2,502 results match your criteria rotavirus strain


Norovirus passive surveillance as an alternative strategy for genetic diversity assessment in developing countries.

J Infect Public Health 2021 Jun 2;14(8):990-993. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Laboratory of Viral Gastroenteritis, INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán", Av. Vélez Sársfield 563, Buenos Aires 1281, Argentina.

In developing countries, the acute gastroenteritis outbreaks submitted for viral testing are limited due to deficient surveillance programs. The aim of this study was to analyze a passive surveillance strategy for monitoring the molecular epidemiology of norovirus (NV) and counterbalance the genetic diversity data gap. Laboratory-confirmed rotavirus negative sporadic stool samples (N = 523) collected between 2010 and 2017 from children were selected from our archival collection and were tested for NV and sequencing was performed on the positive samples. Read More

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Reverse genetic engineering of simian rotaviruses with temperature-sensitive lesions in VP1, VP2, and VP6.

Virus Res 2021 Jun 16:198488. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Biology, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC. Electronic address:

Rotaviruses are 11-segmented double-stranded RNA viruses and important causes of acute gastroenteritis in young children. To investigate the functions of specific viral proteins during the rotavirus lifecycle, temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants were previously created using a cultivatable simian strain (SA11) and chemical mutagenesis. These ts SA11 mutants replicate more efficiently at the permissive temperature of 31°C than at the non-permissive temperature of 39°C. Read More

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Phylogenetic analysis of VP7 and VP4 genes of the most predominant human group A rotavirus G12 identified in children with acute gastroenteritis in Himachal Pradesh, India during 2013-2016.

J Med Virol 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Biotechnology, School of Chemical & Life Sciences, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, 110062, India.

G12 strains are now considered to be the sixth most prevalent human rotaviruses globally. India has introduced rotavirus vaccine Rotavac into the national immunization program in 2016 and Himachal Pradesh (HP) is the first state to launch it. During epidemiological rotavirus surveillance in HP, predominance of G12 rotaviruses was observed. Read More

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Full genome-based characterization of G4P[6] rotavirus strains from diarrheic patients in Thailand: Evidence for independent porcine-to-human interspecies transmission events.

Virus Genes 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Virology and Parasitology, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi, 470-1192, Japan.

The exact evolutionary patterns of human G4P[6] rotavirus strains remain to be elucidated. Such strains possess unique and strain-specific genotype constellations, raising the question of whether G4P[6] strains are primarily transmitted via independent interspecies transmission or human-to-human transmission after interspecies transmission. Two G4P[6] rotavirus strains were identified in fecal specimens from hospitalized patients with severe diarrhea in Thailand, namely, DU2014-259 (RVA/Human-wt/THA/DU2014-259/2014/G4P[6]) and PK2015-1-0001 (RVA/Human-wt/THA/PK2015-1-0001/2015/G4P[6]). Read More

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Presence and Diversity of Different Enteric Viruses in Wild Norway Rats ().

Viruses 2021 May 26;13(6). Epub 2021 May 26.

Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Institute of Novel and Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17493 Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany.

Rodents are common reservoirs for numerous zoonotic pathogens, but knowledge about diversity of pathogens in rodents is still limited. Here, we investigated the occurrence and genetic diversity of enteric viruses in 51 Norway rats collected in three different countries in Europe. RNA of at least one virus was detected in the intestine of 49 of 51 animals. Read More

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Whole gene analysis of a genotype G29P[6] human rotavirus strain identified in Central African Republic.

BMC Res Notes 2021 May 31;14(1):218. Epub 2021 May 31.

Laboratoire Des Virus Entériques/Rougeole, Institut Pasteur de Bangui, Ave de L'Indépendance, BP 923, Bangui, Central African Republic.

Objective: Rotavirus A (RVA) remains the main causative agent of gastroenteritis in young children and the young of many mammalian and avian species. In this study we describe a RVA strain detected from a 6-month-old child from Central African Republic (CAR).

