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Public Health and Nephrology: Contributions of Epidemiology to the Study, Understanding, Prevention and Treatment of Kidney Disease.

Contrib Nephrol 2021 Jul 27;199:1-14. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

School of Primary Care, Population Science and Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, United Kingdom.

Kidney disease is frequently described as a public health problem. This chapter will unpack what we mean by "public health" and by "taking a public health approach." We will consider the global burden of kidney diseases and their determinants, with a focus on chronic kidney disease. Read More

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Vision Impairment and Adverse Health Conditions in Congolese Older People: A Population-Based Study.

Gerontology 2021 Jul 27:1-10. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

INSERM, IRD, U1094 Tropical Neuroepidemiology, Institute of Epidemiology and Tropical Neurology, GEIST, University of Limoges, Limoges, France.

Introduction: In sub-Saharan Africa, many older people experience vision impairment (VI) and its adverse health outcomes. In this study, we examined separately the association between VI and each adverse health conditions (cognitive disorders, vision-related quality of life [VRQoL], and daily functioning interference [DFI]) among Congolese older people. We also explored whether VI had a significant effect on VRQoL components in our population. Read More

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Dietary Patterns for Promoting Kidney Health.

Contrib Nephrol 2021 Jul 27;199:1-9. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

State University of Ceará (UECE), Fortaleza, Brazil.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is considered a public health problem and part of the growing burden of noncommunicable diseases. Many studies have searched for ways to reduce the risk of complications and death. One possible approach to modify the course of this disease is the adoption of healthy dietary habits. Read More

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Dynamics of breast milk antibody titer in the six months following SARS-CoV-2 infection.

J Clin Virol 2021 Jul 18;142:104916. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, United States; Department of Medicine, Division of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, United States. Electronic address:

Background: While a growing body of literature describes antibody dynamics in serum, little is known about breast milk antibody titers in the months following SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Objectives: We evaluated the dynamics of the humoral immune response to SARS-CoV-2 in two women who were breastfeeding when infected. We assessed paired breast milk and serum samples for six months post-infection for antibodies specific to the SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein. Read More

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Genetically determined selenium concentrations and risk for autoimmune diseases.

Nutrition 2021 Jun 24;91-92:111391. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Epidemiology, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University School of Public Health, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Observational epidemiologic studies have reported a relationship between selenium status and risk for autoimmune diseases. However, the associations are susceptible to confounding or reverse causality. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential causal associations of selenium concentrations with the risk for common autoimmune diseases using a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) design. Read More

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Sex-related differences in ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction.

Int J Cardiol 2021 Jul 24. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Istituto di Scienze della Vita, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Pisa, Italy; Fondazione Toscana Gabriele Monasterio, Pisa, Italy.

The epidemiology, clinical features and outcome of myocardial infarction (MI) display significant differences between men and women. Prominent sex differences have also been suggested in left ventricular (LV) remodeling after MI. Ventricular remodeling refers to a deterioration of LV geometry and function often leading to heart failure (HF) development and an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Read More

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Sex differences in emergency medical services management of patients with myocardial infarction: analysis of routinely collected data for over 110,000 patients.

Am Heart J 2021 Jul 24. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Centre for Big Data Research in Health, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Emergency medical services (EMS) activation is an integral component in managing individuals with myocardial infarction (MI). EMS play a crucial role in early MI symptom recognition, prompt transport to percutaneous coronary intervention centres and timely administration of management. The objective of this study was to examine sex differences in prehospital EMS care of patients hospitalized with Ml using data from a retrospective population-based cohort study of linked health administrative data for people with a hospital diagnosis of MI in Australia (2001-18). Read More

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Drusen and pigment abnormality predict the development of neovascular age-related macular degeneration in Japanese patients.

PLoS One 2021 27;16(7):e0255213. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

Drusen are known to be the important hallmark to predict the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The prevalence of drusen is lower in Asians compared with Caucasians so that the role of signs constituting early AMD is not well established in Asian populations as in Western countries. In this study, we retrospectively investigated clinical characteristics and 5-year incidence of neovascular AMD (nAMD) in the fellow eye of unilateral nAMD patients. Read More

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Maternal Perfluoroalkyl Substances, Thyroid Hormones, and Genes: A Spanish Cross-sectional Study.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Epidemiology and Environmental Health Joint Research Unit, FISABIO-University Jaume I-University of Valencia, 46019 Valencia, Spain.

