705 results match your criteria ros biomolecules

Tumor Microenvironment-Modulated Nanozymes for NIR-II-Triggered Hyperthermia-Enhanced Photo-Nanocatalytic Therapy via Disrupting ROS Homeostasis.

Int J Nanomedicine 2021 5;16:4559-4577. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Cancer Centre, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Macau, Taipa, Macau SAR, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a group of signaling biomolecules that play important roles in the cell cycle. When intracellular ROS homeostasis is disrupted, it can induce cellular necrosis and apoptosis. It is desirable to effectively cascade-amplifying ROS generation and weaken antioxidant defense for disrupting ROS homeostasis in tumor microenvironment (TME), which has been recognized as a novel and ideal antitumor strategy. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Tin Mesoporphyrin Selectively Reduces Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Cell Line A549 Proliferation by Interfering with Heme Oxygenase and Glutathione Systems.

Biomolecules 2021 Jun 21;11(6). Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Drug and Health Sciences, University of Catania, 95125 Catania, Italy.

In order to maintain redox homeostasis, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) increases the activation of many antioxidant systems, including the heme-oxygenase (HO) system. The overexpression of HO-1 has been often associated with chemoresistance and tumor aggressiveness. Our results clearly showed an overexpression of the HO-1 protein in A549 NSCLC cell lines compared to that in non-cancerous cells. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Amelioration of Chlorpyrifos-Induced Toxicity in L. by Combination of 24-Epibrassinolide and Plant-Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria.

Biomolecules 2021 Jun 12;11(6). Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Botanical and Environmental Sciences, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005, India.

Pervasive use of chlorpyrifos (CP), an organophosphorus pesticide, has been proven to be fatal for plant growth, especially at higher concentrations. CP poisoning leads to growth inhibition, chlorosis, browning of roots and lipid and protein degradation, along with membrane dysfunction and nuclear damage. Plants form a linking bridge between the underground and above-ground communities to escape from the unfavourable conditions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cold Atmospheric Plasma Promotes the Immunoreactivity of Granulocytes In Vitro.

Biomolecules 2021 Jun 17;11(6). Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Regensburg, 93053 Regensburg, Germany.

Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) reduces bacteria and interacts with tissues and cells, thus improving wound healing. The CAP-related induction of neutrophils was recently described in stained sections of wound tissue in mice. Consequently, this study aimed to examine the functionality of human polymorphonuclear cells (PMN)/granulocytes through either a plasma-treated solution (PTS) or the direct CAP treatment with different plasma modes and treatment durations. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Apocynin Prevents Anxiety-Like Behavior and Histone Deacetylases Overexpression Induced by Sub-Chronic Stress in Mice.

Biomolecules 2021 Jun 15;11(6). Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Laboratory of Neuropsychopharmacology and Functional Neurogenomics, Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche, University of Milan, 20133 Milan, Italy.

Anxiety disorders are common mental health diseases affecting up to 7% of people around the world. Stress is considered one of the major environmental risk factors to promote anxiety disorders through mechanisms involving epigenetic changes. Moreover, alteration in redox balance and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production have been detected in anxiety patients and in stressed-animal models of anxiety. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Role of hepcidin in oxidative stress and cell death of cultured mouse renal collecting duct cells: protection against iron and sensitization to cadmium.

Arch Toxicol 2021 Aug 28;95(8):2719-2735. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Faculty of Health, Institute of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Toxicology and ZBAF (Centre for Biomedical Education and Research), School of Medicine, Witten/Herdecke University, Stockumer Str 12 (Thyssenhaus), 58453, Witten, Germany.

The liver hormone hepcidin regulates systemic iron homeostasis. Hepcidin is also expressed by the kidney, but exclusively in distal nephron segments. Several studies suggest hepcidin protects against kidney damage involving Fe overload. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Dinuclear orthometallated gold(I)-gold(III) anticancer complexes with potent in vivo activity through an ROS-dependent mechanism.

Metallomics 2021 Jul;13(7)

Centre for Advanced Materials and Industrial Chemistry (CAMIC), School of Science, RMIT University, GPO Box 2476, Melbourne, Victoria, 3001, Australia.

