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Isoalantolactone Increases the Sensitivity of Prostate Cancer Cells to Cisplatin Treatment by Inducing Oxidative Stress.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 20;9:632779. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China.

Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy among men worldwide. Platinum (II)-based chemotherapy has been used to treat a number of malignancies including prostate cancer. However, the potential of cisplatin for treating prostate cancer is restricted owing to its limited efficacy and toxic side effects. Read More

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Neurotoxicity of Unconjugated Bilirubin in Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury .

Front Pediatr 2021 20;9:659477. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Neurosciences, Psychology, Drug Research and Child Health, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

The pathophysiology of bilirubin neurotoxicity in course of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in term and preterm infants is still poorly understood. We hypothesized that oxidative stress may be a common mechanism that link hyperbilirubinemia and HIE. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) may enhance the HI brain injury by increasing oxidative stress and to test pioglitazone and allopurinol as new antioxidant therapeutic drugs . Read More

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Rapamycin Promotes ROS-Mediated Cell Death Functional Inhibition of xCT Expression in Melanoma Under γ-Irradiation.

Front Oncol 2021 20;11:665420. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Biological Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, South Korea.

Although many cancer patients are administered radiotherapy for their treatment, the interaction between tumor cells and macrophages in the tumor microenvironment attenuates the curative effects of radiotherapy. The enhanced activation of mTOR signaling in the tumors promotes tumor radioresistance. In this study, the effects of rapamycin on the interaction between tumor cells and macrophages were investigated. Read More

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Oncogenic driver mutations in non-small cell lung cancer: Past, present and future.

World J Clin Oncol 2021 Apr;12(4):217-237

Department of Oncology, University Hospital Geneva, Geneva 1205, Switzerland.

Lung cancer, of which non-small lung cancer is the most common subtype, represents the leading cause of cancer related-death worldwide. It is now recognized that a significant proportion of these patients present alterations in certain genes that drive oncogenesis. In recent years, more of these so-called oncogenic drivers have been identified, and a better understanding of their biology has allowed the development new targeted agents. Read More

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A high magnesium concentration in citrate dialysate prevents oxidative stress and damage in human monocytes .

Clin Kidney J 2021 May 30;14(5):1403-1411. Epub 2020 Aug 30.

Dpto de Biología de Sistemas, Universidad de Alcalá, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain.

Background: The use of dialysis fluids (DFs) during haemodialysis has been associated with increased oxidative stress and reduced serum magnesium (Mg) levels, contributing to chronic inflammation. Since the role of Mg in modulating immune function and reducing oxidative stress has been demonstrated, the aim of this study was to characterize whether increasing the Mg concentration in DFs could protect immune cells from oxidative stress and damage.

Methods: The effect of citrate [citrate dialysis fluid (CDF), 1 mM] or acetate [acetate dialysis fluid (ADF), 3 mM] dialysates with low (0. Read More

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Released Myeloperoxidase Attenuates Neutrophil Migration and Accumulation in Inflamed Tissue.

Front Immunol 2021 20;12:654259. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Pathology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, United States.

Neutrophil (PMN) recruitment to sites of insult is critical for host defense, however excessive PMN activity and tissue accumulation can lead to exacerbated inflammation and injury. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a PMN azurophilic granule enzyme, which together with HO, forms a powerful antimicrobial system designed to kill ingested bacteria. Intriguingly, in addition to intracellular killing of invading microorganisms and extracellular tissue damage due generation of ROS, soluble MPO has been directly implicated in modulating cellular responses and tissue homeostasis. Read More

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Berberine-Loaded Carboxylmethyl Chitosan Nanoparticles Ameliorate DSS-Induced Colitis and Remodel Gut Microbiota in Mice.

Front Pharmacol 2021 20;12:644387. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, China.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a refractory disorder characterized by chronic and recurrent inflammation. The progression and pathogenesis of IBD is closely related to oxidative stress and irregularly high concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS). A new oxidation-responsive nano prodrug was constructed from a phenylboronic esters-modified carboxylmethyl chitosan (OC-B) conjugated with berberine (BBR) that degrades selectively in response to ROS. Read More

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Methanolic Extract from Sea Cucumber, , Induces Apoptosis and Suppresses Metastasis of PC3 Prostate Cancer Cells Modulated by MAPK Signaling Pathway.

J Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Apr 30;31(1). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand.