Results: We report the 11 open reading frame sequences of a G29-P[6]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2 rotavirus strain, RVA/Human-wt/CAR/CAR91/2014/G29P[6]. Read More

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Paediatric rotavirus gastroenteritis: A prospective study of regional prevalent genotypes, genotype correlation with disease severity and viral co-infection in County Mayo, Ireland, in the year following rotavirus vaccine introduction in Ireland.

Authors:
Zakaria Barsoum

J Virol Methods 2021 Aug 24;294:114179. Epub 2021 May 24.

South West Acute Hospital - Paediatric Department, Northern Ireland, 124 Irvinestown Rd, Enniskillen, BT 74 6DN, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Rotavirus A (RV) is the primary cause of gastroenteritis in children worldwide and a leading cause of gastroenteritis in children younger than three years, with a significant burden both globally and in Ireland. Rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix™) was introduced into Ireland in 2016. The aim of this study was to determine the diversity and frequency of, and predominant, RV genotypes, nosocomial acquisition, viral co-infections and severity of RV infection in Ireland in the post-vaccination year, from November 18th 2016 to November 18th 2017. Read More

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Role of rotavirus vaccination on G9P[8] rotavirus strain during a seasonal outbreak in Japan.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 May 25:1-6. Epub 2021 May 25.

Division of Microbiology, Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Although two live oral rotavirus (RV) vaccines, Rotarix and RotaTeq, play a critical role toward reducing disease severity, hospitalization, and death rate in RV infections, regular monitoring of vaccine effectiveness (VE) is yet necessary because the segmented genome structure and reassortment capability of RVs pose considerable threats toward waning VE. In this study, we examined the VE by a test-negative study design against G9P[8]I2 strain during a seasonal outbreak in February-May, 2018, in an outpatient clinic in Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. It remains important because G9P[8]I2 strain remains partially heterotypic to these vaccines and predominating in post-vaccination era. Read More

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Prevalence and Distribution of Rotavirus Genotypes Among Children With Acute Gastroenteritis in Areas Other Than Java Island, Indonesia, 2016-2018.

Front Microbiol 2021 6;12:672837. Epub 2021 May 6.

Center for Infectious Diseases, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan.

Group A rotaviruses (RVAs) are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis, which is often associated with severe symptoms in children under 5 years old. Genetic reassortments and interspecies transmission commonly occur, resulting in a great diversity of RVA circulating in the world. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and distribution of RVA genotypes among children in Indonesia over the years 2016-2018 across representative areas of the country. Read More

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Immunogenicity and safety of two monovalent rotavirus vaccines, ROTAVAC® and ROTAVAC 5D® in Zambian infants.

Vaccine 2021 Jun 12;39(27):3633-3640. Epub 2021 May 12.

PATH, India. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: ROTAVAC® (frozen formulation stored at -20 °C) and ROTAVAC 5D® (liquid formulation stable at 2-8 °C) are rotavirus vaccines derived from the 116E human neonatal rotavirus strain, developed and licensed in India. This study evaluated and compared the safety and immunogenicity of these vaccines in an infant population in Zambia.

Methods: We conducted a phase 2b, open-label, randomized, controlled trial wherein 450 infants 6 to 8 weeks of age were randomized equally to receive three doses of ROTAVAC or ROTAVAC 5D, or two doses of ROTARIX®. Read More

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Epidemiology and genetic diversity of group A rotavirus in pediatric patients with acute gastroenteritis in Thailand, 2018-2019.

Infect Genet Evol 2021 May 8:104898. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; Emerging and Re-emerging Diarrheal Viruses Cluster, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; Division of Microbiology, Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address:

Group A rotaviruses (RVAs) are the major viruses that cause acute gastroenteritis in young children worldwide. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and genotype diversity of RVAs circulating in children with acute gastroenteritis in Thailand in 2018-2019. A total of 1170 stool specimens were obtained from children admitted to hospitals with diarrhea and screened for RVAs by nested RT-PCR. Read More

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Recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum NC8 strain expressing porcine rotavirus VP7 induces specific antibodies in BALB/c mice.

Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) 2021 May;53(6):707-718

College of Animal Science and Technology, Jilin Provincial Engineering Research Center of Animal Probiotics, Key Laboratory of Animal Production and Product Quality Safety of Ministry of Education, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun 130118, China.

The major etiologic agent that causes acute gastroenteritis worldwide in young animals and children is Group A rotavirus. Currently, commercially available vaccines do not often prevent porcine rotavirus (PRV) infection. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of oral recombinant Lactobacillus vaccine against PRV in a mouse model. Read More

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Whole-genome classification of rotavirus C and genetic diversity of porcine strains in the USA.

J Gen Virol 2021 May;102(5)

Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA.

Rotavirus C (RVC) is associated with acute diarrhoea in both children and young animals. Because of its frequent occurrence, additional sequences have recently been generated. In this study, we sequenced 21 complete genomes from porcine diarrhoea samples and analysed them together with all available reference sequences collected from the GenBank database [National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)]. Read More

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HUMAN COSAVIRUS INFECTION IN HIV SUBJECTS WITH DIARRHOEA: PERSISTENT DETECTION ASSOCIATED WITH FATAL OUTCOME.

J Clin Virol 2021 Jun 16;139:104825. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Servicio de Infectología. Hospital General del Oeste "Dr. José Gregorio Hernández". Catia, Sector Los Magallanes de Catia. Caracas, Venezuela.

Background: Human cosavirus (HCoSV) is a new member of the Picornaviridae family, geographically widespread among humans. It has been suggested as a causative agent of acute gastroenteritis, but its pathogenicity is not currently certain. In HIV-infected subjects, diarrhoea is one of the most frequent gastrointestinal manifestations, whose aetiology remains often unexplained. Read More

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The Long-Term Impact of Rotavirus Vaccines in Korea, 2008-2020; Emergence of G8P[8] Strain.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Apr 20;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Health and Environment Research Institute of Gwangju, Gwangju 61954, Korea.

This study evaluated the long-term impact of rotavirus vaccination on prevalence, seasonality, and genotype distribution in Gwangju, Korea for 13 seasons. Rotavirus was identified using ELISA and then sequenced for G and P genotypes by Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reactions for diarrhoeagenic patient specimens from local hospitals between January 2008 and August2020. Of 26,902 fecal samples, 2919 samples (10. Read More

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Rotavirus Strain Distribution before and after Introducing Rotavirus Vaccine in India.

Pathogens 2021 Apr 1;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

The Wellcome Trust Research Laboratory, Division of Gastrointestinal Sciences, Christian Medical College, Vellore 632004, India.

In April 2016, an indigenous monovalent rotavirus vaccine (Rotavac) was introduced to the National Immunization Program in India. Hospital-based surveillance for acute gastroenteritis was conducted in five sentinel sites from 2012 to 2020 to monitor the vaccine impact on various genotypes and the reduction in rotavirus positivity at each site. Stool samples collected from children under 5 years of age hospitalized with diarrhea were tested for group A rotavirus using a commercial enzyme immunoassay, and rotavirus strains were characterized by RT-PCR. Read More

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Molecular characterization of porcine group A rotavirus to contain piglet diarrhea for productivity enhancement in North East India.

Virusdisease 2021 Apr 10:1-6. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Gauhati University, Guwahati, Assam 781014 India.

Gastrointestinal tract infections with acute diarrhea are indeed a serious cause of concern that held back the swine industry of North East India and among the various etiological agents causing the disease, group A rotavirus is the most common. In this regard, molecular characterization of the viral strains circulating in the region is of utmost importance for a strategic approach to control the disease. Thus, in the present study, diarrheic fecal samples from piglets of Tripura and Assam were evaluated for genotypic characterization of VP7 and VP4 gene of the virus. Read More

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Taxonogenomics description of sp. nov., a new bacterial species isolated from urine sample.

