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A framework for catalysing the rapid scaling of urban biodiversity stewardship programs.

J Environ Manage 2021 May 12;292:112745. Epub 2021 May 12.

Helsinki Institute for Sustainability Science (HELSUS), University of Helsinki, Finland; Ecosystems and Environment Research Program, Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Finland; Department of Economics and Management, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Helsinki, Finland; Department of Landscape Architecture, Planning and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.

Despite growing interest in promoting urban biodiversity conservation, there are few concrete examples of how nature stewardship initiatives can be rapidly scaled, in number and across landscapes. This paper explores the factors that promote or inhibit the proliferation and impact of collaborations between citizens and their local governments that involve residents in municipal biodiversity conservation efforts in their gardens (wildlife gardening). We studied the Gardens for Wildlife Victoria network in Australia, which supports citizen-agency co-development of municipal wildlife gardening programs. Read More

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Comparing endocervical mucus proteome of humans and rhesus macaques.

Proteomics Clin Appl 2021 May 15:e2100023. Epub 2021 May 15.

Oregon Health & Science University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Portland, OR.

Purpose: Endocervical mucus changes play a key role in regulating fertility throughout the menstrual cycle and in response to hormonal contraceptives. Non-human primates (NHP) provide the most translational animal model for reproductive tract studies, as they have hormonally-regulated menstrual cycles and mucus changes, similar to women.

Experimental Design: We used TMT labelling and LC-LC/MS to compare the proteins found in the mucus of the rhesus macaque to the mucus of the human endocervix. Read More

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Adaptive evolution of Moniliophthora PR-1 proteins towards its pathogenic lifestyle.

BMC Ecol Evol 2021 May 14;21(1):84. Epub 2021 May 14.

Departamento de Genética, Evolução, Microbiologia e Imunologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP, Brazil.

Background: Plant pathogenesis related-1 (PR-1) proteins belong to the CAP superfamily and have been characterized as markers of induced defense against pathogens. Moniliophthora perniciosa and Moniliophthora roreri are hemibiotrophic fungi that respectively cause the witches' broom disease and frosty pod rot in Theobroma cacao. Interestingly, a large number of plant PR-1-like genes are present in the genomes of both species and many are up-regulated during the biotrophic interaction. Read More

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Maternal smoking-induced lung injuries in dams and offspring via inflammatory cytokines.

Environ Int 2021 May 11;156:106618. Epub 2021 May 11.

College of Environment and Resource, Research Center of Environment and Health, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030006, PR China.

Maternal smoking during pregnancy can induce permanent changes in neonatal inflammation, which will result in lifelong implications. An original study of data from GSE96978, composed of 2 subseries (GSE96976 and GSE96977), investigated genome-wide changes in ELT cells, the lungs of mouse dams and their juvenile offspring and focused on finding an in vitro alternative as a human tissue-based replacement for the use of animals. Therefore, the study only analyzed the similarities of GO terms between ELT cells and dams. Read More

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A novel thylakoid-less isolate fills a billion-year gap in the evolution of Cyanobacteria.

Curr Biol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Boyce Thompson Institute, Ithaca, NY, USA; Plant Biology Section, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Cyanobacteria have played pivotal roles in Earth's geological history, especially during the rise of atmospheric oxygen. However, our ability to infer the early transitions in Cyanobacteria evolution has been limited by their extremely lopsided tree of life-the vast majority of extant diversity belongs to Phycobacteria (or "crown Cyanobacteria"), while its sister lineage, Gloeobacteria, is depauperate and contains only two closely related species of Gloeobacter and a metagenome-assembled genome. Here, we describe a new cultured member of Gloeobacteria, Anthocerotibacter panamensis, isolated from a tropical hornwort. Read More

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Molecular Evolution of Ecological Specialisation: Genomic Insights from the Diversification of Murine Rodents.

Genome Biol Evol 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

School of BioSciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, 3010, Australia.

