23,530 results match your criteria ros generation


STING enhances cell death through regulation of reactive oxygen species and DNA damage.

Nat Commun 2021 Apr 19;12(1):2327. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Resistance to DNA-damaging agents is a significant cause of treatment failure and poor outcomes in oncology. To identify unrecognized regulators of cell survival we performed a whole-genome CRISPR-Cas9 screen using treatment with ionizing radiation as a selective pressure, and identified STING (stimulator of interferon genes) as an intrinsic regulator of tumor cell survival. We show that STING regulates a transcriptional program that controls the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and that STING loss alters ROS homeostasis to reduce DNA damage and to cause therapeutic resistance. Read More

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In vitro toxic synergistic effects of exogenous pollutants-trimethylamine and its metabolites on human respiratory tract cells.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 6;783:146915. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Joint Laboratory for Contaminants Exposure and Health, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Catalysis and Health Risk Control, Institute of Environmental Health and Pollution control, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China; Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Environmental Catalysis and Pollution Control, Key Laboratory of City Cluster Environmental Safety and Green Development (Department of Education, China), School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China.

The wide presence of volatile organic amines in atmosphere has been clarified to relate to adverse effects on human respiratory health. However, toxic effects of them on human respiratory tract and their metabiotic mechanism of in vivo transformation have not been elucidated yet. Herein, cell viability and production of reactive oxygen species (ROSs) were first investigated during acute exposure of trimethylamine (TMA) to bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE), along with identification of toxic metabolites and metabolic mechanisms of TMA from headspace atmosphere and cell culture. Read More

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Nanopriming with zero-valent iron synthesized using pomegranate peel waste: A "green" approach for yield enhancement in Oryza sativa L. cv. Gonindobhog.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Apr 16;163:261-275. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Centre of Advanced Study, Department of Botany, Calcutta University, 35, Ballygange Circular Road, Kolkata-19, India. Electronic address:

Nanopriming is a combination of nanoparticle treatment and a seed dressing technique that can increase seed quality, seedling vigour, yield and also imparts tolerance against biotic and abiotic stress. Here, nano-scale zero-valent iron (G-nZVI) was synthesized using fruit peel waste of Punica granatum L and their formation was validated from XRD and optical spectroscopic techniques. Later, the seeds were primed with G-nZVI at six different concentrations (0, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 mg L ) to determine the dose which is optimum for increasing germination percentage and seedling vigour of rice (Oryza sativa L. Read More

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Interactions between reactive oxygen species and autophagy special issue: Death mechanisms in cellular homeostasis.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res 2021 Apr 16:119041. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Département des sciences biologiques (Center of Excellence in Orphan Diseases Research - Courtois Foundation (CERMO-FC), Research Group in Environmental Toxicology (TOXEN)), Université du Québec à Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada. Electronic address:

Oxidative stress is defined as "a serious imbalance between the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant defences in favour of ROS, causing excessive oxidative damage to biomolecules". Different stressors that induce autophagy, such as starvation and hypoxia, can increase production of ROS such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. This review provides brief summaries about oxidative stress and macroautophagy, and then considers current knowledge about the complex interactions between ROS and autophagy. Read More

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Overexpression of retinoid X receptor beta provides protection against oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced inflammation via regulating PGC1α-dependent mitochondrial homeostasis in endothelial cells.

Biochem Pharmacol 2021 Apr 16:114559. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Pharmacology, Nantong University Pharmacy College, Nantong, 226001, China. Electronic address:

Retinoid X receptor beta (RXRβ) has been poorly studied in atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study is to explore the function of RXRβ in oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced inflammation in endothelial cells and the underlying mechanism. The protein expression of RXRβ in the aorta of atherosclerotic mice was detected. Read More

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Actionable driver DNA variants and fusion genes can be detected in archived cytological specimens with the Oncomine Dx Target Test Multi-CDx system in lung cancer.

Cancer Cytopathol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Gastroenterology, Yamanashi Central Hospital, Kofu, Japan.

Background: Molecular testing is critical for identifying actionable variants in lung cancer for precision medicine. When tumor tissue samples are unavailable, archived cytological specimens (ACSs) can be used. The authors examined whether oncogenic variants could be accurately detected in ACSs versus paired formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor tissues with in vitro diagnostic tests. Read More

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Optimizing an Antioxidant TEMPO Copolymer for Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging and Anti-Inflammatory Effects .

Bioconjug Chem 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, United States.

