63,439 results match your criteria root anatomy


Subchondral insufficiency fracture of the knee: review of current concepts and radiological differential diagnoses.

Jpn J Radiol 2021 Nov 29. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, St Luke's International Hospital, 9-1, Akashi-cho, Chuo-ku, Tokyo, 104-8560, Japan.

Subchondral insufficiency fracture of the knee (SIFK) is a common cause of knee joint pain in older adults. SIFK is a type of stress fracture that occurs when repetitive and excessive stress is applied to the subchondral bone. If the fracture does not heal, the lesion develops into osteonecrosis and results in osteochondral collapse, requiring surgical management. Read More

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November 2021

Functional Adaptation of LPS-affected Dentoalveolar Fibrous Joints in Rats.

J Periodontal Res 2021 Nov 28. Epub 2021 Nov 28.

Division of Preclinical Education, Biomaterials & Engineering, Department of Preventive and Restorative Dental Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of California, San Francisco, US.

Introduction: The functional interplay between cementum of the root and alveolar bone of the socket is tuned by a uniquely positioned 70-80 µm wide fibrous and lubricious ligament in a dentoalveolar joint (DAJ). In this study, structural and biomechanical properties of the DAJ, periodontal ligament space (PDL-space also known as the joint space), alveolar bone of the socket, and cementum of the tooth root that govern the biomechanics of a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-affected DAJ were mapped both in space and time.

Methods: The hemi-maxillae from 20 rats (4 control at 6 weeks of age, 4 control and 4 LPS-affected at 12 weeks of age, 4 control and 4 LPS-affected at 16 weeks of age) were investigated using a hybrid technique; micro-X-ray computed tomography (5 µm resolution) in combination with biomechanical testing in situ. Read More

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November 2021

Glenohumeral joint reconstruction using statistical shape modeling.

Biomech Model Mechanobiol 2021 Nov 27. Epub 2021 Nov 27.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, 3010, Australia.

Evaluation of the bony anatomy of the glenohumeral joint is frequently required for surgical planning and subject-specific computational modeling and simulation. The three-dimensional geometry of bones is traditionally obtained by segmenting medical image datasets, but this can be time-consuming and may not be practical in the clinical setting. The aims of this study were twofold. Read More

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November 2021

Classification and Morphometric Features of Pterion in Thai Population with Potential Sex Prediction.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 Nov 21;57(11). Epub 2021 Nov 21.

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand.

The landmark for neurosurgical approaches to access brain lesion is the pterion. The aim of the present study is to classify and examine the prevalence of all types of pterion variations and perform morphometric measurements from previously defined anthropological landmarks. One-hundred and twenty-four Thai dried skulls were investigated. Read More

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November 2021

Proteolytic and Structural Changes in Rye and Triticale Roots under Aluminum Stress.

Cells 2021 Nov 5;10(11). Epub 2021 Nov 5.

Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Institute of Biology, Warsaw University of Life Sciences-SGGW, Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland.

Proteolysis and structural adjustments are significant for defense against heavy metals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the Al stress alters protease activity and the anatomy of cereale roots. Azocaseinolytic and gelatinolytic measurements, transcript-level analysis of phytocystatins, and observations under microscopes were performed on the roots of Al-tolerant rye and tolerant and sensitive triticales exposed to Al. Read More

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November 2021

Multifaceted roles of silicon in mitigating environmental stresses in plants.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Nov 13;169:291-310. Epub 2021 Nov 13.

Homi Bhabha National Institute, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400 094, Maharashtra, India. Electronic address:

Food security relies on plant productivity and plant's resilience to climate change driven environmental stresses. Plants employ diverse adaptive mechanisms of stress-signalling pathways, antioxidant defense, osmotic adjustment, nutrient homeostasis and phytohormones. Over the last few decades, silicon has emerged as a beneficial element for enhancing plant growth productivity. Read More

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November 2021

Patient-Specific Analysis of Ascending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm with the Living Heart Human Model.