Sea cucumber, , is a well-known traditional Asian medicine that has been used for suppressing inflammation, promoting wound healing, and improving immunity. Moreover, previous studies demonstrated that the extract from contains many bioactive compounds and has potent on inhibiting tumor cells survival and progression. However, the effect of the methanolic extract from the body wall of (BWMT) on human prostate cancer cells has not yet been investigated. Read More

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ASCs derived from burn patients are more prone to increased oxidative metabolism and reactive oxygen species upon passaging.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 May 6;12(1):270. Epub 2021 May 6.

United States Army Institute of Surgical Research, JBSA Fort Sam Houston, 3698 Chambers Pass, San Antonio, TX, USA.

Background: Patients with severe burn injury (over 20% of the total body surface area) experience profound hypermetabolism which significantly prolongs wound healing. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have been proposed as an attractive solution for treating burn wounds, including the potential for autologous ASC expansion. While subcutaneous adipocytes display an altered metabolic profile post-burn, it is not known if this is the case with the stem cells associated with the adipose tissue. Read More

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The effects of secondary iron overload and iron chelation on a radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia mouse model.

BMC Cancer 2021 May 6;21(1):509. Epub 2021 May 6.

Biological Sciences, Sunnybrook Research Institute Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Background: Patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) require chronic red blood cell (RBC) transfusion due to anemia. Multiple RBC transfusions cause secondary iron overload and subsequent excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which leads to mutations, cell death, organ failure, and inferior disease outcomes. We hypothesize that iron loading promotes AML development by increasing oxidative stress and disrupting important signaling pathways in the bone marrow cells (BMCs). Read More

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Hybrid Plasmonic Nanodumbbells Engineering for Multi-Intensified Second Near-Infrared Light Induced Photodynamic Therapy.

ACS Nano 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Construction-Tailorable Advanced Functional Materials and Green Applications, School of Materials Science & Engineering, Institute of Engineering Medicine, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China.

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has shown great potential in infection treatment. However, the shallow depth of the short wavelength light and the low reactive oxygen species (ROS) production hinder its development. A strategy that can achieve a second near-infrared (NIR-II) light that is a long wavelength induced multi-intensified antibacterial PDT is most critical. Read More

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Withanone Ameliorates Stress Symptoms in Caenorhabditis Elegans by Acting through Serotonin Receptors.

Pharmacopsychiatry 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Institute of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany.

Introduction: Depression is responsible for 800 000 deaths worldwide, a number that will rise significantly due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Affordable novel drugs with less severe side effects are urgently required. We investigated the effect of withanone (WN) from Withania somnifera on the serotonin system of wild-type and knockout Caenorhabditis elegans strains using in silico, in vitro, and in vivo methods. Read More

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Sodium metabisulfite as a cytotoxic food additive induces apoptosis in HFFF2 cells.

Food Chem 2021 Apr 20;358:129910. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Valencia, Dr. Moliner 50, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia, Spain. Electronic address:

Sodium metabisulfite (SMB), an antioxidant agent, is extensively used as a preservative in food industry. The current study was aimed to clarify its potential toxic effects on human fetal foreskin fibroblasts (HFFF2) cells, in vitro. Subsequently, MTT results illustrated that exposure to SMB significantly (p < 0. Read More

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Zinc oxide nanoparticles and 24-epibrassinolide alleviates Cu toxicity in tomato by regulating ROS scavenging, stomatal movement and photosynthesis.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 May 3;218:112293. Epub 2021 May 3.

Collaborative Innovation Center of Sustainable Forestry in Southern China, College of Forest Science, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China. Electronic address:

Nanoparticles (NPs) have recently emerged as potential agents for plants to ameliorate abiotic stresses by acting as nano-fertilizers. In this regard, the influence of the zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) on plant responses to copper (Cu) stress has been poorly understood. Hence, the present study was executed to explore the role of ZnO-NPs (foliar) and 24-epibrassinolide (EBL; root dipping) individually or in combined form in the resilience of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plant to Cu stress. Read More

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Physiological processes and lipidome dynamics in the soft coral Sinularia heterospiculata under experimental bleaching.

Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 2021 May 3:110609. Epub 2021 May 3.

A.V. Zhirmunsky National Scientific Center of Marine Biology, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, Russian Federation.

Coral polyps host intracellular symbiotic dinoflagellates (SD). The loss of SD (referred as bleaching) under stressful environmental conditions is the main reason of coral reef destruction, and therefore, intensively studied over the world. Lipids are the structural base of biomembranes and energy reserve of corals and are directly involved in the coral bleaching. Read More

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CopA3 peptide induces permanent cell-cycle arrest in colorectal cancer cells.