Increasingly explored over the last decade, gold complexes have shown great promise in the field of cancer therapeutics. A major obstacle to their clinical progression has been their lack of in vivo stability, particularly for gold(III) complexes, which often undergo a facile reduction in the presence of biomolecules such as glutathione. Herein, we report a new class of promising anticancer gold(I)-gold(III) complexes with the general formula [XAuI(μ-2-C6F4PPh2)(κ2-2-C6F4PPh2)AuIIIX] [X = Cl (1), Br (2), NO3 (3)] which feature two gold atoms in different oxidation states (I and III) in a single molecule. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in HPV-related cancers.

Free Radic Biol Med 2021 Jun 12;172:226-236. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

IHuman Institute, ShanghaiTech University, China; Laboratorio F-206, Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 04510, Ciudad de México, Mexico. Electronic address:

High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPVs) are associated with the development of cervical, anus, vagina, vulva, penis, and oropharynx cancer. HR-HPVs target and modify the function of different cell biomolecules such as glucose, amino acids, lipids, among others. The latter induce cell proliferation, cell death evasion, and genomic instability resulting in cell transformation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Selenomethionine: A Pink Trojan Redox Horse with Implications in Aging and Various Age-Related Diseases.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 May 31;10(6). Epub 2021 May 31.

Division of Bioorganic Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Saarland University, D-66123 Saarbruecken, Germany.

Selenium is an essential trace element. Although this chalcogen forms a wide variety of compounds, there are surprisingly few small-molecule organic selenium compounds (OSeCs) in biology. Besides its more prominent relative selenocysteine (SeCys), the amino acid selenomethionine (SeMet) is one example. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Nigella and Milk Thistle Seed Oils: Potential Cytoprotective Effects against 7β-Hydroxycholesterol-Induced Toxicity on SH-SY5Y Cells.

Biomolecules 2021 May 27;11(6). Epub 2021 May 27.

Biochemistry Laboratory, LR12ES05 Nutrition-Functional Foods and Vascular Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Monastir, Monastir 5019, Tunisia.

Oxysterols are assumed to be the driving force behind numerous neurodegenerative diseases. In this work, we aimed to study the ability of 7β-hydroxycholesterol (7β-OHC) to trigger oxidative stress and cell death in human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) then the capacity of Nigella sativa and Milk thistle seed oils (NSO and MTSO, respectively) to oppose 7β-OHC-induced side effects. The impact of 7β-OHC, associated or not with NSO or MTSO, was studied on different criteria: cell viability; redox status, and apoptosis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

L-Proline Activates Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 and Modulates Redox Environment in Porcine Trophectoderm Cells.

Biomolecules 2021 May 17;11(5). Epub 2021 May 17.

State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.

L-proline (proline) is a key regulator of embryogenesis, placental development, and fetal growth. However, the underlying mechanisms that support the beneficial effects of proline are largely unknown. This study used porcine trophectoderm cell line 2 (pTr2) to investigate the underlying mechanisms of proline in cell proliferation and redox homeostasis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A Spatiotemporal Characterisation of Redox Molecules in Planarians, with a Focus on the Role of Glutathione during Regeneration.

Biomolecules 2021 May 11;11(5). Epub 2021 May 11.

Centre for Environmental Sciences, Zoology, Biodiversity and Toxicology, Hasselt University, Agoralaan D, 3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium.

A strict coordination between pro- and antioxidative molecules is needed for normal animal physiology, although their exact function and dynamics during regeneration and development remains largely unknown. Via in vivo imaging, we were able to locate and discriminate between reactive oxygen species (ROS) in real-time during different physiological stages of the highly regenerative planarian . All ROS signals were strong enough to overcome the detected autofluorescence. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Oxidative Stress in Bacteria and the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 10;8:671037. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Ever since the "great oxidation event," Earth's cellular life forms had to cope with the danger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) affecting the integrity of biomolecules and hampering cellular metabolism circuits. Consequently, increasing ROS levels in the biosphere represented growing stress levels and thus shaped the evolution of species. Whether the ROS were produced endogenously or exogenously, different systems evolved to remove the ROS and repair the damage they inflicted. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

How Microbes Defend Themselves From Incoming Hydrogen Peroxide.

