study aimed to determine the neurophysiologic basis of immobilization-induced skeletal muscle decline, and whether repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) could prevent any decline. Twenty-four healthy young males (20 ± 0. Read More

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High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation enhances layer II/III morphological dendritic plasticity in mouse primary motor cortex.

Behav Brain Res 2021 May 9;410:113352. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Medical Sciences and Department of Neurology, Hackensack Meridian School of Medicine, Nutley, NJ, 07110, USA. Electronic address:

High-frequency repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation (HF-rTMS) is a safe non-invasive neuromodulatory technique and there is a body of evidence shows that it can modulate plasticity in different brain areas. One of the most interesting application of HF-rTMS is the modulation of plasticity in primary motor cortex (M1) to promote recovery after brain injuries. However, the underlying mechanism by which HF-rTMS modulates motor cortex plasticity remain to be investigated. Read More

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Interactions Between Cerebellum and the Intracortical Excitatory Circuits of Motor Cortex: a Mini-Review.

Cerebellum 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Discipline of Physiology, Adelaide Medical School, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, 5005, Australia.

Interactions between cerebellum (CB) and primary motor cortex (M1) are critical for effective motor function. Although the associated neurophysiological processes are yet to be fully characterised, a growing body of work using non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques has significantly progressed our current understanding. In particular, recent developments with both transcranial magnetic (TMS) and direct current (tDCS) stimulation suggest that CB modulates the activity of local excitatory interneuronal circuits within M1. Read More

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Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Treating Chronic Neuropathic Pain: a Systematic Review.

Curr Pain Headache Rep 2021 May 12;25(7):48. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Anaesthesia and Pain Medicine, Manchester University Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK.

Given pharmacological interventions' limited efficacy and abundance of its adverse effects, the repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is considered a viable non-invasive option for managing chronic neuropathic pain of different origins with promising outcomes. PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The provision of a systematic review of current literature on rTMS for managing chronic neuropathic pain of different origins, and assess its efficacy and outcomes, highlighting the need for standard protocols for utilizing rTMS. RECENT FINDINGS: Variable stimulation modalities were trialed targeting the M1, DLPFC, and somatosensory cortices S1 and S2. Read More

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Exploring Patient Perceptions of Noninvasive Brain Stimulation: A Systematic Review.

Neuromodulation 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Brain Stimulation and Rehabilitation (BrainStAR) Lab, Western Sydney University, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Objective: To synthesize and critically appraise literature exploring patient perceptions regarding the therapeutic use of noninvasive brain stimulation.

Material And Methods: A systematic search of CINHAL, PUBMED, Web of Science, and Medline was performed. Reference lists of relevant articles were also screened. Read More

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Input-output slope curve estimation in neural stimulation based on optimal sampling principles.

J Neural Eng 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

University of Windsor, 401 Sunset Ave., Windsor, Ontario, N9B 3P4, CANADA.

This paper discusses some of the practical limitations and issues, which exist for the input--output (IO) slope curve estimation (SCE) in neural, brain and spinal, stimulation techniques. The drawbacks of the SCE techniques by using existing uniform sampling and Fisher-information-based optimal IO curve estimation (FO-IOCE) methods are elaborated. A novel IO SCE technique is proposed with a modified sampling strategy and stopping rule which improve the SCE performance compared to these methods. Read More

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Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Major Depression: Comparing Commonly Used Clinical Protocols.

J Trauma Stress 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

VA RR&D Center for Neurorestoration and Neurotechnology, Providence VA Healthcare System, Providence, Rhode Island, USA.

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is increasingly being used to treat posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) comorbid with major depressive disorder (MDD). Yet, identifying the most effective stimulation parameters remains an active area of research. We recently reported on the use of 5 Hz TMS to reduce PTSD and MDD symptoms. Read More

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Efficacy and acceptability of noninvasive brain stimulation interventions for weight reduction in obesity: a pilot network meta-analysis.

Int J Obes (Lond) 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Division of Community & Rehabilitation Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Background/objectives: Obesity has recently been recognized as a neurocognitive disorder involving circuits associated with the reward system and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) has been proposed as a strategy for the management of obesity. However, the results have been inconclusive. Read More

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Off-label transcranial magnetic stimulation in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: A twelve-year case series in a single clinic.