Bioengineering (Basel) 2021 Nov 4;8(11). Epub 2021 Nov 4.

Department of Engineering (DING), Università Degli Studi di Palermo, Viale Delle Scienze Ed.8, 90128 Palermo, Italy.

In ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms (ATAAs), aneurysm kinematics are driven by ventricular traction occurring every heartbeat, increasing the stress level of dilated aortic wall. Aortic elongation due to heart motion and aortic length are emerging as potential indicators of adverse events in ATAAs; however, simulation of ATAA that takes into account the cardiac mechanics is technically challenging. The objective of this study was to adapt the realistic Living Heart Human Model (LHHM) to the anatomy and physiology of a patient with ATAA to assess the role of cardiac motion on aortic wall stress distribution. Read More

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November 2021

Ten-year experience with transcatheter aortic valve implantation in bicuspid aortic valve: lessons learned and future perspectives.

Postepy Kardiol Interwencyjnej 2021 Sep 20;17(3):251-258. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

1 Chair and Department of Cardiology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) stenosis has traditionally been perceived as a contraindication to transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) due to its specific anatomical characteristics including extensive calcifications, high leaflet coaptation and frequently encountered aortic root dilation, which may result in worse procedural outcomes and higher risk of complications. Hence, BAV patients were not included in previous clinical trials. In the recent years, improved pre-procedural imaging and technological advances have gradually enabled expansion of TAVI to patients with complex anatomy, including those with BAV. Read More

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September 2021

Protective role of green tea against paraquat toxicity in Allium cepa L.: physiological, cytogenetic, biochemical, and anatomical assessment.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Nov 24. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Faculty of Science and Art, Department of Biology, Giresun University, Giresun, Turkey.

In this study, the toxic effects of paraquat, one of the most commercially sold herbicides in the world, and the protective role of green tea leaf extract (GTLE) against these effects were investigated. Allium cepa L. bulbs (n = 16) were used as test material. Read More

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November 2021

Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation: The Evolving Role of the Radiologist in 2021.

Rofo 2021 Dec 23;193(12):1411-1425. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

Background:  Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has gained worldwide acceptance and implementation as an alternative therapeutic option in patients with severe aortic valve stenosis unable to safely undergo surgical aortic valve replacement. This transformative technique places the radiologist in a key position in the pre-procedural assessment of potential candidates for this technique, delivering key anatomical information necessary for patient eligibility and procedural safety. Recent trials also provide encouraging results to potentially extend the indication to patients with safer risk profiles. Read More

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December 2021

Long-term Clinical Results with Radiological Correlations after Posterior Foraminotomy for Unilateral Cervical Discopathy.

World Neurosurg 2021 Nov 20. Epub 2021 Nov 20.

Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

Background: In lateral cervical disc herniations, a posterior foraminotomy (PF) provides direct nerve root decompression and maintains segmental mobility. However, a partial facetectomy can cause instability. This study evaluated long-term clinical outcomes related to cervical sagittal alignment after PF. Read More

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November 2021

Dental students' observations about teaching of endodontic access cavities in a French dental school.

Eur J Dent Educ 2021 Nov 22. Epub 2021 Nov 22.

Univ Rennes, Rennes, France.

Introduction: Teaching in French universities has undergone deep changes for several years. Dental studies are no exception to the rule. Endodontics is one of the most difficult fields requiring good knowledge of anatomy before performing clinical procedures. Read More

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November 2021

Radiographic evaluation of the anatomical relationship of maxillary sinus floor with maxillary posterior teeth apices in the population of Al-Qassim, Saudi Arabia, using cone beam computed tomography.

Saudi Dent J 2021 Nov 19;33(7):769-774. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Department of Periodontology & Oral Medicine, College of Dentistry, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia.