Front Immunol 2021 27;12:667343. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Microbiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, United States.

Microbes rely upon iron as a cofactor for many enzymes in their central metabolic processes. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) superoxide and hydrogen peroxide react rapidly with iron, and inside cells they can generate both enzyme and DNA damage. ROS are formed in some bacterial habitats by abiotic processes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Beyond Photo: Xdynamic Therapies in Fighting Cancer.

Adv Mater 2021 Jun 13;33(25):e2007488. Epub 2021 May 13.

Departments of Diagnostic Radiology and Surgery, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, 117597, Singapore.

Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related therapeutic approaches are developed as a promising modality for cancer treatment because the aberrant increase of intracellular ROS level can cause cell death due to nonspecific oxidation damage to key cellular biomolecules. However, the most widely considered strategy, photodynamic therapy (PDT), suffers from critical limitations such as limited tissue-penetration depth, high oxygen dependence, and phototoxicity. Non-photo-induced ROS generation strategies, which are defined as Xdynamic therapies (X = sono, radio, microwave, chemo, thermo, and electro), show good potential to overcome the drawbacks of PDT. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The role of mitochondrial oxidative stress and the tumor microenvironment in radiation-related cancer.

Tsutomu Shimura

J Radiat Res 2021 May;62(Supplement_1):i36-i43

Department of Environmental Health, National Institute of Public Health, Saitama, 351-0197, Japan.

The health risks associated with low-dose radiation, which are a major concern after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident (the Fukushima accident), have been extensively investigated, and the cancer risks from low-dose radiation exposure (below ~ 100 mSv) are thought to be negligible. According to World Health Organization and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation reports, the level of radiation exposure from the Fukushima accident is limited, estimating no significant increased risk from the accident. Radiation-induced cell injury is mainly caused by oxidative damage to biomolecules, including DNA, lipids and proteins. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Green Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles: Antibacterial and Anticancer Activities, Biocompatibility, and Analyses of Surface-Attached Proteins.

Front Microbiol 2021 22;12:632505. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Microbiology, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Toruń, Poland.

The increasing number of multi-drug-resistant bacteria and cancer cases, that are a real threat to humankind, forces research world to develop new weapons to deal with it. Biogenic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are considered as a solution to this problem. Biosynthesis of AgNPs is regarded as a green, eco-friendly, low-priced process that provides small and biocompatible nanostructures with antimicrobial and anticancer activities and potential application in medicine. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Non-thermal plasma-induced DMPO-OH yields hydrogen peroxide.

Arch Biochem Biophys 2021 Jul 6;705:108901. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Pathology and Biological Responses, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Showa-Ku, Nagoya, 466-8550, Japan; Center for Low-temperature Plasma Sciences, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 464-8603, Japan. Electronic address:

Recent developments in electronics have enabled the medical applications of non-thermal plasma (NTP), which elicits reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), such as hydroxyl radical (OH), hydrogen peroxide (HO), singlet oxygen (O), superoxide (O), ozone, and nitric oxide at near-physiological temperatures. In preclinical studies or human clinical trials, NTP promotes blood coagulation, eradication of bacterial, viral and biofilm-related infections, wound healing, and cancer cell death. To elucidate the solution-phase biological effects of NTP in the presence of biocompatible reducing agents, we employed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to quantify OH using a spin-trapping probe, 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO); O using a fluorescent probe; and O and HO using luminescent probes in the presence of thiols or tempol. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Radiation- and Photo-Induced Oxidation Pathways of Methionine in Model Peptide Backbone under Anoxic Conditions.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 30;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Center for Advanced Technology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Uniwersytetu Poznanskiego 10, 61-614 Poznan, Poland.