Mech Ageing Dev 2021 May 3;196:111497. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Biotechnology, Daegu University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk, 38453, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Cell-cycle arrest reflects an accumulation of responses to DNA damage that sequentially affects cell growth and division. Herein, we analyzed the effect of the 9-mer dimer defensin-like peptide, CopA3, against colorectal cancer cell growth and proliferation in a dose-dependent manner upon 96 h of treatment. As observed, CopA3 treatment significantly affected cancer cell growth, reduced colony formation ability, increased the number of SA-β-Gal positive cells, and remarkably reduced Ki67 protein expression. Read More

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ROS and metabolomics-mediated autophagy in rat's testicular tissue alter after exercise training; Evidence for exercise intensity and outcomes.

Life Sci 2021 May 3:119585. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of basic Sciences, Division of Histology & Embryology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, P.O.BOX: 1177, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran. Electronic address:

Aims: Oxidative damage and altered metabolic reactions are suspected to initiate the autophagy. The exercise training significantly impacts testicular antioxidant and metabolic potentials. However, the underlying mechanism(s) that the exercise-induced alterations can affect the autophagy markers remained unknown. Read More

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Nitazoxanide impairs mitophagy flux through ROS-mediated mitophagy initiation and lysosomal dysfunction in bladder cancer.

Biochem Pharmacol 2021 May 3:114588. Epub 2021 May 3.

Institute of Urology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Shenzhen University (Luohu Hospital Group), Shenzhen 518000, China; Shenzhen Following Precision Medical Research Institute, Luohu Hospital Group, Shenzhen 518000, China; Teaching Center of Shenzhen Luohu Hospital, Shantou University Medical College, Shenzhen 518000, China; Department of Urology and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510000, China. Electronic address:

Bladder cancer is one of the most common malignancy in the urinary tract with high recurrence and drug resistance in clinics. Alternative treatments from existing drugs might be a promising strategy. Nitazoxanide (NTZ), an FDA-approved antiprotozoal drug, has got increasingly noticed because of its favorable safety profile and antitumor potential, yet the effects in bladder cancer and underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Read More

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Combination treatment of dendrosomal nanocurcumin and low-level laser therapy develops proliferation and migration of mouse embryonic fibroblasts and alter TGF-β, VEGF, TNF-α and IL-6 expressions involved in wound healing process.

PLoS One 2021 6;16(5):e0247098. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Genetics, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Pressure ulcer (PU) is known as the third most costly disorder usually caused by prolonged pressure and stagnation in various parts of the body. Although several therapeutic approaches are employing, obstacles in appropriate healing for skin lesions still exist which necessitates new practical alternative or adjunctive treatments. Low level laser therapy (LLLT) as one of the mentioned new strategies have gained attention. Read More

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The Kidney-Related Effects of Polystyrene Microplastics on Human Kidney Proximal Tubular Epithelial Cells HK-2 and Male C57BL/6 Mice.

Environ Health Perspect 2021 May 6;129(5):57003. Epub 2021 May 6.

Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Background: Understanding the epidemic of chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology may be critical for health policies and public health responses. Recent studies have shown that microplastics (MPs) contaminate our food chain and accumulate in the gut, liver, kidney, muscle, and so on. Humans manufacture many plastics-related products. Read More

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An anti-oxidant sesquiterpene inhibits osteoclastogenesis via blocking IPMK/TRAF6 and counteracts OVX-induced osteoporosis in mice.

J Bone Miner Res 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Excessive bone resorption induced by increased osteoclast activity in postmenopausal women often causes osteoporosis. Although the pharmacological treatment of osteoporosis has been extensively developed, a safer and more effective treatment is still needed. Here, we found that curcumenol (CUL), an anti-oxidant sesquiterpene isolated from Curcuma zedoaria, impaired receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro, whereas the osteoblastogenesis of MC3T3-E1 cells was not affected. Read More

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Group B Streptococcus chimeric capsular polysaccharides as novel multivalent vaccine candidates.

Glycoconj J 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

GSK, Siena, Italy.

The capsular polysaccharide of the human pathogen Group B Streptococcus is a key virulence factor and vaccine candidate that induces protective antibodies when conjugated to carrier proteins. It consists of long polymeric chains of oligosaccharide repeating units, and each of the ten capsular serotypes described so far presents a unique chemical structure with distinct antigenic properties; therefore, broad protection against this pathogen could be achieved by a combination of ten glycoconjugates. Capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis and assembly follow a polymerase-dependent pathway that is widespread in encapsulated bacteria and is encoded by a polycistronic operon. Read More

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Glutaredoxin 1 protects neurons from oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R)-induced apoptosis and oxidative stress via the modulation of GSK-3β/Nrf2 signaling.