Results of studies on perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and thyroid hormones (THs) are heterogeneous, and the mechanisms underlying the action of PFASs to target THs have not been fully characterized. We examined the relation between first-trimester maternal PFAS and TH levels and the role played by polymorphisms in the iodothyronine deiodinase 1 (1) and 2 (2) genes in this association. Our sample comprised 919 pregnant Spanish women (recruitment = 2003-2008) with measurements of perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), total triiodothyronine (TT3), and free thyroxine (FT4), and we genotyped for single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the 1 (rs2235544) and 2 (rs12885300) genes. Read More

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Reconsidering the role of selective sodium channel blockers in genetic generalized epilepsy.

Acta Neurol Scand 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Epilepsy Unit, Department of Human Neurosciences, Policlinico Umberto I, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy.

Objective: Selective sodium channel blockers (SSCBs) have a limited use in genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE), due to their well-known risk of seizure worsening. Although their therapeutic potential in GGE has been suggested by recent evidence, electro-clinical data supporting their prescription are lacking. We aimed to investigate SSCB safety and effectiveness in a GGE cohort. Read More

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Hyperkalemia in Chronic Kidney Disease in the New Era of Kidney Protection Therapies.

Drugs 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

School of Medicine, IIS-Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, University Autonoma of Madrid, FRIAT and REDINREN, Madrid, Spain.

Despite recent therapeutic advances, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the fastest growing global causes of death. This illustrates limitations of current therapeutic approaches and, potentially, unidentified knowledge gaps. For decades, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockers have been the mainstay of therapy for CKD. Read More

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LINC00667 Promotes Progression of Esophageal Cancer Cells by Regulating miR-200b-3p/SLC2A3 Axis.

Dig Dis Sci 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Gastroenterology, Taishan Hospital, Taian, Shandong Province, China.

Background: Recently, more and more evidence indicated that the long non-coding RNA was strictly related to the occurrence and progression of human cancers, including esophageal cancer (EC). We observed that LINC00667 was increased in EC, but the function of LINC00667 was unclear. Therefore, the function and potential molecular mechanism of LINC00667 in the progression of EC need to be further studied. Read More

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Feasibility of capturing real-world data from health information technology systems at multiple centers to assess cardiac ablation device outcomes: A fit-for-purpose informatics analysis report.

J Am Med Inform Assoc 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Mercy Research, Mercy, Chesterfield, Missouri, USA.

Objective: The study sought to conduct an informatics analysis on the National Evaluation System for Health Technology Coordinating Center test case of cardiac ablation catheters and to demonstrate the role of informatics approaches in the feasibility assessment of capturing real-world data using unique device identifiers (UDIs) that are fit for purpose for label extensions for 2 cardiac ablation catheters from the electronic health records and other health information technology systems in a multicenter evaluation.

Materials And Methods: We focused on data capture and transformation and data quality maturity model specified in the National Evaluation System for Health Technology Coordinating Center data quality framework. The informatics analysis included 4 elements: the use of UDIs for identifying device exposure data, the use of standardized codes for defining computable phenotypes, the use of natural language processing for capturing unstructured data elements from clinical data systems, and the use of common data models for standardizing data collection and analyses. Read More

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Hormone therapy formulation, dose, route of delivery, and risk of hypertension: findings from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS).

Menopause 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Family and Preventive Medicine University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK Statistical Research Associate, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA Department of Family Medicine, University of California San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA The North American Menopause Society Emeritus, Cleveland, OH Barbra Streisand Women's Heart Center, Smidt Heart Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA Department of Epidemiology, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA.

Objective: Using data from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS), to determine the role of estrogen formulation, dose, route of delivery, and its combination with different progestogens on the risk for hypertension in the WHI-OS.

