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Migratory birds have higher prevalence and richness of avian haemosporidian parasites than residents.

Int J Parasitol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Zoology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Individuals of migratory species may be more likely to become infected by parasites because they cross different regions along their route, thereby being exposed to a wider range of parasites during their annual cycle. Conversely, migration may have a protective effect since migratory behaviour allows hosts to escape environments presenting a high risk of infection. Haemosporidians are one of the best studied, most prevalent and diverse groups of avian parasites, however the impact of avian host migration on infection by these parasites remains controversial. Read More

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Engineering of a borneol dehydrogenase from P. putida for the enzymatic resolution of camphor.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology IGB, Schulgasse 11a, 94315, Straubing, Germany.

Several thousand different terpenoid structures are known so far, and many of them are interesting for applications as pharmaceuticals, flavors, fragrances, biofuels, insecticides, or fine chemical intermediates. One prominent example is camphor, which has been utilized since ancient times in medical applications. Especially (-)-camphor is gaining more and more interest for pharmaceutical applications. Read More

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Copper molybdate synthesized by sonochemistry route at room temperature as an efficient solid catalyst for esterification of oleic acid.

Ultrason Sonochem 2021 Mar 26;73:105541. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Amazonas, Manaus 69077-000, Brazil.

Copper molybdate nanoplates were synthesized by a sonochemical process at room temperature, which we report as a simple and cost-effective route. Structural analysis of the material by the Rietveld method of X-ray diffraction (XRD) data revealed lindgrenite Cu(MoO)(OH) in a single-phase structure. All the vibrational modes characteristic of the space group were identified by Raman vibrational and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopies. Read More

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Sharing diverse information gets driver agents to learn faster: an application in en route trip building.

PeerJ Comput Sci 2021 16;7:e428. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Computer Science, UFRGS (Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul), Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

With the increase in the use of private transportation, developing more efficient ways to distribute routes in a traffic network has become more and more important. Several attempts to address this issue have already been proposed, either by using a central authority to assign routes to the vehicles, or by means of a learning process where drivers select their best routes based on their previous experiences. The present work addresses a way to connect reinforcement learning to new technologies such as car-to-infrastructure communication in order to augment the drivers knowledge in an attempt to accelerate the learning process. Read More

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[A Randomized Controlled Study of Intravesical Instillation Therapy of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vs. Epirubicinin Treating Non-muscular Invasive Bladder Cancer].

Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 Mar;52(2):326-333

Department of Urology, Institute of Urology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

Objective: To explore the best treatment plan of intravesical instillation for patients with non-muscular invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), to explore recurrence-related clinicopathological factors after intravesical instillation, and to evaluate the value of the prognosis and prediction models currently used for NMIBC patients.

Methods: Starting from 2016, patients who underwent transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) in our hospital and who received post-surgery diagnosis of having intermediate or high risks for NMIBC were enrolled in the study. They were randomly assigned to different group sat a ratio of 2∶2∶1 for receiving intravesical instillation therapy of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) for 19 times, BCG for 15 times, and epirubicin (EPI) for 18 times. Read More

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Anterior cervical osteophytes causing dysphagia: Choice of the approach and surgical problems.

J Craniovertebr Junction Spine 2020 Oct-Dec;11(4):300-309. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Department of Neurosciences and Reproductive and Odontostomatological Sciences, Neurosurgical Clinic, School of Medicine, University "Federico II", Naples, Italy.

Background: Anterior cervical osteophytes (ACOs) may rarely cause dysphagia, dysphonia, and dyspnea. Symptomatic ACOs are most commonly located between C3 and C7, whereas those at higher cervical (C1-C2) levels are rarer. We report a case series of 4 patients and discuss the best surgical approach according to the ostheophyte location and size, mainly for those located at C1-C2, and the related surgical problems. Read More

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November 2020

Bifunctional PVA/ZnO/AgI/Chlorophyll Nanocomposite Film: Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity for Degradation of Pollutants and Antimicrobial Property under Visible-Light Irradiation.

Langmuir 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Catalysts and Organic Synthesis Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran 16846-13114, Iran.

Here, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with numerous hydroxyl groups has been applied as a suitable substrate for efficient formation of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles with a flower shape (confirmed by electron-scanning microscopy), silver iodide (AgI) nanoparticles, and chlorophyll (Chl), as a natural-based photocatalyst (PVA/ZnO/AgI/Chl). First, an efficient preparation route for the PVA/ZnO/AgI/Chl nanophotocatalyst is presented starting from the extraction of Chl from fresh spinach. Then, the catalytic role of the prepared composite is precisely investigated in degradation of methylene blue (MB). Read More

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Flower-like BiS-InS heterojunction for efficient solar light induced photoreduction of Cr(VI).

