457 results match your criteria rsg metabolism

Investigating the role of endogenous estrogens, hormone replacement therapy, and blockade of estrogen receptor-α activity on breast metabolic signaling.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2021 Aug 26. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of Surgery, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, 27157, USA.

Purpose: Menopause is associated with an increased risk of estrogen receptor-positive (ER +) breast cancer. To characterize the metabolic shifts associated with reduced estrogen bioavailability on breast tissue, metabolomics was performed from ovary-intact and ovariectomized (OVX) female non-human primates (NHP). The effects of exogenous estrogen administration or estrogen receptor blockade (tamoxifen treatment) on menopause-induced metabolic changes were also investigated. Read More

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CHAF1A Blocks Neuronal Differentiation and Promotes Neuroblastoma Oncogenesis via Metabolic Reprogramming.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Aug 8:e2005047. Epub 2021 Aug 8.

Department of Pediatrics, Section of Hematology-Oncology, Texas Children's Cancer and Hematology Centers, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.

Neuroblastoma (NB) arises from oncogenic disruption of neural crest (NC) differentiation. Treatment with retinoic acid (RA) to induce differentiation has improved survival in some NB patients, but not all patients respond, and most NBs eventually develop resistance to RA. Loss of the chromatin modifier chromatin assembly factor 1 subunit p150 (CHAF1A) promotes NB cell differentiation; however, the mechanism by which CHAF1A drives NB oncogenesis has remained unexplored. Read More

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Failure to Guard: Mitochondrial Protein Quality Control in Cancer.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Aug 2;22(15). Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, USA.

Mitochondria are energetic and dynamic organelles with a crucial role in bioenergetics, metabolism, and signaling. Mitochondrial proteins, encoded by both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, must be properly regulated to ensure proteostasis. Mitochondrial protein quality control (MPQC) serves as a critical surveillance system, employing different pathways and regulators as cellular guardians to ensure mitochondrial protein quality and quantity. Read More

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Regulation of Metabolic Reprogramming by Long Non-Coding RNAs in Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jul 12;13(14). Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Laboratory of Molecular Medicine and Genomics, Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry 'Scuola Medica Salernitana', University of Salerno, 84081 Baronissi, Italy.

Metabolic reprogramming is a well described hallmark of cancer. Oncogenic stimuli and the microenvironment shape the metabolic phenotype of cancer cells, causing pathological modifications of carbohydrate, amino acid and lipid metabolism that support the uncontrolled growth and proliferation of cancer cells. Conversely, metabolic alterations in cancer can drive changes in genetic programs affecting cell proliferation and differentiation. Read More

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Autophagy and tumorigenesis.

FEBS J 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ, USA.

Autophagy is a catabolic process that captures cellular waste and degrades them in the lysosome. The main functions of autophagy are quality control of cytosolic proteins and organelles, and intracellular recycling of nutrients in order to maintain cellular homeostasis. Autophagy is upregulated in many cancers to promote cell survival, proliferation, and metastasis. Read More

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How microbiological tests reflect bacterial pathogenesis and host adaptation.

Braz J Microbiol 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Microbiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

Historically, clinical microbiological laboratories have often relied on isolation of pure cultures and phenotypic testing to identify microorganisms. These clinical tests are often based on specific biochemical reactions, growth characteristics, colony morphology, and other physiological aspects. The features used for identification in clinical laboratories are highly conserved and specific for a given group of microbes. Read More

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Thioredoxin reductase is a major regulator of metabolism in leukemia cells.

Oncogene 2021 Aug 8;40(33):5236-5246. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Despite the fact that AML is the most common acute leukemia in adults, patient outcomes are poor necessitating the development of novel therapies. We identified that inhibition of Thioredoxin Reductase (TrxR) is a promising strategy for AML and report a highly potent and specific inhibitor of TrxR, S-250. Both pharmacologic and genetic inhibition of TrxR impairs the growth of human AML in mouse models. Read More

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The B56α subunit of PP2A is necessary for mesenchymal stem cell commitment to adipocyte.

EMBO Rep 2021 Aug 7;22(8):e51910. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA.

Adipose tissue plays a major role in maintaining organismal metabolic equilibrium. Control over the fate decision from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to adipocyte differentiation involves coordinated command of phosphorylation. Protein phosphatase 2A plays an important role in Wnt pathway and adipocyte development, yet how PP2A complexes actively respond to adipocyte differentiation signals and acquire specificity in the face of the promiscuous activity of its catalytic subunit remains unknown. Read More

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Hyperpolarized Metabolic MRI-Acquisition, Reconstruction, and Analysis Methods.

Metabolites 2021 Jun 14;11(6). Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.