Brain Stimul 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Park Avenue Neurology, United States; SUNY Downstate Department of Neurology, United States; Lenox Hill Hospital, Northwell Health Departments of Neurology & Psychiatry, United States. Electronic address:

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Unravelling ipsilateral interactions between left dorsal premotor and primary motor cortex: a proof of concept study.

Neuroscience 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Neuroplasticity and Movement Control Research Group, Rehabilitation Research Institute (REVAL), Hasselt University, Diepenbeek, Belgium; Movement Control and Neuroplasticity Research Group, Department of Movement Sciences, Group Biomedical Sciences, KU Leuven, Heverlee, Belgium. Electronic address:

Few studies have identified the intrahemispheric functional connectivity between the ipsilateral dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) and the primary motor hand area (M1) due to technical limitations. In this proof-of-concept study, a novel neuronavigated dsTMS set-up was employed, combining stimulation over left PMd and left M1 using the edge of a butterfly coil and a small cooled-coil. This arrangement was warranted because coil (over)heating and inter coil distance are limiting factors when investigating connectivity between stimulation targets in close proximity and over a longer duration. Read More

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Modulating Frontal Networks' Timing-Dependent-Like Plasticity With Protocols: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives.

Front Hum Neurosci 2021 22;15:658723. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Psychology, NeuroMI - Milan Center for Neuroscience, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milan, Italy.

Starting from the early 2000s, (PAS) protocols have been used in humans to study brain connectivity in motor and sensory networks by exploiting the intrinsic properties of timing-dependent cortical plasticity. In the last 10 years, PAS have also been developed to investigate the plastic properties of complex cerebral systems, such as the frontal ones, with promising results. In the present work, we review the most recent advances of this technique, focusing on protocols targeting frontal cortices to investigate connectivity and its plastic properties, subtending high-order cognitive functions like memory, decision-making, attentional, or emotional processing. Read More

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Short-Term High-Intensity Interval Exercise Promotes Motor Cortex Plasticity and Executive Function in Sedentary Females.

Front Hum Neurosci 2021 23;15:620958. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Sports and Health Promotion, Scientific Research Center, Guangzhou Sport University, Guangzhou, China.

Previous research has demonstrated that regular exercise modulates motor cortical plasticity and cognitive function, but the influence of short-term high-intensity interval training (HIIT) remains unclear. In the present study, the effect of short-term HIIT on neuroplasticity and executive function was assessed in 32 sedentary females. Half of the participants undertook 2 weeks of HIIT. Read More

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Effects of iTBS-rTMS on the Behavioral Phenotype of a Rat Model of Maternal Immune Activation.

Front Behav Neurosci 2021 21;15:670699. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Neurophysiology, Medical Faculty, Ruhr-University, Bochum, Germany.

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is considered a promising therapeutic tool for treating neuropsychiatric diseases. Previously, we found intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) rTMS to be most effective in modulating cortical excitation-inhibition balance in rats, accompanied by improved cortical sensory processing and sensory learning performance. Using an animal schizophrenia model based on maternal immune activation (MIA) we tested if iTBS applied to either adult or juvenile rats can affect the behavioral phenotype in a therapeutic or preventive manner, respectively. Read More

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Influence of High Pass Filter Settings on Motor Evoked Potentials.

Front Neurosci 2021 23;15:665258. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Institute of Clinical Neuroscience and Medical Psychology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.

Objective: Motor evoked potentials (MEP), obtained by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are a common tool in clinical research and diagnostic. Nevertheless, reports regarding the influence of filter settings on MEP are sparse. Here, we compared MEP amplitudes and signal to noise ratio (SNR) using multiple high pass filter (HPF) and notch filter settings. Read More

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Determining the types of descending waves from transcranial magnetic stimulation measured with conditioned H-reflexes in humans.

Eur J Neurosci 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Sport Science, University of Freiburg, Germany.