Methods: After excluding women with diagnosed hypertension, receiving antihypertensive medication, presenting with elevated blood pressure ( ≥ 140/90), and those not taking menopausal hormone therapy at baseline, 19,986 women remained eligible for the analyses. Using hierarchal modeling, proportional hazard rate calculation, and linear and logistic regression analyses, we evaluated incident treated hypertension and mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure changes at 3 years. Read More

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Dysbiosis of the Urinary Bladder Microbiome in Cats with Chronic Kidney Disease.

mSystems 2021 Jul 27:e0051021. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Centre for Companion Animal Health, Jockey Club College of Veterinary Medicine and Life Sciences, City University of Hong Konggrid.35030.35, Hong Kong SAR.

Although feline urinary tract diseases cause high morbidity and mortality rates, and subclinical bacteriuria is not uncommon, the feline urinary microbiome has not been characterized. We conducted a case-control study to identify the feline urinary bladder microbiome and assess its association with chronic kidney disease (CKD), feline idiopathic cystitis (FIC), and positive urine cultures (PUCs). Of 108 feline urine samples subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing, 48 (44. Read More

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Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) for the early detection of dementia in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI).

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 Jul 27;7:CD010783. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Psychological Medicine, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

Background: Dementia is a progressive global cognitive impairment syndrome. In 2010, more than 35 million people worldwide were estimated to be living with dementia. Some people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) will progress to dementia but others remain stable or recover full function. Read More

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Poverty, social exclusion, and mental health: the role of the family context in children aged 7-11 years INMA mother-and-child cohort study.

Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Joint Research Unit in Epidemiology, Environment and Health FISABIO-University of Valencia - Universitat Jaume I, Valencia, Spain.

Mental health problems are common in childhood and tend to be more frequent in populations at risk of poverty or social exclusion (AROPE). The family environment can play a role in reducing the impact of economic hardship on these problems. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of multidimensional poverty on the mental health of children aged 7-11 years and the role of the family environment in two areas of Spain. Read More

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Pain Appraisals in Patients with Physical Injury: Assessing the Role of Distress Tolerance in the Relationship between Depression and Pain Catastrophizing.

Health Soc Work 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Internal Medicine, Epidemiology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City.

Pain is a complex construct contributing to significant impairment, particularly among physically injured patients seeking treatment in trauma and orthopedic surgery settings in which social workers are an integral component of care. The biopsychosocial theory, fear-avoidance, and cognitive mediation models of pain suggest that psychological factors (for example, depression) affect one's ability to tolerate distress, leading to negative pain appraisals, such as catastrophizing. This study examined whether distress tolerance serves as a mechanism by which depression is associated with pain catastrophizing. Read More

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Health-related quality of life in ICU survivors-10 years later.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 26;11(1):15189. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Intensive Care, Gelre Hospital, Albert Schweitzerlaan 31, 7334 DZ, Apeldoorn, The Netherlands.

Many Intensive Care (ICU) survivors experience long lasting impairments in physical and psychological health as well as social functioning. The objective of our study was to evaluate these effects up to 10 years after ICU discharge. We performed a long-term prospective cohort study in patients admitted for longer than 48 h in a medical-surgical ICU. Read More

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Human Papillomavirus-Associated Head and Neck Cancer.

J Am Board Fam Med 2021 Jul-Aug;34(4):832-837

From Division of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, George Washington University, Washington, DC (JCN, SF, CM, PEZ).

Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) has historically been attributable to tobacco and alcohol exposure and saw a decline in incidence after societal norms shifted away from smoking. In recent decades, this disease has had a re-emergence due to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, now surpassing cervical cancer as the number 1 cause of HPV-related cancer in the United States. HPV-positive OPSCC differs from HPV-negative disease in epidemiology, prognosis, treatment, and prevention. Read More

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November 2020

The Role of Community-Based Organizations in Improving Chronic Care for Safety-Net Populations.