Hyperpolarized metabolic MRI with 13C-labeled agents has emerged as a powerful technique for in vivo assessments of real-time metabolism that can be used across scales of cells, tissue slices, animal models, and human subjects. Hyperpolarized contrast agents have unique properties compared to conventional MRI scanning and MRI contrast agents that require specialized imaging methods. Hyperpolarized contrast agents have a limited amount of available signal, irreversible decay back to thermal equilibrium, bolus injection and perfusion kinetics, cellular uptake and metabolic conversion kinetics, and frequency shifts between metabolites. Read More

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Impaired anaplerosis is a major contributor to glycolysis inhibitor toxicity in glioma.

Cancer Metab 2021 Jun 25;9(1):27. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

SPOROS Bioventures, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: Reprogramming of metabolic pathways is crucial to satisfy the bioenergetic and biosynthetic demands and maintain the redox status of rapidly proliferating cancer cells. In tumors, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle generates biosynthetic intermediates and must be replenished (anaplerosis), mainly from pyruvate and glutamine. We recently described a novel enolase inhibitor, HEX, and its pro-drug POMHEX. Read More

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Reshaping of bacterial molecular hydrogen metabolism contributes to the outgrowth of commensal during gut inflammation.

Elife 2021 Jun 4;10. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Microbiology, UT Southwestern, Dallas, United States.

The composition of gut-associated microbial communities changes during intestinal inflammation, including an expansion of Enterobacteriaceae populations. The mechanisms underlying microbiota changes during inflammation are incompletely understood. Here, we analyzed previously published metagenomic datasets with a focus on microbial hydrogen metabolism. Read More

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ArfGAP1 inhibits mTORC1 lysosomal localization and activation.

EMBO J 2021 Jun 14;40(12):e106412. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) integrates nutrients, growth factors, stress, and energy status to regulate cell growth and metabolism. Amino acids promote mTORC1 lysosomal localization and subsequent activation. However, the subcellular location or interacting proteins of mTORC1 under amino acid-deficient conditions is not completely understood. Read More

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S-Nitrosylation in Tumor Microenvironment.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 27;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Cancer Biology, University of Toledo Health Science Campus, 3000 Arlington Ave., Toledo, OH 43614, USA.

S-nitrosylation is a selective and reversible post-translational modification of protein thiols by nitric oxide (NO), which is a bioactive signaling molecule, to exert a variety of effects. These effects include the modulation of protein conformation, activity, stability, and protein-protein interactions. S-nitrosylation plays a central role in propagating NO signals within a cell, tissue, and tissue microenvironment, as the nitrosyl moiety can rapidly be transferred from one protein to another upon contact. Read More

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Functions of Thrombospondin-1 in the Tumor Microenvironment.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 27;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Laboratory of Pathology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

The identification of thrombospondin-1 as an angiogenesis inhibitor in 1990 prompted interest in its role in cancer biology and potential as a therapeutic target. Decreased thrombospondin-1 mRNA and protein expression are associated with progression in several cancers, while expression by nonmalignant cells in the tumor microenvironment and circulating levels in cancer patients can be elevated. is not a tumor suppressor gene, but the regulation of its expression in malignant cells by oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes mediates some of their effects on carcinogenesis, tumor progression, and metastasis. Read More

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Metabolic imaging detects elevated glucose flux through the pentose phosphate pathway associated with TERT expression in low-grade gliomas.

Neuro Oncol 2021 Sep;23(9):1509-1522

Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.

Background: Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) is essential for tumor proliferation, including in low-grade oligodendrogliomas (LGOGs). Since TERT is silenced in normal cells, it is also a therapeutic target. Therefore, noninvasive methods of imaging TERT are needed. Read More

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September 2021

A Precision Medicine Approach to Treating Alzheimer's Disease Using Rosiglitazone Therapy: A Biomarker Analysis of the REFLECT Trials.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 ;81(2):557-568

Department of Family Medicine, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX, USA.

Background: The REFLECT trials were conducted to examine the treatment of mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease utilizing a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist.

Objective: To generate a predictive biomarker indicative of positive treatment response using samples from the previously conducted REFLECT trials.

Methods: Data were analyzed on 360 participants spanning multiple negative REFLECT trials, which included treatment with rosiglitazone and rosiglitazone XR. Read More

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September 2021

[Zr]-Pertuzumab PET Imaging Reveals Paclitaxel Treatment Efficacy Is Positively Correlated with HER2 Expression in Human Breast Cancer Xenograft Mouse Models.

Molecules 2021 Mar 12;26(6). Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Radiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35233, USA.