Non-invasive techniques are scarce with which human (motor) cortical mechanisms can be investigated. In a series of previous experiments, we have applied an advanced form of conditioning technique with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and peripheral nerve stimulation by which excitability changes at the laminar level in the primary motor cortex can be estimated. This method builds on the assumption that the first of subsequent corticospinal waves from TMS which is assessed with H-reflexes (called early facilitation) results from indirect excitation of corticospinal neurons in motor cortex (I-wave) and not direct excitation of corticospinal axons (D-wave). Read More

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Is the primary visual cortex necessary for blindsight-like behavior? Review of transcranial magnetic stimulation studies in neurologically healthy individuals.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 May 8;127:353-364. Epub 2021 May 8.

Turku Brain and Mind Centre, University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland. Electronic address:

The visual pathways that bypass the primary visual cortex (V1) are often assumed to support visually guided behavior in humans in the absence of conscious vision. This conclusion is largely based on findings on patients: V1 lesions cause blindness but sometimes leave some visually guided behaviors intact-this is known as blindsight. With the aim of examining how well the findings on blindsight patients generalize to neurologically healthy individuals, we review studies which have tried to uncover transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) induced blindsight. Read More

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Inducing Cortical Plasticity to Manipulate and Consolidate Subjective Time Interval Production.

Neuromodulation 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Medical Physiology, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Objectives: Time awareness may change depending on the mental state or disease conditions, although each individual perceives his/her own sense of time as stable and accurate. Nevertheless, the processes that consolidate altered duration production remain unclear. The present study aimed to manipulate the subjective duration production via memory consolidation through the modulation of neural plasticity. Read More

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Auditory N2 Correlates of Treatment Response in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

J Trauma Stress 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Departments of Neurology & Neurotherapeutics and Psychiatry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA.

Emotional processing and cognitive control are implicated as being dysfunctional in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and targeted in cognitive processing therapy (CPT), a trauma-focused treatment for PTSD. The N2 event-related potential has been interpreted in the context of emotional processing and cognitive control. In this analysis of secondary outcome measures from a randomized controlled trial, we investigated the latency and amplitude changes of the N2 in responses to task-relevant target tones and task-irrelevant distractor sounds (e. Read More

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Effects of treatment refractoriness and brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism on antidepressant response to low-dose ketamine infusion.

Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Psychiatry, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, No. 201, Sec. 2, Shih-Pai Road, Beitou district, Taipei, 112, Taiwan.

Evidence suggests that levels of treatment refractoriness and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) rs6265 polymorphism are related to the antidepressant effects of conventional antidepressants and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. However, whether these factors are associated with the antidepressant effects of low-dose ketamine remains unclear. In total, 71 patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD) were randomized to 0. Read More

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Strengthened structure-function relationships of the corticospinal tract by free water correction after stroke.

Brain Commun 2021 28;3(2):fcab034. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Neurology, University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, 20246 Hamburg, Germany.

The corticospinal tract is the most intensively investigated tract of the human motor system in stroke rehabilitative research. Diffusion-tensor-imaging gives insights into its microstructure, and transcranial magnetic stimulation assesses its excitability. Previous data on the interrelationship between both measures are contradictory. Read More

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Evidence of neuroplasticity with robotic hand exoskeleton for post-stroke rehabilitation: a randomized controlled trial.

J Neuroeng Rehabil 2021 May 6;18(1):76. Epub 2021 May 6.

Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), New Delhi, India.

Background: A novel electromechanical robotic-exoskeleton was designed in-house for the rehabilitation of wrist joint and Metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint.

Objective: The objective was to compare the rehabilitation effectiveness (clinical-scales and neurophysiological-measures) of robotic-therapy training sessions with dose-matched conventional therapy in patients with stroke.

Methods: A pilot prospective parallel randomized controlled study at clinical settings was designed for patients with stroke within 2 years of chronicity. Read More

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Right prefrontal activation predicts ADHD and its severity: A TMS-EEG study in young adults.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2021 May 3;111:110340. Epub 2021 May 3.

Life Science Department and the Zlotowski Center for Neuroscience, Ben Gurion University in the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel.

Objective: Here we bring a neurophysiological diagnostic tool, based on pathophysiologically-relevant brain region, that is critical for reducing the variability between clinicians, and necessary for quantitative measures of ADHD severity.

Methods: 54 healthy and 57 ADHD adults participated in the study. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded when combined with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the right prefrontal cortex and also recorded during the Stop Signal task. Read More

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