Oxidative stress is broadly implicated in chronic, inflammatory diseases because it causes protein and lipid damage, cell death, and stimulation of inflammatory signaling. Supplementation of innate antioxidant mechanisms with drugs such as the superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic compound 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl (TEMPO) is a promising strategy for reducing oxidative stress-driven pathologies. TEMPO is inexpensive to produce and has strong antioxidant activity, but it is limited as a drug due to rapid clearance from the body. Read More

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Deciphering Electron Interplay at the Fullerene/Sputtered TiO Interface: A Barrier-Free Electron Extraction for Organic Solar Cells.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Sorbonne Université, UMR CNRS 7588, Institut des Nanosciences de Paris, 4 Pl. Jussieu, F-75005 Paris, France.

Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) technology now offers power conversion efficiency (PCE) of over 18% and is one of the main emerging photovoltaic technologies. In such devices, titanium dioxide (TiO) has been vastly used as an electron extraction layer, typically showing unwanted charge-extraction barriers and the need for light-soaking. In the present work, using advanced photoemission spectroscopies, we investigate the electronic interplay at the interface between low-temperature-sputtered TiO and C acceptor fullerene molecules. Read More

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Exploring the self-assembly mechanism and effective synergistic antitumor chemophototherapy of a biodegradable and glutathione responsive ursolic acid prodrug mediated photosensitive nanodrug.

Biomater Sci 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 92 West Dazhi Street, Nan Gang District, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China.

Supermolecularly assembled photochemotherapeutic nanocomposites composed of pure drug small molecules are promising for synergistically improved tumor therapy, yet potential multiple challenges remain to be addressed. Herein, we rationally designed a novel multifunctional small molecule disulfide modified natural pentacyclic triterpene of ursolic acid (UASS) that simultaneously possesses self-assembly ability, glutathione (GSH) responsivity, anticancer activity, biocompatibility and biodegradability and further constructed carrier-free GSH-sensitive photosensitive nanocomposite UASS-Ce6 NPs for safe and synergistically improved chemophototherapy. Specifically, UASS-Ce6 NPs exhibit improved 1O2 generation by reducing the energy gap (ΔEST) of Ce6 as determined by density functional theory. Read More

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A novel D-A-D photosensitizer for efficient NIR imaging and photodynamic therapy.

Chembiochem 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Shandong University, Institute of frontier and interdisciplinary science, CHINA.

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has attracted great interest in cancer theranostics owing to its minimal invasiveness and low side effect. In PDT, photosensitizers are indispensable components that generate cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Tremendous efforts have been devoted to optimizing the photosensitizer with enhanced ROS efficiency. Read More

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Modulating skin colour: role of the thioredoxin and glutathione systems in regulating melanogenesis.

Biosci Rep 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia.

Different skin colour among individuals is determined by the varying amount and types of melanin pigment. Melanin is produced in melanocytes, a type of dendritic cell located in the basal layer of the epidermis, through the process of melanogenesis. Melanogenesis consists of a series of biochemical and enzymatic reactions catalysed by tyrosinase and other tyrosinase-related proteins, leading to the formation of two types of melanin, eumelanin and pheomelanin. Read More

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PERK mediates oxidative stress and adipogenesis in Graves' orbitopathy pathogenesis.

J Mol Endocrinol 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

J Yoon, Ophthalmology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seodaemun-gu, Korea (the Republic of).

We examined endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related gene expression in orbital tissues from patients with Graves' orbitopathy (GO) and the effects of silencing protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) in primary orbital fibroblast cultures to demonstrate the therapeutic potential of PERK-modulating agents in GO management. The expression of ER stress related genes in orbital tissue harvested from individuals with or without GO was studied using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The role of PERK in GO pathogenesis was examined through small-interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing in cultured primary orbital fibroblasts. Read More

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GE11 Peptide Conjugated Liposomes for EGFR-Targeted and Chemophotothermal Combined Anticancer Therapy.

Bioinorg Chem Appl 2021 31;2021:5534870. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Clinical Immunology, Institute of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Diagnostics, Guangdong Medical University, Dongguan, Guangdong 523808, China.

How to actively target tumor sites manipulating the controllable release of the encapsulated anticancer drugs and photosensitizers for synergistic anticancer therapy remains a big challenge. In this study, a cancer cell-targeted, near-infrared (NIR) light-triggered and anticancer drug loaded liposome system (LPs) was developed for synergistic cancer therapy. Photosensitizer indocyanine green (ICG) and chemotherapy drug Curcumin (CUR) were coencapsulated into the liposomes, followed by the surface conjugation of GE11 peptide for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeting on the cancer cell surface. Read More

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Metabolic Reprogramming and Reactive Oxygen Species in T Cell Immunity.

Front Immunol 2021 31;12:652687. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Microbial Pathogenesis and Immunology, Texas A&M University Health Science Center, Bryan, TX, United States.

T cells undergo metabolic reprogramming and multiple biological processes to satisfy their energetic and biosynthetic demands throughout their lifespan. Several of these metabolic pathways result in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The imbalance between ROS generation and scavenging could result in severe damage to the cells and potential cell death, ultimately leading to T cell-related diseases. Read More

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LncRNA OIP5-AS1 accelerates ox-LDL-treated HUVECs injury by NF-κB pathway via miR-30c-5p.

Clin Hemorheol Microcirc 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Cardiology, Yantai Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Yantai, Shandong, China.

Background: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) could induce endothelial injury and played a vital role in the progression and development of atherosclerosis. This study aimed to investigate the role of Opa-interacting protein 5 antisense RNA 1 (OIP5-AS1) in ox-LDL-induced human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) injury and the potential mechanisms.

Methods: Cell proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and flow cytometry assay, respectively. Read More

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Aluminum toxicity and aluminum stress-induced physiological tolerance responses in higher plants.

Crit Rev Biotechnol 2021 Apr 18:1-16. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Amity Institute of Organic Agriculture, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida, India.

Aluminum (Al) precipitates in acidic soils having a pH < 5.5, in the form of conjugated organic and inorganic ions. Al-containing minerals solubilized in the soil solution cause several negative impacts in plants when taken up along with other nutrients. Read More

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Protective Effects of Alpha Lipoic Acid Against Arsenic Induced Oxidative Stress in Isolated Rat Liver Mitochondria.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Toxicology Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Arsenic as a heavy metal and toxic pollutant has been established that has the hepatotoxic effect in animal and human models. Previous studies showed that mitochondria as the first target of arsenic toxicity has a pathogenic role in liver diseases. This study investigated alpha lipoic acid (ALA) as an antioxidant could ameliorate against liver toxicity induced by arsenic in rat mitochondria. Read More

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Downregulation of glob1 suppresses pathogenesis of human neuronal tauopathies in Drosophila by regulating tau phosphorylation and ROS generation.

Neurochem Int 2021 Apr 15:105040. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Genetics, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi, 110021, India. Electronic address:

Human tauopathies represent a group of neurodegenerative disorders, characterized by abnormal hyperphosphorylation and aggregation of tau protein, which ultimately cause neurodegeneration. The aberrant tau hyperphosphorylation is mostly attributed to the kinases/phosphatases imbalance, which is majorly contributed by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Globin(s) represent a well-conserved group of proteins which are involved in O management, regulation of cellular ROS in different cell types. Read More

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Nrf2 activation is involved in osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells under cyclic mechanical stretch.

Exp Cell Res 2021 Apr 15:112598. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

School and Hospital of Stomatology, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, China; Shandong Key Laboratory of Oral Tissue Regeneration, Shandong Engineering Laboratory for Dental Materials and Oral Tissue Regeneration, China. Electronic address:

During orthodontic treatment, mechanical stretch serves a crucial function in osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs). Up-regulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) level is a result of cyclic mechanical stretch in many cell types. Nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) is a master regulator in various antioxidants expression. Read More

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Dl-3-n-butylphthalide pretreatment attenuates renal ischemia/reperfusion injury.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Apr 14;557:166-173. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Nephrology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Background: Renal ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) has become a growing concern in clinical practice with high morbidity and mortality rates. There is currently no effective prophylactic regimen available to prevent its occurrence and to improve its clinical prognosis. Dl-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) has been used for stroke treatment in China for years. Read More

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Multifunctional ZnO@CuS nanoparticles cluster synergize chemotherapy and Photothermal therapy for tumor metastasis.

Nanomedicine 2021 Apr 14:102399. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, China. Electronic address:

The poor drug delivery and unsatisfying therapeutic effects remain to be the primary challenges for cancer therapy. Nanosystem that combines multiple functions into a single platform is an ideal strategy. Here, a smart drug delivery nanoplatform (Z@C-D/P) based on ZnO@CuS nanoparticles, loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) and pirfenidone (PFD) was constructed. Read More

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Mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide positively regulates neuropeptide secretion during diet-induced activation of the oxidative stress response.

Nat Commun 2021 04 16;12(1):2304. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Mitochondria play a pivotal role in the generation of signals coupling metabolism with neurotransmitter release, but a role for mitochondrial-produced ROS in regulating neurosecretion has not been described. Here we show that endogenously produced hydrogen peroxide originating from axonal mitochondria (mtHO) functions as a signaling cue to selectively regulate the secretion of a FMRFamide-related neuropeptide (FLP-1) from a pair of interneurons (AIY) in C. elegans. Read More

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IκBα targeting promotes oxidative stress-dependent cell death.

J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2021 Apr 16;40(1):136. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Turin, Regione Gonzole 10, 10043, Orbassano, Italy.