Adaptive radiations are characterised by the diversification and ecological differentiation of species, and replicated cases of this process provide natural experiments for understanding the repeatability and pace of molecular evolution. During adaptive radiation, genes related to ecological specialisation may be subject to recurrent positive directional selection. However, it is not clear to what extent patterns of lineage-specific ecological specialisation (including phenotypic convergence) are correlated with shared signatures of molecular evolution. Read More

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Bioinformatics and Expression Analysis of IDA-Like Genes Reveal Their Potential Functions in Flower Abscission and Stress Response in Tobacco ( L.).

Front Genet 2021 27;12:670794. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Tobacco Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Qingdao, China.

The inflorescence deficient in abscission-like () genes have been shown to play critical roles in floral organ abscission, lateral root formation and various stress responses in . The gene family has been characterized in a number of plant species, while limited information is available about genes of tobacco. In the current study, 15 NtIDL members were identified in the tobacco genome, and were classified into six groups together with IDL members from other species. Read More

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The Role of Tumor Necrosis Factor in Manipulating the Immunological Response of Tumor Microenvironment.

Front Immunol 2021 27;12:656908. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Surgical Oncology Program, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD, United States.

The tumor microenvironment (TME) is an intricate system within solid neoplasms. In this review, we aim to provide an updated insight into the TME with a focus on the effects of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) on its various components and the use of TNF-α to improve the efficiency of drug delivery. The TME comprises the supporting structure of the tumor, such as its extracellular matrix and vasculature. Read More

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Informing About the Nocebo Effect Affects Patients' Need for Information About Antidepressants-An Experimental Online Study.

Front Psychiatry 2021 27;12:587122. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Understanding patients' informational needs and adapting drug-related information are the prerequisites for a contextualized informed consent. Current information practices might rather harm by inducing nocebo effects. To investigate whether informing about the nocebo effect using a short information sheet affects patients' need for information about antidepressants. Read More

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Shared inflammatory pathways and therapeutic strategies in COVID-19 and cancer immunotherapy.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 May;9(5)

Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, USA

COVID-19, the syndrome caused by the infection with SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, is characterized, in its severe form, by interstitial diffuse pneumonitis and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). ARDS and systemic manifestations of COVID-19 are mainly due to an exaggerated immune response triggered by the viral infection. Cytokine release syndrome (CRS), an inflammatory syndrome characterized by elevated levels of circulating cytokines, and endothelial dysfunction are systemic manifestations of COVID-19. Read More

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French handlers' perspectives on Animal-Assisted Interventions.

Complement Ther Clin Pract 2021 Mar 27;44:101356. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Laboratoire D'Anthropologie Sociale et Culturelle, Université de Liège, France.

Background: Animal-Assisted Interventions (AAI) are well implemented in human healthcare, in France as elsewhere; yet there are still difficulties in characterizing these practices and misconceptions about their mechanisms - little is known about the French practice of AAI and about the human-animal team.

Objectives: This study aims to characterize AAI by exploring their specificities through French handlers' perspectives.

Material And Method: An online survey addressed to French handlers working in AAI with mainly one dog was carried out. Read More

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High BRAF variant allele frequencies are associated with distinct pathological features and responsiveness to target therapy in melanoma patients.

ESMO Open 2021 May 10;6(3):100133. Epub 2021 May 10.

Pathology Unit, Candiolo Cancer Institute, FPO-IRCCs, Turin, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: BRAF mutant melanoma patients are commonly treated with anti-BRAF therapeutic strategies. However, many factors, including the percentage of BRAF-mutated cells, may contribute to the great variability in patient outcomes.

Patients And Methods: The BRAF variant allele frequency (VAF; defined as the percentage of mutated alleles) of primary and secondary melanoma lesions, obtained from 327 patients with different disease stages, was assessed by pyrosequencing. Read More

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Assessing potential ecosystem service dynamics driven by urbanization in the Yangtze River Economic Belt, China.

J Environ Manage 2021 May 10;292:112734. Epub 2021 May 10.