New Microbes New Infect 2021 May 2;41:100854. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

IHU-Méditerranée Infection, Marseille, France.

Strain Marseille-P3248 is a new species from the order that was isolated from the urine sample of a girl aged 20 months with rotavirus gastroenteritis. It is a facultative anaerobic Gram-positive rod-shaped bacterium. Strain Marseille-P3248 exhibits 94. Read More

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Molecular characterization of the first human G15 rotavirus strain of zoonotic origin from the bovine species.

J Gen Virol 2021 Apr;102(4)

Department of Pediatrics, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan.

Group A rotaviruses (RVAs) infect a wide variety of mammalian and avian species. Animals act as a potential reservoir to RVA human infections by direct virion transmission or by contributing genes to reassortants. Here, we report the molecular characterization of a rare human RVA strain Ni17-46 with a genotype G15P[14], isolated in Japan in 2017 during rotavirus surveillance in a paediatric outpatient clinic. Read More

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Rotavirus Strain Surveillance in Estonia After Introduction of Rotavirus Universal Mass Vaccination.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2021 May;40(5):489-494

From the Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biomedicine and Translational Medicine, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.

Background: Estonia implemented the rotavirus (RV) vaccine into its national immunization program in July 2014. We aimed to determine circulating RV genotypes and the clinical profile by genotypes from February 1, 2015, to August 30, 2016, among children 0-18 years hospitalized due to rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE).

Methods: During an observational study in 7 Estonian hospitals, we determined the RV genotypes in stool samples of RVGE patients who met predetermined criteria. Read More

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Molecular characterization of group A rotavirus strains detected in alpacas () from Peru.

J Gen Virol 2021 Apr;102(4)

Insituto de Virología, INTA Castelar, Argentina.

The alpaca is a very important social and economic resource for the production of fibre and meat for Andean communities. Peru is the main producer of alpacas. Group A rotavirus (RVA) has been sporadically detected in alpacas. Read More

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KOBUVIRUS DETECTION IN THE CRITICALLY ENDANGERED PYGMY HOG (), INDIA.

J Zoo Wildl Med 2021 Apr;52(1):343-347

Division of Pathology, Indian Council of Agricultural Research-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar 243122, India.

Pygmy hogs () are the smallest and rarest wild suid. It is categorized as a Critically Endangered species as per the Red List of the International Union for Conservation of Nature. This study reports the first detection of a single-stranded RNA virus species, , belonging to the genus (KobV) and the family , in pygmy hogs. Read More

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Rotavirus Genotype Trends and Gastrointestinal Pathogen Detection in the United States, 2014-16: Results from the New Vaccine Surveillance Network.

J Infect Dis 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States.

Background: Following the implementation of rotavirus vaccination in 2006, severe acute gastroenteritis (AGE) due to group A rotavirus (RVA) has substantially declined in USA (US) children. We report the RVA genotype prevalence as well as co-infection data from seven US New Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN) sites during three consecutive RVA seasons, 2014-2016.

Methods: A total of 1041 stool samples that tested positive for RVA by Rotaclone enzyme immunoassay (EIA) were submitted to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for RVA genotyping and multipathogen testing. Read More

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Rotavirus NSP1 Inhibits Type I and Type III Interferon Induction.

Viruses 2021 03 31;13(4). Epub 2021 Mar 31.

The Pirbright Institute, Ash Road, Woking, Surrey GU24 0NF, UK.

Type I interferons (IFNs) are produced by most cells in response to virus infection and stimulate a program of anti-viral gene expression in neighboring cells to suppress virus replication. Type III IFNs have similar properties, however their effects are limited to epithelial cells at mucosal surfaces due to restricted expression of the type III IFN receptor. Rotavirus (RV) replicates in intestinal epithelial cells that respond predominantly to type III IFNs, and it has been shown that type III rather than type I IFNs are important for controlling RV infections in vivo. Read More

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Genotype Diversity before and after the Introduction of a Rotavirus Vaccine into the National Immunisation Program in Fiji.