J Bioenerg Biomembr 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Anesthesiology, The First Hospital of Yulin, No. 93 Yuxi Street, Yulin, Shaanxi, 719000, China.

Increasing evidence has indicated that glutaredoxin 1 (GRX1) is a potent antioxidant protein that promotes cell survival under conditions of oxidative stress. Oxidative stress-induced neuronal injury contributes to cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, the role of GRX1-mediated antioxidant defense against neuronal damage during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury has not been thoroughly investigated. Read More

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Delphinidin modulates JAK/STAT3 and MAPKinase signaling to induce apoptosis in HCT116 cells.

Environ Toxicol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Gastroenterology, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.

Delphinidin is an anthocyanin that belongs to the group of flavonoids that exert numerous biological activities. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the anticancer effects of delphinidin remain poorly understood. In our study we analyzed delphinidin modulate STAT-3 and MAPKinase signaling thereby inhbits cell proliferation and promote apoptosis. Read More

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[Retracted] antitumor activity of the ethyl acetate extract in osteosarcoma cancer cells.

Mol Med Rep 2021 Jul 6;24(1). Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Orthopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xinxiang Medical University, Weihui, Henan 453100, P.R. China.

Following the publication of the above paper, a concerned reader drew to the Editor's attention that several figures bore striking similarities to other papers that were published at around the same time written by different authors based in different research institutions. Fig. 3 (in colour) was essentially the same as a greyscale figure (Fig. Read More

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4-hydroxy-2-nonenal antimicrobial toxicity is neutralized by an intracellular pathogen.

Elife 2021 May 6;10. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, United States.

Pathogens encounter numerous antimicrobial responses during infection, including the reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst. ROS-mediated oxidation of host membrane poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) generates the toxic alpha-beta carbonyl 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE). Though studied extensively in the context of sterile inflammation, research into 4-HNE's role during infection remains limited. Read More

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and growth inhibitory, anti-ovarian & anti-lung carcinoma effects of 1,5 diarylpenta-1,4-dien-3-one as synthetically modified curcumin analogue.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2021 May 6:1-18. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Zoology, Molecular Endocrinology Lab, University of Lucknow, Lucknow, India.

The synthesized 1,5 diarylpenta-1,4-dien-3-one derivatives (compounds 1-6) as synthetic curcumin analogues were tested for their potential anticancer activity against human ovarian and lung adenocarcinoma cells. The absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET/pharmacokinetic) parameters of all the compounds were predicted by admetSAR software. The pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and bioactivity scores properties based on Lipinski rule and Ghose filter, calculated with the help of Molinspiration and ChemDraw. Read More

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Enhanced anti-angiogenic activity of novel melatonin-like agents.

J Pineal Res 2021 May 5:e12739. Epub 2021 May 5.

School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, 2066 Seobu-ro, Jangan-gu, Suwon, 16419, Republic of Korea.

Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) plays an important role in cellular responses to hypoxia, including the transcriptional activation of several genes involved in tumor angiogenesis. Melatonin, also known as N-acetyl-5-methopxytryptamine, is produced naturally by the pineal gland and has anti-angiogenic effects in cancer through its ability to modulate HIF-1α activity. However, the use of melatonin as a therapeutic is limited by its low oral bioavailability and short half-life. Read More

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Virtual screening of natural compounds for potential inhibitors of Sterol C-24 methyltransferase of Leishmania donovani to overcome leishmaniasis.

J Cell Biochem 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Biotechnology, Infection and Immunity Lab (414), Jamia Millia Islamia (A Central University), New Delhi, India.

Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by trypanosomatid parasite belonging to the genera Leishmania. Leishmaniasis is transmitted from one human to other through the bite of sandflies. It is endemic in around 98 countries including tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, Africa, Southern America, and the Mediterranean region. Read More

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The Independent and Shared Transcriptomic Response to UVA, UVB, and Oxidative Stress in the Cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133.

Photochem Photobiol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, USA.

Research on the UVA, UVB, and oxidative (as reactive oxygen species, ROS) stress response in cyanobacteria has typically focused on each individual stress condition, with limited studies addressing the intersection. Here we evaluated the transcriptomic responses of the model cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme after exposure to each of these conditions. Overall, response to UVA was characterized by more gene down-regulation than the UVB or ROS response, although UVB affected over four-fold more genes than UVA or ROS. Read More

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