Paclitaxel (PTX) treatment efficacy varies in breast cancer, yet the underlying mechanism for variable response remains unclear. This study evaluates whether human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression level utilizing advanced molecular positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is correlated with PTX treatment efficacy in preclinical mouse models of HER2+ breast cancer. HER2 positive (BT474, MDA-MB-361), or HER2 negative (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cells were subcutaneously injected into athymic nude mice and PTX (15 mg/kg) was administrated. Read More

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C4-dicarboxylates and l-aspartate utilization by Escherichia coli K-12 in the mouse intestine: l-aspartate as a major substrate for fumarate respiration and as a nitrogen source.

Environ Microbiol 2021 05 4;23(5):2564-2577. Epub 2021 May 4.

Institute for Molecular Physiology, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Mainz, 55099, Germany.

C4-dicarboxylates, such as fumarate, l-malate and l-aspartate represent substrates for anaerobic growth of Escherichia coli by fumarate respiration. Here, we determined whether C4-dicarboxylate metabolism, as well as fumarate respiration, contribute to colonization of the mammalian intestinal tract. Metabolite profiling revealed that the murine small intestine contained high and low levels of l-aspartate and l-malate respectively, whereas fumarate was nearly absent. Read More

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Differentiating IDH status in human gliomas using machine learning and multiparametric MR/PET.

Cancer Imaging 2021 Mar 10;21(1):27. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

UCLA Brain Tumor Imaging Laboratory (BTIL), Center for Computer Vision and Imaging Biomarkers, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, USA.

Background: The purpose of this study was to develop a voxel-wise clustering method of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 3,4-dihydroxy-6-[F]-fluoro-L-phenylalanine (FDOPA) positron emission tomography (PET) images using an unsupervised, two-level clustering approach followed by support vector machine in order to classify the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) status of gliomas.

Methods: Sixty-two treatment-naïve glioma patients who underwent FDOPA PET and MRI were retrospectively included. Contrast enhanced T1-weighted images, T2-weighted images, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images, apparent diffusion coefficient maps, and relative cerebral blood volume maps, and FDOPA PET images were used for voxel-wise feature extraction. Read More

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Targeting Mitochondria by SS-31 Ameliorates the Whole Body Energy Status in Cancer- and Chemotherapy-Induced Cachexia.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Feb 18;13(4). Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Torino, 10125 Torino, Italy.

: Cachexia is a complex metabolic syndrome frequently occurring in cancer patients and exacerbated by chemotherapy. In skeletal muscle of cancer hosts, reduced oxidative capacity and low intracellular ATP resulting from abnormal mitochondrial function were described. : The present study aimed at evaluating the ability of the mitochondria-targeted compound SS-31 to counteract muscle wasting and altered metabolism in C26-bearing (C26) mice either receiving chemotherapy (OXFU: oxaliplatin plus 5-fluorouracil) or not. Read More

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February 2021

Combination therapy with semaglutide and rosiglitazone as a synergistic treatment for diabetic retinopathy in rodent animals.

Life Sci 2021 Mar 5;269:119013. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of Ophthalmology, The Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 51000, PR China. Electronic address:

Objective: To investigate the protective efficacies and potent mechanisms of combination therapy with semaglutide and rosiglitazone (RSG) on the high-glucose incubated human ARPE-19 cells and diabetic retinopathy (DR) model rats.

Main Methods: The CCK-8 methods were used to evaluate the protective effects of semaglutide and RSG alone or combination on the cell viability of high-glucose treated ARPE-19 cells. After the DR rat model was established, the effects of combined treatment on general indexes, retinal morphological changes, retinal Müller cells as well as PI3K/Akt/MTOR related factors of DR model rats were investigated. Read More

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Effect of rosiglitazone on circulating malondialdehyde (MDA) level in diabetes based on a systematic review and meta-analysis of eight clinical trials.

J Investig Med 2021 03 22;69(3):697-703. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran (the Islamic Republic of)

Patients with type 2 diabetes have high levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), and clinical data suggest a reducing effect of rosiglitazone (RSG) on the level of MDA in these patients. However, the results of available studies on the level of MDA in RSG-treated patients are not univocal. This meta-analysis aimed to assess the impact of RSG on the level of MDA. Read More

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Monocyte counts and prostate cancer outcomes in white and black men: results from the SEARCH database.

Cancer Causes Control 2021 Feb 4;32(2):189-197. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Center for Integrated Research On Cancer and Lifestyle, Department of Surgery, Division of Urology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, 8631 West 3rd Street Suite 430W, Los Angeles, CA, 90048, USA.