Chemosphere 2021 Mar 29;278:130422. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875, China.

To develop BiS-based heterojunction for efficient solar light induced photoreduction of Cr(VI), flower-like BiS-InS composites consisted of nanorods were prepared via a microwave-assisted hydrothermal route. In contrast with pure BiS, BiS-InS composites exhibited the enhanced photoreduction activity while the decreased adsorption capacity for Cr(VI) removal. The best removal efficiency of 70 mg L Cr(VI) solution (99. Read More

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Green Synthesis of Engineered CdS Nanoparticles with Reduced Cytotoxicity for Enhanced Bioimaging Application.

ACS Omega 2021 Mar 17;6(12):8646-8655. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Physics, Central University of Kerala, Kasaragod 671316, India.

The modern epoch of semiconductor nanotechnology focuses on its application in biology, especially in medical sciences, to fetch direct benefits to human life. Fabrication of devices for biosensing and bioimaging is a vibrant research topic nowadays. Luminescent quantum dots are the best option to move with, but most of them are toxic to living organisms and hence cannot be utilized for biological applications. Read More

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Manufacturing of starch-based materials using ultrasonic compression moulding (UCM): toward a structural application.

Heliyon 2021 Mar 18;7(3):e06482. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, Grenoble INP, 3SR, Grenoble, F-38000, France.

An experimental study of the ultrasonic compression moulding (UCM) to manufacture biobased composites made of semicrystalline starch powders and softwood fibres is described. The main objective was to assess the potential of using this fast and economical processing technique to elaborate a 100% biobased composite which might substitute more usual polymer materials for structural applications. The starch powder was chosen as raw material for the matrix while the reinforcement was made of softwood fibres. Read More

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AGA Clinical Practice Update on The Optimal Management of the Malignant Alimentary Tract Obstruction: Expert Review.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, and University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio.

Description: The purpose of this expert review is to describe the current methodologies available to manage malignant alimentary tract obstructions as well the evidence behind the various methods (including their efficacy and safety), indications and appropriate timing of interventions.

Methods: This is not a formal systematic review but is based upon a review of the literature to provide best practice advice statements. No formal rating of the quality of evidence or strength of recommendation is carried out. Read More

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Population pharmacokinetic model of subcutaneous fentanyl in older acute care patients.

Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2021 Apr 3. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

UniSA: Clinical and Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia.

Purpose: Subcutaneous fentanyl injection is commonly prescribed to manage acute pain in older patients; however, there is a gap in the literature describing the pharmacokinetic parameters for this route of administration in this population. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a population pharmacokinetic model for subcutaneous fentanyl injection in older patients.

Methods: Twenty-one patients who received subcutaneous fentanyl injections (50 to 75 μg) were recruited. Read More

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Route-Planning Method for Plant Protection Rotor Drones in Convex Polygon Regions.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Mar 22;21(6). Epub 2021 Mar 22.

School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, China.

Aiming at the problem of low operating efficiency due to the poor endurance of plant protection rotor drones and the small volume of pesticide carried, this paper proposes a route-planning algorithm for convex polygon regions based on the initial heading angle. First, a series of coordinate conversion methods ranging from the Earth coordinate system to the local plane coordinate system are studied. Second, in the local plane coordinate system, a route generation method based on subregion is proposed; therefore, multiple routes can be generated with different initial heading angles. Read More

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New Electroactive Polymers with Electronically Isolated 4,7-Diarylfluorene Chromophores as Positive Charge Transporting Layer Materials for OLEDs.

Molecules 2021 Mar 30;26(7). Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Polymer Chemistry and Technology, Kaunas University of Technology, Radvilenu Plentas 19, LT50254 Kaunas, Lithuania.

A group of polyethers containing electroactive pendent 4,7-diarylfluorene chromophores have been prepared by the multi-step synthetic route. Full characterization of their structures has been presented. The polymeric materials represent derivatives of high thermal stability with initial thermal degradation temperatures in a range of 392-397 °C. Read More

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Host-Parasite Relationships in Porcine Ascariosis: Anticoagulant Potential of the Third Larval Stage of as a Possible Survival Mechanism.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Mar 13;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Laboratory of Parasitology, Institute of Natural Resources and Agrobiology of Salamanca (IRNASA-CSIC), C/Cordel de Merinas 40-52, 37008 Salamanca, Spain.

In order to evade the response of their hosts, helminth parasites have evolved precise and highly regulated mechanisms, including migration strategies of the larval stages. In regard to porcine ascariosis caused by , its infective third-stage larvae (AsL3) undergo a complex migratory route through the bloodstream of their host before establishing in the small intestine to reach maturation. Despite the benefits attributed to this migration, blood clots formation could compromise larvae survival. Read More

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Hierarchical Nanocauliflower Chemical Assembly Composed of Copper Oxide and Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Enhanced Photocatalytic Dye Degradation.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Mar 10;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Chemistry, Research Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Jeonbuk National University, Jeonju 54896, Korea.