Background: Oxidative stress is a hallmark of many cancers. The increment in reactive oxygen species (ROS), resulting from an increased mitochondrial respiration, is the major cause of oxidative stress. Cell fate is known to be intricately linked to the amount of ROS produced. Read More

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Mechanical agitation accelerated ultrasonication for wastewater treatment: Sustainable production of hydroxyl radicals.

Water Res 2021 Apr 5;198:117124. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

School of Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia. Electronic address:

Low efficiency in energy conversion has long been the bottleneck in sonochemistry-based water treatment technologies. In this work, we reported a simple and efficient strategy by introducing mechanical agitation into a low powered ultrasonic system to facilitate the production of cavitation bubbles. The coupled system remarkably intensifies the evolution of reactive oxygen species (ROS) for degradation of refractory organic pollutants. Read More

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Photo induced mechanistic activity of GO/Zn(Cu)O nanocomposite against infectious pathogens: potential application in wound healing.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2021 Apr 13:102291. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Nanotechnology, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Kattankulathur, Chengalpattu District, Tamil Nadu, 603 203, India. Electronic address:

Treating infection causing microorganisms is one of the major challenges in wound healing. They gain resistance due to the overuse of conventional antibiotics. Biocompatible nanomaterials with enhanced antibacterial activity are developed to overcome the bacterial resistance. Read More

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Fabrication of novel AgBiO towards excellent photocatalytic oxidation of gaseous toluene under visible light irradiation.

Environ Res 2021 Apr 13:111130. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Luoyu Road 1037#, Wuhan, 430074, China. Electronic address:

In this work, a novel oxide combined with bismuth (Bi) and silver (Ag) was prepared via simple ball milling. This substance was optimized by adjusting the amount of pre-source. Preliminary characterization results confirmed the successful synthesis of AgBiO. Read More

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A fluorescent nanobiocide based on ROS generation for eliminating pathogenic and multidrug-resistant bacteria.

J Mater Chem B 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Key Laboratory of Functional Polymer Materials of Ministry of Education, Institute of Polymer Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China.

Exogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is a promising antibacterial strategy. The short diffusion distance coupled with the transient existence of ROS restrict their precise release at inflammation sites, so it is imperative to regulate the reactive sites of ROS donors. In this work, we developed a glycomimetic-decorated fluorescent nanobiocide to mediate the release of ROS generated from CuInS/ZnS quantum dots. Read More

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Multifunctional heterometallic IrIII-AuI probes as promising anticancer and antiangiogenic agents.

Chemistry 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Instituto de Síntesis Química y Catálisis Homogénea, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, Química Inorgánica, Pedro Cerbuna, 12, 50009, Zaragoza, SPAIN.

A new class of emissive cyclometallated Ir III -Au I complexes with a bis(diphenylphosphino) methanide bridging ligand was successfully synthesised from the diphosphino complex [Ir(N^C) 2 (dppm)] + ( 1 ). The different gold ancillary ligand, a triphenylphosphine ( 2 ), a chloride ( 3 ) or a thiocytosine ( 4 ), did not revealed a significant effect on the photophysical properties, which are mainly due to metal-to-ligand-charge-transfer ( 3 MLCT) transitions based on Ir III . However, the Au I fragment, along with used the ancillary ligand, seemed crucial for the bioactivity performance in A549 lung carcinoma cells vs endothelial cells. Read More

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Highly Efficient Water-Soluble Photosensitizer Based on Chlorin: Synthesis, Characterization, and Evaluation for Photodynamic Therapy.

ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci 2021 Apr 4;4(2):802-812. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

National Engineering Laboratory for Resource Development of Endangered Crude Drugs in Northwest China, The Key Laboratory of Medicinal Resources and Natural Pharmaceutical Chemistry, The Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710119, The People's Republic of China.

The clinical applications of many photosensitizers (PSs) are limited because of their poor water solubility, weak tissue penetration, low chemical purity, and severe toxicity in the absence of light. We designed a novel chlorin-based PS (designated as HPS) to achieve fluorescence image-guided photodynamic therapy (PDT) with efficient ROS generation. In addition to its simple fabrication process, HPS has other advantages such as excellent water solubility, strong NIR absorption, and high biocompatibility upon chemical functionalization for enhanced phototherapy. Read More

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Electroacupuncture Inhibits Autophagy of Neuron Cells in Postherpetic Neuralgia by Increasing the Expression of miR-223-3p.

Biomed Res Int 2021 8;2021:6637693. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Neurobiology, School of Basic Medicine, Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China.

Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a complication of herpes zoster viral infection. Its main manifestations are continuous or intermittent burning-like and electroshock-like pain in the affected nerves. Electroacupuncture (EA) is widely used in clinical treatment and exerts effects in alleviating neuropathic pain. Read More

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