School of Geography and Ocean Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210023, China; Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science and Technology, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210023, China.

Ecosystem services (ESs) link natural and social processes and play an important role in sustaining ecological security, human well-being, and sustainable development. However, uncertainties in future socioeconomic land use drivers may result in very different land use dynamics and consequences for land-based ESs. In this study, land use transitions in the Yangtze River Economic Belt (YREB) were simulated in the short term (2018-2030), medium term (2030-2040), and long term (2040-2050) using the future land use simulation (FLUS) model based on the local shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs). Read More

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Seeing Complexity: Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) as a Lens for Shared Decision Making.

Acad Med 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

C.T. Witkop is professor of preventive medicine and obstetrics/gynecology and associate dean for medical education, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland; ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5366-2663. L.A. Maggio is professor of medicine and associate director of scholarly communication, Center for Health Professions Education, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland; ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2997-6133. E.J. Harvey is a research and teaching associate, Graduate Programs in Health Professions Education, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, and contractor, Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland; ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3685-6279. D.M. Torre is professor of medicine and associate director of evaluation and long-term outcomes, Graduate Programs in Health Professions Education, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland; ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4924-4888.

Shared decision making, a collaborative approach between patient and provider that considers patient's values and preferences in addition to the scientific evidence, is a complex clinical activity that has not realized its full potential. Gaps in education and training have been cited as barriers to shared decision making, and evidence is inconsistent on effective educational interventions. Because individual agents with their own social and behavioral contexts co-construct a shared decision, the educational approach may need to consider the role of patient agency and sociocultural influences. Read More

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Combined Oral Contraceptive Pill-Induced Hypertension and Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy: Shared Mechanisms and Clinical Similarities.

Curr Hypertens Rep 2021 May 13;23(5):29. Epub 2021 May 13.

Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street, SW, Rochester, MN, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Oral contraceptive pill-induced hypertension (OCPIH) and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (HDP) share common risk factors and pathophysiological mechanisms, yet the bidirectional relationship between these two conditions is not well-established. We review and describe OCPIH and HDP to better understand how hormonal and metabolic imbalances affect hypertension.

Recent Findings: Oral contraceptive pills continue to be a popular method of contraception, with an incidence of OCPIH ranging from 1-8. Read More

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Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Different Parts of .

Front Vet Sci 2021 26;8:626579. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

College of Life Science and Technology, Xinjiang University, Urumqi, China.

, a globally distributed parasite, is a canine tapeworm and causes huge economic losses in the food industry. Using LC-MS/MS, the proteomes of cyst scolex, designated as CS, and the cyst without the scolex, designated as CWS, were profiled and a total of 764 different proteins were identified, 664 of which were identified in CS, 412 identified in CWS, and 312 in both. Comparative analysis revealed that CS had more abundant proteins associated with growth and development, while CWS had more abundant proteins constituting a scaffolding and protective extracellular matrix. Read More

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Lack of Awareness of the Impact of Improperly Disposed Of Medications and Associated Factors: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Indonesian Households.

Front Pharmacol 2021 26;12:630434. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jatinangor, Indonesia.

Disposal of unused medications through environmentally unsafe routes is common in Indonesia. The lack of awareness of the impact of improperly disposed of medications is a significant contributing factor. The objectives of this study were to identify factors associated with lack of awareness of the impact of improperly disposed of unused medications and to assess the associations of awareness with medication disposal practices among the general population in Indonesia. Read More

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Decision support needs for shared clinical decision-making regarding HPV vaccination among adults 27-45 years of age.

Patient Educ Couns 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Health Behavior and Health Systems, University of North Texas Health Science Center, 3500 Camp Bowie Blvd Fort Worth, TX 76107 USA. Electronic address:

Objective: Identify HPV information needs and shared clinical decision-making preferences among adults 27-45 and describe differences in needs and preferences among underserved and vulnerable populations.

Methods: Participants 27-45 years old with no history of HPV vaccination completed a cross-sectional web-based survey between April-May 2020 (N = 702). Preferred role in shared clinical decision making was described across demographic groups and sociodemographic correlates of HPV vaccine information needs. Read More

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Patient outcomes and experience of a task-shared screening and brief intervention service for problem substance use in South African emergency centres: a mixed methods study.

Addict Sci Clin Pract 2021 May 12;16(1):31. Epub 2021 May 12.

Alan J Flisher Centre for Public Mental Health, Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, 46 Sawkins Road, Rondebosch, Cape Town, 7700, South Africa.

Background: Screening, brief intervention and referral to treatment (SBIRT) programmes have resulted in generally positive outcomes in healthcare settings, particularly for problem alcohol use, yet implementation is hampered by barriers such as concerns regarding the burden on healthcare professionals. In low-resourced settings, task-sharing approaches can reduce this burden by using non-professional healthcare workers, yet data are scarce regarding the outcomes and acceptability to patients within a SBIRT service. This study aims to evaluate patient-reported outcomes, patient acceptability, perceived benefits and recommendations for improving a task-shared SBIRT service in South African emergency centres (ECs). Read More

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Military nutrition research: contemporary issues, state of the science and future directions.

Eur J Sport Sci 2021 May 12:1-23. Epub 2021 May 12.

Military Nutrition Division, United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA, 01760, USA.

The importance of diet and nutrition to military readiness and performance has been recognized for centuries as dietary nutrients sustain health, protect against illness, and promote resilience, performance and recovery. Contemporary military nutrition research is increasingly inter-disciplinary with emphasis often placed on the broad topics of: 1) determining operational nutrition requirements in all environments, 2) characterizing nutritional practices of military personnel relative to the required (role/environment) standards, and 3) developing strategies for improving nutrient delivery and individual choices. This review discusses contemporary issues shared internationally by military nutrition research programs, and highlights emerging topics likely to influence future military nutrition research and policy. Read More

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Molecular characterization of a novel β-defensin isoform from the red-toothed trigger fish, Odonus niger (Ruppel, 1836).

J Genet Eng Biotechnol 2021 May 12;19(1):71. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Marine Biology, Microbiology & Biochemistry, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin, 682016, India.

Background: The concern regarding a post-antibiotic era with increasing drug resistance by pathogens imposes the need to discover alternatives for existing antibiotics. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with their versatile therapeutic properties are a group of promising molecules with curative potentials. These evolutionarily conserved molecules play important roles in the innate immune system of several organisms. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 in patients with cancer: possible role of mimicry of human molecules by viral proteins and the resulting anti-cancer immunity.

Cell Stress Chaperones 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Biomedicine, Neurosciences and Advanced Diagnostics (BIND), Institute of Human Anatomy and Histology, University of Palermo, 90141, Palermo, Italy.

A few reports suggest that molecular mimicry can have a role in determining the more severe and deadly forms of COVID-19, inducing endothelial damage, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and multiorgan failure. Heat shock proteins/molecular chaperones can be involved in these molecular mimicry phenomena. However, tumor cells can display on their surface heat shock proteins/molecular chaperones that are mimicked by SARS-CoV-2 molecules (including the Spike protein), similarly to what happens in other bacterial or viral infections. Read More

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The role of family confidants and caregivers in the care of older cancer patients: Extending the concept of "shared decision-making".

Health Sci Rep 2021 Jun 6;4(2):e281. Epub 2021 May 6.

Institute for Social Medicine and Epidemiology, University of Luebeck Luebeck Germany.

Background And Aims: Family caregivers play an important role in assisting their family members with cancer, but their influence on the treatment decision-making process has not yet been adequately investigated. This exploratory study approached this topic via reconstructive methodology, focusing on assessing patient-caregiver relationships.

Methods: We conducted semi-structured interviews with 37 mostly elderly cancer patients (median age: 74 years) about the context of their diagnosis, treatment decision, and family support. Read More

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Institutional Transformations of Russia's Housing Construction Sector in 2020.

Stud Russ Econ Dev 2021 6;32(2):147-154. Epub 2021 May 6.

Institute of Economic Forecasting, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117418 Moscow, Russia.

This paper shows the ongoing development of two key trends in Russia's housing construction sector: the strengthening role of the state and the formation of market leaders that control its privileged part. The latter are separated from the rest of the market by ever-deeper institutional barriers. These barriers arise due to "special" relations of such companies with the largest banks, their advantages in obtaining financing in the securities markets, better terms of interaction with development institutions, primarily JSC DOM. Read More

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Neural correlates of individual variation in two-back working memory and the relationship with fluid intelligence.

Sci Rep 2021 May 11;11(1):9980. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Working memory has been examined extensively using the N-back task. However, less is known about the neural bases underlying individual variation in the accuracy rate (AR) and reaction time (RT) as metrics of N-back performance. Whereas AR indexes the overall performance, RT may more specifically reflect the efficiency in updating target identify. Read More

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A unified resource and configurable model of the synapse proteome and its role in disease.

Sci Rep 2021 May 11;11(1):9967. Epub 2021 May 11.

The School of Informatics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Genes encoding synaptic proteins are highly associated with neuronal disorders many of which show clinical co-morbidity. We integrated 58 published synaptic proteomic datasets that describe over 8000 proteins and combined them with direct protein-protein interactions and functional metadata to build a network resource that reveals the shared and unique protein components that underpin multiple disorders. All the data are provided in a flexible and accessible format to encourage custom use. Read More

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Serotonin-related rodent models of early-life exposure relevant for neurodevelopmental vulnerability to psychiatric disorders.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 May 11;11(1):280. Epub 2021 May 11.

Instituto de Fisiología, Biología Molecular y Neurociencias (IFIBYNE), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Mental disorders including depression and anxiety are continuously rising their prevalence across the globe. Early-life experience of individuals emerges as a main risk factor contributing to the developmental vulnerability to psychiatric disorders. That is, perturbing environmental conditions during neurodevelopmental stages can have detrimental effects on adult mood and emotional responses. Read More

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Functional and Comparative Analysis of Centromeres Reveals Clade-Specific Genome Rearrangements in and a Chromosome Number Change in Related Species.

mBio 2021 May 11;12(3). Epub 2021 May 11.

Molecular Mycology Laboratory, Molecular Biology and Genetics Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore, India

The thermotolerant multidrug-resistant ascomycete rapidly emerged since 2009 causing systemic infections worldwide and simultaneously evolved in different geographical zones. The molecular events that orchestrated this sudden emergence of the killer fungus remain mostly elusive. Here, we identify centromeres in and related species, using a combined approach of chromatin immunoprecipitation and comparative genomic analyses. Read More

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A Crossover Randomized Trial of Visual Abstracts Versus Plain-Text Tweets for Disseminating Orthopedics Research.

J Arthroplasty 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Rothman Orthopaedic Institute at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA.

Background: Scientists, surgeons, and trainees are increasingly taking an active role on Twitter to find, disseminate, and exchange knowledge. The purpose of this study was to determine if peer-reviewed journal articles shared on Twitter using visual abstracts (VAs) improve user engagement compared with plain-text tweets.

Methods: A two-arm randomized controlled trial with crossover was performed. Read More

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Artificially elevated oxytocin concentrations in pet dogs are associated with higher proximity-maintenance and gazing towards the owners.

Physiol Behav 2021 May 8:113451. Epub 2021 May 8.

Domestication Lab, Wolf Science Center, Konrad-Lorenz-Institute for Ethology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinaerplatz 1, 1210 Vienna, Austria.

The relationship between dogs and their owners is characterized by an affective and enduring bond. It has been suggested that oxytocin might be the underlying mechanism driving this relationship, however evidence is mixed. In this study we tested whether intranasally administered oxytocin (compared to saline) would influence dogs' behavioural synchrony and shared attention towards their owners. Read More

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