Purpose: Circulating inflammatory markers may predict prostate cancer (PC) outcomes. For example, a recent study showed that higher peripheral blood monocyte counts were associated with aggressive PC in Asian men undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP). Herein, we investigated whether peripheral monocyte count can predict long-term PC outcomes after RP in black and white men. Read More

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February 2021

Enhancement of select cognitive domains with rosiglitazone implicates dorsal hippocampus circuitry sensitive to PPARγ agonism in an Alzheimer's mouse model.

Brain Behav 2021 02 31;11(2):e01973. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Department of Neurology, the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Galveston, TX, USA.

Introduction: Several clinical studies have tested the efficacy of insulin-sensitizing drugs for cognitive enhancement in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, as type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a well-recognized risk factor for AD. Pilot studies assessing FDA-approved diabetes drugs in subjects with early-stage disease have found cognitive benefit in subjects comorbid for insulin resistance. In AD mouse models with concomitant insulin resistance, we have shown that 4 weeks of RSG can reverse peripheral and central insulin resistance concomitant with rescue of hippocampus-dependent fear learning and memory and hippocampal circuitry deficits in 9-month-old (9MO) Tg2576 mice with no effect in wild-type (WT) mice. Read More

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February 2021

Targeting Fat Oxidation in Mouse Prostate Cancer Decreases Tumor Growth and Stimulates Anti-Cancer Immunity.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Dec 18;21(24). Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Division of Medical Oncology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, USA.

Lipid catabolism represents an Achilles heel in prostate cancer (PCa) that can be exploited for therapy. CPT1A regulates the entry of fatty acids into the mitochondria for beta-oxidation and its inhibition has been shown to decrease PCa growth. In this study, we examined the pharmacological blockade of lipid oxidation with ranolazine in TRAMPC1 PCa models. Read More

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December 2020

Visualizing the metazoan proliferation-quiescence decision in vivo.

Elife 2020 12 22;9. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, United States.

Cell proliferation and quiescence are intimately coordinated during metazoan development. Here, we adapt a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) sensor to uncouple these key events of the cell cycle in and zebrafish through live-cell imaging. The CDK sensor consists of a fluorescently tagged CDK substrate that steadily translocates from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in response to increasing CDK activity and consequent sensor phosphorylation. Read More

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December 2020

Metabolic Regulation of Epigenetic Modifications and Cell Differentiation in Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Dec 16;12(12). Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

Metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer, with consistent rewiring of glucose, glutamine, and mitochondrial metabolism. While these metabolic alterations are adequate to meet the metabolic needs of cell growth and proliferation, the changes in critical metabolites have also consequences for the regulation of the cell differentiation state. Cancer evolution is characterized by progression towards a poorly differentiated, stem-like phenotype, and epigenetic modulation of the chromatin structure is an important prerequisite for the maintenance of an undifferentiated state by repression of lineage-specific genes. Read More

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December 2020

Long Noncoding RNA DANCR Activates Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling through MiR-216a Inhibition in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

Biomolecules 2020 12 8;10(12). Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum NCI Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.

Long noncoding RNA differentiation antagonizing nonprotein coding RNA (lncRNA-DANCR) is associated with poor prognosis in multiple cancers, and promotes cancer stemness and invasion. However, the exact mechanisms by which DANCR promotes non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain elusive. In this study, we determined that DANCR knockdown (KD) impeded cell migration and reduced stem-like characteristics in two NSCLC cell lines, A549 and H1755. Read More

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December 2020

is a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor that limits telomere length.

Elife 2020 12 1;9. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Laboratory for Cell Biology and Genetics, Rockefeller University, New York, United States.

Telomere shortening is a presumed tumor suppressor pathway that imposes a proliferative barrier (the Hayflick limit) during tumorigenesis. This model predicts that excessively long somatic telomeres predispose to cancer. Here, we describe cancer-prone families with two unique mutations that truncate TIN2, a shelterin subunit that controls telomere length. Read More

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December 2020

The hexosamine biosynthesis pathway is a targetable liability in KRAS/LKB1 mutant lung cancer.

Nat Metab 2020 12 30;2(12):1401-1412. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Children's Medical Center Research Institute, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

In non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), concurrent mutations in the oncogene KRAS and the tumour suppressor STK11 (also known as LKB1) encoding the kinase LKB1 result in aggressive tumours prone to metastasis but with liabilities arising from reprogrammed metabolism. We previously demonstrated perturbed nitrogen metabolism and addiction to an unconventional pathway of pyrimidine synthesis in KRAS/LKB1 co-mutant cancer cells. To gain broader insight into metabolic reprogramming in NSCLC, we analysed tumour metabolomes in a series of genetically engineered mouse models with oncogenic KRAS combined with mutations in LKB1 or p53. Read More

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December 2020