Background & Objective: In current clinical dental practice radiographic imaging plays a major role in exploring the relationship between the maxillary sinus floor (MSF) and maxillary posterior teeth root apices, especially when there is an involvement of pathology in the periapical area that may lead to infectious, inflammatory or traumatic changes in the maxillary sinus (MS). It is also essential for exact implant placement, and therapeutic and surgical plans. The prevalence of different forms of anatomic relationship of the MSF to posterior root apices from one population to another is large. Read More

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November 2021

Shaping ability of 2Shape and NeoNiTi rotary instruments in preparation of curved canals using micro-computed tomography.

BMC Oral Health 2021 Nov 19;21(1):595. Epub 2021 Nov 19.

Department of Dental Public Health, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Various systems of nickel-titanium (NiTi) instrument have long been commercially available. However, the preparation of narrow and curved root canals has always been challenging. The purpose of this study was to compare the shaping ability of two NiTi systems (2Shape and NeoNiTi) in severely curved root canals with different morphological patterns using micro-computed tomography (Micro-CT). Read More

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November 2021

Anatomy of the L5 nerve root in the pelvis for safe sacral screw placement: a cadaveric study.

J Neurosurg Spine 2021 Nov 19:1-6. Epub 2021 Nov 19.

1Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo.

Objective: Previous reports have focused on the complications of L5 nerve root injury caused by anterolateral misplacement of the S1 pedicle screws. Anatomical knowledge of the L5 nerve root in the pelvis is essential for safe and effective placement of the sacral screw. This cadaveric study aimed to investigate the course of the L5 nerve root in the pelvis and to clarify a safe zone for inserting the sacral screw. Read More

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November 2021

Crosstalk between the redox signalling and the detoxification: GSTs under redox control?

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Nov 10;169:149-159. Epub 2021 Nov 10.

Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Szeged, Közép fasor 52, 6726, Szeged, Hungary. Electronic address:

Reactive oxygen species (ROS), antioxidants and their reduction-oxidation (redox) states all contribute to the redox homeostasis, but glutathione is considered to be the master regulator of it. We aimed to understand the relationship between the redox potential and the diverse glutathione transferase (GST) enzyme family by comparing the stress responses of two tomato cultivars (Solanum lycopersicum 'Moneymaker' and 'Ailsa Craig'). Four-week-old plants were treated by two concentrations of mannitol, NaCl and salicylic acid. Read More

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November 2021

The effects of frequency-specific, non-invasive, median nerve stimulation on food-related attention and appetite.

Appetite 2021 Nov 16:105807. Epub 2021 Nov 16.

Department of Anatomy, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand; Brain Health Research Centre, Dunedin, New Zealand; Medical Technologies Centre of Research Excellence, Auckland, New Zealand. Electronic address:

Median nerve stimulation (MNS) in the existing literature has been used for treating gastrointestinal disorders and amelioration of nausea and vomiting. Recently, studies have shown that MNS can also exert effects on olfactory performances and corresponding anatomical regions through the activation of vagal pathways. This study aimed to test effects of specific frequencies of MNS on food-related attention and appetite. Read More

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November 2021

AGMB-Transformer: Anatomy-Guided Multi-Branch Transformer Network for Automated Evaluation of Root Canal Therapy.

IEEE J Biomed Health Inform 2021 Nov 19;PP. Epub 2021 Nov 19.

Accurate evaluation of the treatment result on X-ray images is a significant and challenging step in root canal therapy since the incorrect interpretation of the therapy results will hamper timely follow-up which is crucial to the patients' treatment outcome. Nowadays, the evaluation is performed in a manual manner, which is time-consuming, subjective, and error-prone. In this paper, we aim to automate this process by leveraging the advances in computer vision and artificial intelligence, to provide an objective and accurate method for root canal therapy result assessment. Read More

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November 2021

Coronary artery cannulation after transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

EuroIntervention 2021 Nov;17(10):835-847

Division of Cardiology, A.O.U. Policlinico "G. Rodolico-San Marco", Catania, Italy.