Within the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by cellular metabolisms, hydroxyl radicals (HO) play an important role, being the most aggressive towards biomolecules. The reactions of HO with methionine residues (Met) in peptides and proteins have been intensively studied, but some fundamental aspects remain unsolved. In the present study we examined the biomimetic model made of Ac-Met-OMe, as the simplest model peptide backbone, and of HO generated by ionizing radiation in aqueous solutions under anoxic conditions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Melatonin Alleviates the Toxicity of High Nicotinamide Concentrations in Oocytes: Potential Interaction with Nicotinamide Methylation Signaling.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 8;2021:5573357. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Division of Applied Life Science (BK21 Four), Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Republic of Korea.

Despite the numerous studies on melatonin and nicotinamide (NAM, the active form of vitamin B3), the linkage between these two biomolecules in the context of signaling pathways regulating preimplantation embryo development has not yet been investigated. In this study, we used bovine oocyte model to elucidate the effect of melatonin on the developmental competence of oocytes under the stress of high NAM concentrations. Results showed that NAM (20 mM) administration during in vitro maturation (IVM) significantly reduced oocyte maturation and actin distribution, while induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and mitochondrial dysfunction, the multiple deleterious effects that were alleviated by melatonin (10 M). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Chemistry of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Revisited: Outlining Their Role in Biological Macromolecules (DNA, Lipids and Proteins) and Induced Pathologies.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 28;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Sistemas de Biotecnología y Recursos Naturales, 47625 Valladolid, Spain.

Living species are continuously subjected to all extrinsic forms of reactive oxidants and others that are produced endogenously. There is extensive literature on the generation and effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in biological processes, both in terms of alteration and their role in cellular signaling and regulatory pathways. Cells produce ROS as a controlled physiological process, but increasing ROS becomes pathological and leads to oxidative stress and disease. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Relationship between Oxidative Stress and Imatinib Resistance in Model Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Cells.

Biomolecules 2021 04 20;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Laboratory of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, Pomorska 141/143 Street, 90-236 Lodz, Poland.

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) develops due to the presence of the BCR-ABL1 protein, a target of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), such as imatinib (IM), used in a CML therapy. CML eradication is a challenge due to developing resistance to TKIs. BCR-ABL1 induces endogenous oxidative stress leading to genomic instability and development of TKI resistance. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Modulation of the Antioxidant Defense System by Exogenous l-Glutamic Acid Application Enhances Salt Tolerance in Lentil ( Medik.).

Biomolecules 2021 04 16;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Laboratory of Plant Stress Responses, Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Ikenobe 2393, Miki-Cho, Kita Gun, Kagawa 761-0795, Japan.

Salt stress greatly disturbs the growth, morpho-physiological, and biochemical performance of plants. However, different physiological processes and acclimation mechanisms can be induced under stress, while some of them can be modulated by the appropriate chemical stimulus. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of exogenous pretreatment with 10 mM l-glutamic acid (l-Glu) on the physiological and biochemical parameters of lentil ( Medik. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Response of Key Metabolites during a UV-A Exposure Time-Series in the Cyanobacterium PCC 6912.

Microorganisms 2021 Apr 24;9(5). Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Biosciences, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP, UK.

Ultraviolet A (UV-A) is the major component of UV radiation reaching the Earth's surface, causing indirect damage to photosynthetic organisms via the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In comparison, UV-B causes both direct damage to biomolecules and indirect damage. UV-B is well studied in cyanobacterial research due to their long evolutionary history and adaptation to high levels of UV, with less work on the effects of UV-A. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

α-Tocopherol Attenuates Oxidative Phosphorylation of CD34 Cells, Enhances Their G0 Phase Fraction and Promotes Hematopoietic Stem and Primitive Progenitor Cell Maintenance.

Biomolecules 2021 04 10;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Etablissement Français du Sang Nouvelle Aquitaine, Place Amélie Raba Léon, CS22010, CEDEX, 33075 Bordeaux, France.

Alpha tocopherol acetate (αTOA) is an analogue of alpha tocopherol (αTOC) that exists in the form of an injectable drug. In the context of the metabolic hypothesis of stem cells, we studied the impact of αTOA on the metabolic energetic profile and functional properties of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. In ex vivo experiments performed on cord blood CD34 cells, we found that αTOA effectively attenuates oxidative phosphorylation without affecting the glycolysis rate. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Affinity Sensors for the Diagnosis of COVID-19.