We present the fabrication and proficient photocatalytic performance of a series of heterojunction nanocomposites with cauliflower-like architecture synthesized from copper(II) oxide (CuO) nanocrystals and carbon nanotubes with single walls (SWCNTs). These unique photocatalysts were constructed via simplistic recrystallization succeeded by calcination and were labeled as CuOSC-1, CuOSC-2, and CuOSC-3 (representing the components; CuO and SC for SWCNTs, and the calcination time in hours). The photocatalytic potency of the fabricated nanocomposites was investigated on the basis of their capability to decompose methylene blue (MB) dye under visible-light irradiation. Read More

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Ce/Sm/Sr-Incorporating Ceramic Scaffolds Obtained via Sol-Gel Route.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Mar 21;14(6). Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, RO-011061 Bucharest, Romania.

Three different inorganic scaffolds were obtained starting from the oxide system SiO‒PO‒CaO‒MgO, to which Ce/Sm/Sr cations were added in order to propose novel materials with potential application in the field of hard tissue engineering. Knowing the beneficial effects of each element, improved features in terms of mechanical properties, antibacterial activity and cellular response are expected. The compositions were processed in the form of scaffolds by a common sol-gel method, followed by a thermal treatment at 1000 and 1200 °C. Read More

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Review of International Clinical Guidelines Related to Prenatal Screening during Monochorionic Pregnancies.

J Clin Med 2021 Mar 8;10(5). Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Family and Community Medicine, Northeast Ohio Medical University, 4209 State Route 44, P.O. Box 95, Rootstown, OH 44272, USA.

We conducted a search for international clinical guidelines related to prenatal screening during monochorionic pregnancies. We found 25 resources from 13 countries/regions and extracted information related to general screening as well as screening related to specific monochorionic complications, including twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS), selective fetal growth restriction (SFGR), and twin anemia-polycythemia sequence (TAPS). Findings reveal universal recommendation for the early establishment of chorionicity. Read More

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Robust magnetic ZnO-FeO Z-scheme hetereojunctions with in-built metal-redox for high performance photo-degradation of sulfamethoxazole and electrochemical Dopamine detection.

Environ Res 2021 Mar 30:111074. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Advanced Materials Research Chair, Chemistry Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

This work reports synthesis of a dual-function facile heterojunction and investigation of role of the charge transfer dynamism between individual semiconductor components for superior photocatalytic and electrochemical sensing application. The bio-benevolent and sturdy ZnO/FeO heterojunctions were utilized for visible light facilitated photo-degradation of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) antibiotic and electrochemical sensing of dopamine drug (DA). The fabricated heterojunction were characterized for structural, optical, and magnetic properties. Read More

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A comparison study of applying natural iron minerals and zero-valent metals as Fenton-like catalysts for the removal of imidacloprid.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

School of Land Resources and Environment, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang, 330045, People's Republic of China.

Natural iron minerals and zero-valent metals have been widely tested as catalysts for the Fenton-like process, but the systematical comparison study about their catalytic performance was rarely conducted, and the risk of the secondary pollution of toxic heavy metals was still not uncertain. In this paper, a comparison study of applying pyrite, ilmenite, vanadium titano-magnetite (VTM), zero-valent iron (ZVI), and zero-valent copper (ZVC) as Fenton-like catalysts for the removal of imidacloprid was performed. The results showed that ZVI exhibited the highest activity among the recyclable solid catalysts with a removal rate of 96. Read More

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Should we perform cervix removal during hysterectomy for benign uterine disease? Clinical practice guidelines from the French College of Gynecologists and Obstetricians (CNGOF).

J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod 2021 Mar 29;50(8):102134. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

APHP, GHU South, Antoione Béclere Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 157 rue de la porte de Trivaux, F-92140, Clamart, France; University Paris-Saclay, Faculté de Médecine, F94270, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France. Electronic address:

Objective: To provide guidelines from the French College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (CNGOF), based on the best evidence available, concerning subtotal or total hysterectomy, for benign disease.

Methods: The CNGOF has decided to adopt the AGREE II and GRADE systems for grading scientific evidence. Each recommendation for practice was allocated a grade, which depends on the quality of evidence (QE) (clinical practice guidelines). Read More

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Cyan-Light-Emitting Chalcogenometallate Phosphor, KGaS:Eu, for Phosphor-Converted White Light-Emitting Diodes.

Inorg Chem 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Nanotechnology & Advanced Materials Engineering, Sejong University, 209 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747, South Korea.

A novel KGaS phosphor host that emits a cyan light was discovered to fill the cyan gap in the visible spectrum of phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes (pc-wLEDs). KGaS, belonging to the chalcogenometallates of the type ABQ, was synthesized via a solid-state route with compositions optimized to achieve a phosphor host that would achieve the best photoluminescence (PL) properties. The activation with Eu gave rise to PL in the cyan region of the spectrum with a PL maximum at ∼498 nm, as measured under the near-UV (420 nm) and blue (450 nm) excitations. Read More

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Enhancement of and in bulk MgB superconductors with SnO Additions.

Physica C Supercond 2020 Nov 19;578. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Hyper Tech Research, Columbus, OH 43212, United States.

Three (MgB) (SnO) samples with ranging from 0 to 5 wt% were prepared by the route to study the effect of tin dioxide additions on the superconducting properties of MgB bulk materials. All of the reacted samples were slightly Mg deficient although the starting Mg:B precursor powder ratio was 1:2. A heat treatment (HT) temperature of 700 °C with a dwell time of 30 min was used. Read More

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November 2020

Take-home naloxone programs for suspected opioid overdose in community settings: a scoping umbrella review.

BMC Public Health 2021 Mar 26;21(1):597. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

BC Centre for Disease Control, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Background: Opioid related overdoses and overdose deaths continue to constitute an urgent public health crisis. The implementation of naloxone programs, such as 'take-home naloxone' (THN), has emerged as a key intervention in reducing opioid overdose deaths. These programs aim to train individuals at risk of witnessing or experiencing an opioid overdose to recognize an opioid overdose and respond with naloxone. Read More

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Drug-related problems of antipsychotics in treating delirium among elderly patients: A real-world observational study.

J Clin Pharm Ther 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Geriatric Psychiatry Unit, Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

What Is Known And Objective: Delirium is more common and life-threatening among the elderly. Currently, no other medications, including antipsychotics, have been approved for delirium. The number of practice guidelines recommends antipsychotics to be the first option among selected patients. Read More

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Interspecific hybridization as a driver of fungal evolution and adaptation.

Nat Rev Microbiol 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

VIB Laboratory for Systems Biology, VIB-KU Leuven Center for Microbiology, Leuven, Belgium.

Cross-species gene transfer is often associated with bacteria, which have evolved several mechanisms that facilitate horizontal DNA exchange. However, the increased availability of whole-genome sequences has revealed that fungal species also exchange DNA, leading to intertwined lineages, blurred species boundaries or even novel species. In contrast to prokaryotes, fungal DNA exchange originates from interspecific hybridization, where two genomes are merged into a single, often highly unstable, polyploid genome that evolves rapidly into stabler derivatives. Read More

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Extensor digitorum brevis muscle flap for lower extremity coverage in a context of posttraumatic sepsis.

Orthop Traumatol Surg Res 2021 Mar 22:102901. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Service de chirurgie orthopédique et traumatologique, chirurgie plastique, esthétique et reconstructrice, chirurgie de la main, CHRU Minjoz, 3, boulevard Alexander-Fleming, 25030 Besançon cedex, France; Unité de recherche Nanomedicine Lab, Imagery & Therapeutics EA4662, Université de Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, 16 route de Gray, 25030 Besançon, France.

Introduction: Traumatic injuries to the distal quarter of the leg present a significant risk of skin necrosis and exposure of the underlying fracture site or the osteosynthesis material that often result in bone and joint infection. In the case of small or medium-sized bone exposure, local muscles may be one of the best options for lower extremity coverage. We describe our experience using the extensor digitorum brevis muscle flap in a context of posttraumatic bone and joint infection in fourteen patients. Read More

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Comparative efficacy and safety of topical hemostatic agents in primary total knee arthroplasty: A network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Mar;100(12):e25087

Department of Traumatology & Orthopedics, Wuxi Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Wuxi, China.

Background: Topical hemostatic agents are commonly used for reducing perioperative blood loss and transfusion requirement in primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA), although the optimal option has yet to be defined. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical hemostatic agents and rank the best intervention using the network meta-analysis (NMA) method.

Methods: We searched Web of science, PubMed, and Cochrane Library database up to April 2020, for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on topical hemostatic agents in primary TKA. Read More

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320 Slice CT in Imaging of Congenital Heart Diseases in Infants: A Single-Center Experience.

Cureus 2021 Feb 15;13(2):e13348. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Pediatric Radiology, Akron Children's Hospital, Akron, USA.

Objective The study was conducted to evaluate the best possible imaging technique for neonatal cardiac imaging including optimal injection techniques, intravenous line placement, expected radiation dose, and need for sedation while performing the study on a 320 slice Toshiba® Aquilion ONE® scanner. Study results can be used to optimize imaging parameters for maximum clinical yield. We provide representative images of our cases. Read More

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February 2021