Pathogens 2021 Mar 17;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Asia-Pacific Health Group, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Parkville, VIC 3052, Australia.

The introduction of the rotavirus vaccine, Rotarix, into the Fiji National Immunisation Program in 2012 has reduced the burden of rotavirus disease and hospitalisations in children less than 5 years of age. The aim of this study was to describe the pattern of rotavirus genotype diversity from 2005 to 2018; to investigate changes following the introduction of the rotavirus vaccine in Fiji. Faecal samples from children less than 5 years with acute diarrhoea between 2005 to 2018 were analysed at the WHO Rotavirus Regional Reference Laboratory at the Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia, and positive samples were serotyped by EIA (2005-2006) or genotyped by heminested RT-PCR (2007 onwards). Read More

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EHEC O111:H8 strain and norovirus GII.4 Sydney [P16] causing an outbreak in a daycare center, Brazil, 2019.

BMC Microbiol 2021 Mar 29;21(1):95. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Laboratory of Comparative and Environmental Virology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Background: This study describes the investigation of an outbreak of diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis (HC), and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) at a daycare center in southeastern Brazil, involving fourteen children, six staff members, six family members, and one nurse. All bacterial and viral pathogens detected were genetically characterized.

Results: Two isolates of a strain of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) serotype O111:H8 were recovered, one implicated in a case of HUS and the other in a case of uncomplicated diarrhea. Read More

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Equine rotavirus infection.

J Equine Sci 2021 Mar 16;32(1):1-9. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Equine Research Institute, Japan Racing Association, Tochigi 329-0412, Japan.

This review briefly describes the virus classification, clinical signs, epidemiology, diagnosis, disinfection, and vaccines related equine group A rotavirus (RVA) infection. Equine RVA is one of the most important pathogens causing diarrhoea in foals. The main transmission route is faecal-oral, and the clinical signs are diarrhoea, fever, lethargy, and anorexia (decreased suckling). Read More

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Developing a manufacturing process to deliver a cost effective and stable liquid human rotavirus vaccine.

Vaccine 2021 04 18;39(15):2048-2059. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Batavia Biosciences BV, Zernikedreef 16, 2333CL Leiden, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Despite solid evidence of the success of rotavirus vaccines in saving children from fatal gastroenteritis, more than 82 million infants worldwide still lack access to a rotavirus vaccine. The main barriers to global rotavirus vaccine coverage include cost, manufacturing capacity and suboptimal efficacy in low- and lower-middle income countries. One vaccine candidate with the potential to address the latter is based on the novel, naturally attenuated RV3 strain of rotavirus, RV3-BB vaccine administered in a birth dose strategy had a vaccine efficacy against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis of 94% at 12 months of age in infants in Indonesia. Read More

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Detection of Rotavirus Vaccine Strains in Oysters and Sewage and Their Relationship with the Gastroenteritis Epidemic.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 04 27;87(10). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Food, Life and Environmental Sciences, Yamagata University, Tsuruoka, Yamagata, Japan

Rotavirus is one of the major causes of infectious gastroenteritis among infants and children, and live attenuated vaccines for rotavirus A (RVA), namely, Rotarix and RotaTeq, have recently become available in Japan. Rotavirus is known to be excreted from patients and accumulated in oysters similar to norovirus; however, the vaccine strains in aquatic environments or oysters have not yet been analyzed. In this study, we focused on wild-type RVA, which is highly important in considering the risk of infectious diseases. Read More

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[Synthesis and characterization of human rotavirus A () virus-like particles].

Vopr Virusol 2021 03 7;66(1):55-64. Epub 2021 Mar 7.

FSBI National Research Center for Epidemiology and Microbiology named after Honorary Academician N.F. Gamaleya.

Introduction: Rotavirus infection is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis among infants. The development of new vaccines against rotavirus A is urgent because the virus has many genotypes, some of which have regional prevalence. Virus-like particles (VLP) is a promising way to create effective and safe vaccine preparations. Read More

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