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has revolutionised the treatment of severe, symptomatic aortic stenosis and it is now a proven and effective alternative to surgery for patients regardless of preoperative risk stratification. Nevertheless, the consequent expansion towards younger patients with longer life expectancy focuses attention on long-term considerations. In particular, although the prevalence of coronary artery disease has been shown to decrease with the lowering of estimated risk stratification, the chance of requirement of future coronary interventions after TAVI increases dramatically as a function of patients' life expectancy. Read More

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November 2021

Ultrasound-Guided Nerve Blocks in the Head and Neck for Chronic Pain Management: The Anatomy, Sonoanatomy, and Procedure.

Pain Physician 2021 Dec;24(8):533-548

Department of Anesthesiology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati, OH.

Background: Ultrasound guided nerve blocks have become a popular tool in the armamentarium for pain physicians because of its advantages over fluoroscopy by offering portable, radiation-free and real-time imaging. But ultrasound guided procedures require training and practice to gain the expertise. There is a scarcity of review articles describing ultrasound guided injections techniques for nerve blocks of the head and neck. Read More

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December 2021

Sinus of Valsalva Dimension and Clinical Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation: SOV dilatation in TAVI patients.

Am Heart J 2021 Nov 14. Epub 2021 Nov 14.

Department of Cardiac Surgery, Inselspital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Background: Ascending aortic root anatomy is routinely evaluated on pre-procedural multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT). However, its clinical significance has not been adequately studied. We aimed to investigate the impact of the sinus of Valsalva (SOV) dimension on clinical outcomes in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Read More

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November 2021

Longitudinal craze line propagation in human root dentin after instrumentation with NiTi rotary files of different instrument tapers after long-term chewing simulation.

Clin Oral Investig 2021 Nov 17. Epub 2021 Nov 17.

Department of Operative Dentistry, Endodontics, and Pediatric Dentistry, Philipps University Marburg and University Hospital Giessen and Marburg, Campus Marburg, Georg-Voigt-Straße 3, 35039, Marburg, Germany.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether file design and taper significantly influence microcrack initiation during machine preparation.

Materials And Methods: Sixty extracted teeth with straight single canals were selected. The teeth were randomly assigned to four groups based on their root canal anatomy and the corresponding NiTi rotary file system (I, Mtwo; II, ProTaper Universal; III, F6 SkyTaper; control, no preparation and filling). Read More

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November 2021

Orthodontic root resorption.

J World Fed Orthod 2021 Nov 13. Epub 2021 Nov 13.

Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

External apical root resorption (EARR) is one of the most frequently reported iatrogenic side effects of orthodontic movement. Nevertheless, no robust and unequivocal scientific evidence is yet available in the literature regarding the clinical and biological factors that trigger EARR. The purpose of the present position paper is to provide clinicians, residents, and investigators a summary of our current understanding about root resorption caused by orthodontic tooth movement, based on up-to-date available scientific evidence. Read More

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November 2021

The development of dentin microstructure is controlled by the type of adjacent epithelium.

J Bone Miner Res 2021 Nov 16. Epub 2021 Nov 16.

Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.

Considerable amount of research has been focused on dentin mineralization, odontoblast differentiation, and their application in dental tissue engineering. However, very little is known about the differential role of functionally and spatially distinct types of dental epithelium during odontoblast development. Here we show morphological and functional differences in dentin located in crown and roots of mouse molar and analogous parts of continuously growing incisors. Read More

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November 2021

Human lumbosacral root and ligamentum flavum thicknesses: a magnetic resonance study.

Folia Morphol (Warsz) 2021 Nov 16. Epub 2021 Nov 16.

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Jordan university of sceince and technology, Irbid, Jordan.