Micromachines (Basel) 2021 Apr 2;12(4). Epub 2021 Apr 2.

NanoTechnas-Center of Nanotechnology and Materials Science, Faculty of Chemistry and Geosciences, Vilnius University, Naugarduko str. 24, 03225 Vilnius, Lithuania.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was proclaimed a global pandemic in March 2020. Reducing the dissemination rate, in particular by tracking the infected people and their contacts, is the main instrument against infection spreading. Therefore, the creation and implementation of fast, reliable and responsive methods suitable for the diagnosis of COVID-19 are required. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

New organometallic ruthenium(ii) complexes with purine analogs - a wide perspective on their biological application.

Dalton Trans 2021 Apr 7;50(16):5557-5573. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Okólna 2, 50-422 Wrocław, Poland.

Three half-sandwich organometallic ruthenium(ii) complexes containing purine analogs such as triazolopyrimidines of general formula [(η-p-cym)Ru(L)Cl], where p-cym represents p-cymene and L is 5,6,7-trimethyl-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine (tmtp for 1), 5,7-diethyl-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine (detp for 2) and 5-methyl-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-7(4H)-one (HmtpO for 3), have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared, multinuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic techniques (H, C, N), and single-crystal X-ray diffraction (for 1 and 2). All these complexes have been thoroughly screened for their in vitro cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and HeLa cell lines as well as L929 murine fibroblast cells, indicating [(η-p-cym)Ru(HmtpO)Cl] (3) as the most active representative against the HeLa cell line and simultaneously being 64-fold less toxic to normal L929 murine fibroblast cells than cisplatin. At the same time, 3 has shown antimetastatic activity comparable to NAMI-A against HeLa cells both after 24 and 48 h of treatment in a wound healing assay. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Interactions between reactive oxygen species and autophagy: Special issue: Death mechanisms in cellular homeostasis.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res 2021 Jul 17;1868(8):119041. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Département des sciences biologiques (Center of Excellence in Orphan Diseases Research - Courtois Foundation (CERMO-FC), Research Group in Environmental Toxicology (TOXEN)), Université du Québec à Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada. Electronic address:

Oxidative stress is defined as "a serious imbalance between the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant defences in favour of ROS, causing excessive oxidative damage to biomolecules". Different stressors that induce autophagy, such as starvation and hypoxia, can increase production of ROS such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. This review provides brief summaries about oxidative stress and macroautophagy, and then considers current knowledge about the complex interactions between ROS and autophagy. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Study of the antioxidant, immunomodulatory and antibacterial properties of Origanum majorana leaf acetone extract.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2020 Sep;33(5(Supplementary)):2209-2218

Biology Department, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia/Research Center for Advanced Materials Science (RCAMS), King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia/Blood Products Quality Control and Research Department, National Organization for Research and Control of Biologicals, Cairo, Egypt.

Origanum majorana (OM) is known to have antioxidant properties. The present work was designed to evaluate, for the first time, the hepato/nephroprotective, immunomudulatory and antibacterial potentials of OM leaves acetone extract (OMLE). OML was collected from Al-Soudah, Aseer, Saudi Arabia, and OMLE was prepared. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2020

Saccorhiza polyschides used to synthesize gold and silver nanoparticles with enhanced antiproliferative and immunostimulant activity.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 Apr 12;123:111960. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Immunology Group. CINBIO, Universidade de Vigo, 36310 Vigo, Spain; Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Galicia Sur, Hospital Álvaro Cunqueiro, 36312 Vigo, Spain. Electronic address:

Over the last years, there has been an increasing trend towards the use of environmentally friendly processes to synthesize nanomaterials. In the case of nanomedicine, the use of bionanofactories with associated biological properties, such as seaweed, has emerged as a promising field of work due to the possibility they open for both the preservation of those properties in the nanomaterials synthesized and/or the reduction of their toxicity. In the present study, gold ([email protected]) and silver ([email protected]) nanoparticles were synthesized using an aqueous extract of Saccorhiza polyschides (SP). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF