3,093,671 results match your criteria roles


General anaesthesia in end-of-life care: extending the indications for anaesthesia beyond surgery.

Anaesthesia 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Nuffield Department of Anaesthetics, Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Oxford, UK.

In this article, we describe an extension of general anaesthesia - beyond facilitating surgery - to the relief of suffering during dying. Some refractory symptoms at the end of life (pain, delirium, distress, dyspnoea) might be managed by analgesia, but in high doses, adverse effects (e.g. Read More

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Differential Effects of Various Androgens on Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

Horm Metab Res 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Tropical Institute of Reproductive Medicine, Cuiabá, MT, Brazil.

The hyperandrogenism in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with the risk for the future development of the cardiovascular disease. The objective of the study is to verify whether different androgens have the same harmful effect. This cross-sectional study enrolled 823 women with PCOS: 627 (76. Read More

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Fibrinolysis in Acute and Chronic Cardiovascular Disease.

Semin Thromb Hemost 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Metabolic Medicine, Leeds Institute of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.

The formation of an obstructive thrombus within an artery remains a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Despite effective inhibition of platelet function by modern antiplatelet therapies, these agents fail to fully eliminate atherothrombotic risk. This may well be related to extensive vascular disease, beyond the protective abilities of the treatment agents used. Read More

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Altered Fibrinolysis during and after Surgery.

Semin Thromb Hemost 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Anaesthesia and Critical Care Department, Bellvitge University Hospital, L'Hospitalet de LLobregat, Barcelona, Spain.

Major surgery induces hemostatic changes related to surgical stress, tissue destruction, and inflammatory reactions. These changes involve a shift of volume from extravascular space to intravascular and interstitial spaces, a "physiologic" hemodilution of coagulation proteins, and an increase of plasmatic fibrinogen concentration and platelets. Increases in fibrinogen and platelets together with a simultaneous dilution of pro- and anticoagulant factors and development of a hypofibrinolytic status result in a postoperative hypercoagulable state. Read More

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Clinical and Demographic Risk Factors for COVID-19 during Delivery Hospitalizations in New York City.

Am J Perinatol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Division of Maternal-Fetal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York.

Objective:  This study was aimed to review 4 weeks of universal novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) screening among delivery hospitalizations, at two hospitals in March and April 2020 in New York City, to compare outcomes between patients based on COVID-19 status and to determine whether demographic risk factors and symptoms predicted screening positive for COVID-19.

Study Design:  This retrospective cohort study evaluated all patients admitted for delivery from March 22 to April 18, 2020, at two New York City hospitals. Obstetrical and neonatal outcomes were collected. Read More

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An enhanced periosteum structure/function dual mimicking membrane for in-situ restorations of periosteum and bone.

Biofabrication 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Key Laboratory of Textile Science and Technology of Ministry of Education and College of Textiles, Donghua University, 2999 Renmin North Road, Songjiang District, Shanghai, Shanghai, 201620, CHINA.

Periosteum plays a pivotal role in bone formation and reconstruction. The ideal repair process for critical-size bone defects with periosteum damage is to induce regeneration of periosteum tissue and the subsequent bone regeneration derived by the periosteum. Inspired by the bilayer structure of the natural periosteum, we develop a periosteum structure/function dual mimicking membrane for the in-situ restoration of periosteum and bone tissue. Read More

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Long intergenic noncoding RNA 00665 promotes proliferation and inhibits apoptosis in colorectal cancer by regulating miR-126-5p.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Apr 20;13. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan 250021, Shandong, People’s Republic of China.

Long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) regulate a series of biological processes, and their anomalous expression plays critical roles in the progression of multiple malignancies, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Although many studies have reported the oncogenic function of LINC00665 in multiple cancers, few studies have explored its role in CRC. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of LINC00665 on the malignant behaviors of CRC and explore the underlying regulatory mechanism of LINC00665. Read More

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Dual roles of biochar redox property in mediating 2,4-dichlorophenol degradation in the presence of Fe and persulfate.

Chemosphere 2021 Mar 31;279:130456. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Stockbridge School of Agriculture, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, 01003, United States.

Recent studies suggested that biochars could mediate the degradation of organic contaminants. The role of biochars in mediating organic contaminant degradation could be amplified in a Fenton-like reaction, and comparing biochars with varied properties may provide insightful information to understand the reaction mechanisms. In this study, biochar was applied in a Fenton-like reaction system with Fe and persulfate (PS) to degrade 2,4-dichlorophenel (2,4-DCP). Read More

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A predictive processing framework of tool use.

Authors:
Michiel van Elk

Cortex 2021 Mar 27;139:211-221. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Institute of Psychology, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

In this paper I introduce the theory of predictive processing as a unifying conceptual framework to account for the human ability to use and innovate tools. I explain the basic concepts of predictive processing and illustrate how this framework accounts for the development of tool use in young infants and for findings in the neuropsychological and neuroscientific literature. Then, I argue that the predictive processing model needs to be complemented with a functional-evolutionary perspective, according to which the developmental and neurocognitive mechanisms should be understood in relation to the adaptive function that tools subserve. Read More

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Roles of liquid-liquid phase separation in bacterial RNA metabolism.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2021 Apr 17;61:91-98. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Biological Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, 48202, USA. Electronic address:

While bacteria typically lack membrane bound organelles, the mechanisms of subcellular organization have been unclear. Bacteria have recently been found to harbor membraneless organelles containing enzymes of many biochemical pathways. These organelles, called biomolecular condensates, have been found to commonly form through the process of liquid-liquid phase separation and are typically enriched in nucleic acid binding proteins. Read More

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Drivers of successful implementation of integrated care for multi-morbidity: Mechanisms identified in 17 case studies from 8 European countries.

Soc Sci Med 2021 Feb 3;277:113728. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Erasmus School of Health Policy & Management, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Institute for Medical Technology Assessment, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

This paper provides a deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying implementation strategies for integrated care. As part of the SELFIE project, 17 integrated care programmes addressing multi-morbidity from eight European countries were selected and studied. Data was extracted from 'thick descriptions' of the 17 programmes and analysed both inductively and deductively using implementation theory. Read More

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February 2021

Politicisation, depoliticisation, and repoliticisation of health care controversies: Vaccination and mental health care reform in the Czech Republic.

Soc Sci Med 2021 Apr 18;277:113916. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Department of Sociology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Charles University Prague, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

This article analyses the politicisation of public health debates by focusing on vaccination and mental health care in the Czech Republic. The mainstream understanding of politicisation commonly refers to politics-as-sphere, linked with the political instrumentalisation of health care controversies as part of electoral campaigning and power struggles. In our analysis, we conceive politicisation more broadly, as politics-as-activity, which encompasses the role of civic engagement and the involvement of patients in these processes. Read More

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Restored riverine wetlands in a headwater stream can simultaneously behave as sinks of NO and hotspots of CH production.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 14;284:117114. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Key Laboratory of Watershed Geographic Sciences, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, 210008, China. Electronic address:

Wetlands can improve water quality, but they are also recognized as important sources of greenhouse gases (GHG) such as nitrous oxide (NO) and methane (CH). Emissions of these gases from wetland ecosystems, especially those in headwaters, are poorly understood. Here, we determined monthly concentrations of dissolved NO and CH in a headwater stream of the Taihu Lake basin of China that contains both wetland and non-wetland reaches. Read More

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High redox potential promotes oxidation of pyrite under neutral conditions: Implications for optimizing pyrite autotrophic denitrification.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Apr 8;416:125844. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

School of Water Resources and Environment, MOE Key Laboratory of Groundwater Circulation and Environmental Evolution, China University of Geosciences (Beijing), Beijing 100083, PR China. Electronic address:

Pyrite autotrophic denitrification (PAD) represents an important natural attenuation process of nitrate pollution and plays a pivotal role in linking nitrogen, sulfur, and iron cycles in a variety of anoxic environments. However, there are knowledge gaps about the oxidation mechanism of pyrite under anaerobic neutral conditions. This study explored the performance of PAD in the presence of EDTA and revealed the mechanism of anaerobic pyrite oxidation and microbial mineral transformation. Read More

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Mothers as perpetrators and bystanders of child sexual abuse.

Child Abuse Negl 2021 Apr 17;117:105068. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry/Psychotherapy, University Hospital Ulm, Germany; Center for Child Protection in Medicine in Baden-Württemberg, Germany.

Background: In research and literature, little attention has been paid to the role of women, especially mothers, in child sexual abuse.

Objective: In order to estimate prevalences on mothers as perpetrators and bystanders, data was collected in a German nationwide representative survey.

Participants And Setting: A total of 2,531 participants (53. Read More

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Biochemical changes and microbial community dynamics during spontaneous fermentation of Zhacai, a traditional pickled mustard tuber from China.

Int J Food Microbiol 2021 Apr 15;347:109199. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Food Science Institute, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310021, China. Electronic address:

Zhacai is a traditional fermented vegetable that has been consumed in China for centuries. It is currently manufactured by spontaneous fermentation and therefore mostly relies on the activities of autochthonous microorganisms. Here, we characterized microbial community dynamics and associated biochemical changes in 12% salted Zhacai during a 90-day spontaneous fermentation process using high-throughput sequencing and chromatography-based approaches to identify associations between microorganisms and fermentation characteristics. Read More

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Can the electricity price subsidy policy curb NO emissions from China's coal-fired power industry? A difference-in-differences approach.

J Environ Manage 2021 Apr 17;290:112367. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Research Institute for the Development of Shanghai, Shanghai University of Finance and Economics, Shanghai, 200433, China. Electronic address:

Air pollution currently poses a serious threat to human health and sustainable development in China. In an attempt to reduce nitrogen oxides (NO) emissions which are the major anthropogenic contributors to air pollution, China initiated an electricity price subsidy (EPS) policy in November 2011 for incentivizing coal-fired power plants to install denitrification units. However, the effectiveness of the policy in the reduction of NO emissions and its sustainability are yet to be investigated. Read More

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Isolation of fast-growing thraustochytrids and seasonal variation on the fatty acid composition of thraustochytrids from mangrove regions of Navi Mumbai, India.

J Environ Manage 2021 Apr 17;290:112597. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Food Engineering and Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology, Nathalal Parekh Marg, Matunga, Mumbai, 400019, India. Electronic address:

This study was aimed to isolate fast-growing thraustochytrids and the influence of seasonal variation in fatty acid composition from the mangrove habitat. The thraustochytrids were isolated from fallen yellowish or green mangrove leaves, in four seasons, including winter, summer, rainy, and post rainy season in one year. The thraustochytrids were analyzed for biomass production, total lipid content, and fatty acid profile. Read More

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CD163 macrophages suppress T cell response by producing TGF-β in pediatric colorectal polyps.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Apr 17;96:107644. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Gastroenterology, Guangzhou Institute of Pediatrics, Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510623, China. Electronic address:

The local immune response plays an important role in the pathogenesis of colorectal carcinoma. Patients with colorectal polyps are at increased risk of colorectal cancer. However, the immunoregulation of early-stage colorectal polyps remain unknown. Read More

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Correspondence between DOM molecules and microbial community in a subtropical coastal estuary on a spatiotemporal scale.

Environ Int 2021 Apr 17;154:106558. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

State Key Laboratory for Marine Environmental Science, Institute of Marine Microbes and Ecospheres, College of Ocean and Earth Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiang'an Campus, Xiang'an South Road, Xiamen 361102, China; Fujian Key Laboratory of Marine Carbon Sequestration, Xiamen University, Xiang'an Campus, Xiang'an South Road, Xiamen 361102, China. Electronic address:

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) changes in quantity and quality over time and space, especially in highly dynamic coastal estuaries. Bacterioplankton usually display seasonal and spatial variations in abundance and composition in the coastal regions, and influence the DOM pool via assimilation, transformation and release of organic molecules. The change in DOM can also affect the composition of bacterial community. Read More

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Mast cells and Kurloff cells - Their detection throughout the oestrous cycle in normal guinea pig ovaries and in guinea pigs with cystic rete ovarii.

Res Vet Sci 2021 Apr 14;136:512-518. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Biostructure and Animal Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Kożuchowska 1/3, 51-631 Wrocław, Poland. Electronic address:

Mast cells (MCs) and Kurloff cells (KCs) were detected in guinea pig ovaries in the follicular and luteal phases of the oestrous cycle. The samples of ovaries were fixed in Mota's basic lead acetate. Toluidine blue was used for detection of MCs and periodic acid-Schiff for detection of KCs. Read More

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Immunological lessons from genome-wide association studies of infections.

Curr Opin Immunol 2021 Apr 17;72:87-93. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

School of Life Sciences, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland; Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy. Electronic address:

Over the past few years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been increasingly applied to identify host genetic factors influencing clinical and laboratory traits related to immunity and infection, and to understand the interplay between the host and the microbial genomes. By screening large cohorts of individuals suffering from various infectious diseases, GWAS explored resistance against infection, natural history of the disease, development of life-threatening clinical signs, and innate and adaptive immune responses. These efforts provided fundamental insight on the role of major genes in the interindividual variability in the response to infection and on the mechanisms of the immune response against human pathogens both at the individual and population levels. Read More

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The intergenerational interplay of adversity on salivary inflammation in young children and caregivers.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2021 Apr 17;128:105222. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Biobehavioral Health, The Pennsylvania State University, 219 Biobehavioral Health Building, University Park, PA 16802, USA. Electronic address:

Systemic inflammation links exposure to early childhood adversity to later disease. The associations among adversity and disease risk might in part operate through poor oral hygiene and subsequent periodontal inflammation, which can be measured in saliva. Few studies, however, have examined the association between adversity and salivary inflammation in young children. Read More

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Identification, quantitation and sensorial contribution of lactones in brandies between China and France.

Food Chem 2021 Apr 9;357:129761. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Key Laboratory of Industrial Biotechnology of Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Avenue, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, PR China; State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Avenue, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, PR China. Electronic address:

Lactones are important flavor compounds in lots of foodstuffs. They also play an important role in brandy, but have not been studied at large. In this study, solid-phase extraction (SPE) and stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOFMS) were applied to identify and quantify lactones in brandies between China and France. Read More

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Dilution and amplification effects in Lyme disease: Modeling the effects of reservoir-incompetent hosts on Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto transmission.

Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2021 Apr 13;12(4):101724. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Mathematics, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH, United States.

The literature on Lyme disease includes a lively debate about the paradoxical role of changing deer populations. A decrease in the number of deer will both (1) reduce the incidence of Lyme disease by decreasing the host populations for ticks and therefore tick populations, and (2) enhance the incidence of Lyme disease by offering fewer reservoir-incompetent hosts for ticks, forcing the vector to choose reservoir-competent, and therefore possibly diseased, hosts to feed on. A review of field studies exploring the net impact of changing deer populations shows mixed results. Read More

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Benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with lobular breast cancer: A systematic review of the literature and metanalysis.

Cancer Treat Rev 2021 Apr 9;97:102205. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Division of New Drugs and Early Drug Development, European Institute of Oncology IRCCS, Milan, Italy; Departement of Hematology and Oncology (DIPO), University of Milan, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

The role of adjuvant chemotherapy (aCT) for patients with localized lobular breast cancer (ILC) is still controversial. It is unclear what is the magnitude of benefit of the CT in this setting. In this systematic review of the literature and metanalysis, we aimed to estimate the benefit of aCT in addition to the standard treatments in the early ILC setting. Read More

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The contribution of dietary glycemic index and glycemic load to the development of microvascular complications of diabetes.

Nutrition 2021 Mar 6;89:111234. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Diabetes Centre, Second Department of Internal Medicine, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece. Electronic address:

Lifestyle modification, including a healthy diet, is of paramount importance in the management of diabetes mellitus. To this end, diets have been proposed with low glycemic index (an index of carbohydrate food expressing how quickly this nutrient can increase blood glucose) and glycemic load (an index obtained by multiplying the glycemic index by the grams of carbohydrate, then dividing by 100). The aim of this review was to discuss the potential contribution of diets with low glycemic index and glycemic load in diabetic microvascular complications. Read More

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