Background: This study investigated the lumbosacral plexus (LSP) nerve root thickness and ligamentum flavum (LF) thickness and correlated them with age and sex. These findings provided a useful data for spinal nerve root micro-anastomosis surgery and lumbar decompression surgery.

Materials And Methods: This retrospective study was conducted with 350 individuals with ages ranging from 21 to 80 years of age under magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to evaluated the possible cause of a lower back pain. Read More

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November 2021

The Atrioventricular Conduction Axis and its Implications for Permanent Pacing.

Arrhythm Electrophysiol Rev 2021 Oct;10(3):181-189

Departamento de Anatomía Humana y Biología Celular, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz, Spain.

Extensive knowledge of the anatomy of the atrioventricular conduction axis, and its branches, is key to the success of permanent physiological pacing, either by capturing the His bundle, the left bundle branch or the adjacent septal regions. The inter-individual variability of the axis plays an important role in underscoring the technical difficulties known to exist in achieving a stable position of the stimulating leads. In this review, the key anatomical features of the location of the axis relative to the triangle of Koch, the aortic root, the inferior pyramidal space and the inferoseptal recess are summarised. Read More

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October 2021

Salt Stress Affects Plastid Ultrastructure and Photosynthetic Activity but Not the Essential Oil Composition in Spearmint ( L. var. "Moroccan").

Front Plant Sci 2021 29;12:739467. Epub 2021 Oct 29.

Department of Plant Anatomy, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary.

High levels of soil salinity affect plant growth, reproduction, water and ion uptake, and plant metabolism in a complex manner. In this work, the effect of salt stress on vegetative growth, photosynthetic activity, and chloroplast ultrastructure of spearmint ( L. var. Read More

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October 2021

Localization of the neuropeptide manserin in rat dorsal root ganglia: Involvement in nociceptive function.

Acta Histochem 2021 Nov 11;123(8):151812. Epub 2021 Nov 11.

Department of Anatomy II, Mie University, Graduate School of Medicine, Mie, Japan.

Manserin, a neuropeptide discovered in the rat brain, is distributed in the spiral ganglion of the inner ear and carotid body, suggesting it is also localized in another neuron cluster. In this study, we examined manserin's localization in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord of adult Wistar rats using immunohistochemical analyses. The DRG consists of neurofilament (NF) 200-positive large cells and two types of small cells (calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-positive peptidergic neurons and isolectin B4 (IB4)-positive non-peptidergic neurons). Read More

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November 2021

Morphology of cervical periradicular fibrous sheath and nerve roots in relation to postoperative C5 palsy.

Spine J 2021 Nov 11. Epub 2021 Nov 11.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Osaka Medical and Pharmaceutical University, 2-7, Daigakumachi, Takatsuki-shi, Osaka 569-8686, Japan. Electronic address:

Background Context: C5 palsy is a major complication of cervical spine surgery, however, its exact pathogenesis remains unclear. Some studies have shown that the superficial layer of the posterior longitudinal ligament extends laterally and forms the periradicular fibrous sheath (PFS), and envelopes the nerve roots. However, the anatomical relationship between the PFS and nerve root at each cervical level has not been fully revealed. Read More

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November 2021

Evidence for distinct isotopic compositions of sap and tissue water in tree stems: consequences for plant water source identification.

New Phytol 2021 Nov 12. Epub 2021 Nov 12.

INRAE, Bordeaux Sciences Agro, ISPA, 33140, Villenave d'Ornon, France.

The long-standing hypothesis that the isotopic composition of plant stem water reflects that of source water is being challenged by studies reporting bulk water from woody stems with an isotopic composition that cannot be attributed to any potential water source. The mechanism behind such source-stem water isotopic offsets is still poorly understood. Using a novel technique to extract selectively sap water from xylem conduits, we show that, in cut stems and potted plants, the isotopic composition of sap water reflects that of irrigation water, demonstrating unambiguously that no isotopic fractionation occurs during root water uptake or sap water extraction. Read More

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November 2021