J Am Board Fam Med 2021 Jul-Aug;34(4):698-708

From the Center for Vulnerable Populations, University of California, San Francisco (KHN, JDF, AGC, RD, AA, WB, US, CRL); UCSF Department of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine at Zuckerberg, San Francisco General Hospital, CA (KHN, JDF, AGC, US, CRL); Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco (KHN, JDF, RD, US, CRL); Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Division of Research, Oakland (AG, CRL); Streetwyze, Oakland, CA (TC, AS, AA); Social Innovation and Universal Opportunity Lab (SOUL), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco State University (TC, AS, AA); Center for AIDS Prevention Studies, University of California, San Francisco (WB); Bakar Computational Health Science Institute, University of California, San Francisco (WB, CRL).

Introduction: Social determinants of health (SDoH) influence health outcomes and contribute to disparities in chronic disease in vulnerable populations. To inform health system strategies to address SDoH, we conducted a multi-stakeholder qualitative study to capture the multi-level influences on health for those living in socio-economically deprived contexts.

Methods: Varied qualitative inquiry methods - in-depth interviews, participant-led neighborhood tours, and clinic visit observations - involving a total of 23 participants (10 patients with chronic illnesses in San Francisco neighborhoods with high chronic disease rates, 10 community leaders serving the same neighborhoods, and 3 providers from San Francisco's public health care delivery system). Read More

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November 2020

Role of community drug and alcohol services in physical healthcare for people who use illicit opioids: a qualitative study of clinical staff in the UK.

BMJ Open 2021 Jul 26;11(7):e046577. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Institute of Epidemiology and Healthcare, University College London, London, UK

Objectives: To understand how clinicians working in addiction services perceive their responsibilities for physical healthcare of clients who use opioids, and how physical healthcare could be improved for this group.

Design: Qualitative study comprising semistructured interviews.

Participants: 16 clinicians, including nurses and nurse practitioners, nurse consultants, addiction psychiatrists, specialist general practitioners and psychiatry specialty registrars. Read More

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Monitoring autophagy-dependent ferroptosis.

Methods Cell Biol 2021 18;165:163-176. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Department of Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States. Electronic address:

Ferroptosis is an iron-dependent form of regulated cell death, driven by the accumulation of lipid peroxidation. Autophagy is a lysosome-dependent degradation process that can be used to remove and recover intracellular components, such as dysfunctional proteins and damaged organelles. By regulating iron storage and oxidative stress, excessive autophagy is involved in the induction and execution of ferroptosis. Read More

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November 2020

Impact of a restrictive antibiotic policy on the acquisition of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in an endemic region: a before-and-after, propensity-matched cohort study in a Caribbean intensive care unit.

Crit Care 2021 07 26;25(1):261. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Division of Intensive Care, University Hospital of Saint-Etienne, Avenue Albert Raimond, 42270, Saint-Priest-en-Jarez, France.

Background: High-level antibiotic consumption plays a critical role in the selection and spread of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) in the ICU. Implementation of a stewardship program including a restrictive antibiotic policy was evaluated with respect to ESBL-E acquisition (carriage and infection).

Methods: We implemented a 2-year, before-and-after intervention study including all consecutive adult patients admitted for > 48 h in the medical-surgical 26-bed ICU of Guadeloupe University Hospital (French West Indies). Read More

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Analysis of immune cell components and immune-related gene expression profiles in peripheral blood of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

J Transl Med 2021 Jul 26;19(1):319. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Regenerative Medicine, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jilin University, 1266 Fujin Road, Changchun, Jilin, 130021, P.R. China.

Background: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic autoimmune disease caused by severe loss of pancreatic β cells. Immune cells are key mediators of β cell destruction. This study attempted to investigate the role of immune cells and immune-related genes in the occurrence and development of T1DM. Read More

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Genotyping of enterotoxigenic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) among commensal rodents in North Sinai, Egypt.

J Appl Microbiol 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Deparment of Environmental Protection, Faculty of Environmental Agricultural Sciences, Arish University, North Sinai, Egypt.

Aim: This study aimed to identify genotype enterotoxigenic antimicrobial-resistant Staphylococcus aureus species, mainly methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) among commensal rodents. Read More

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Aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation by Lactobacillus reuteri tryptophan metabolism alleviates Escherichia coli-induced mastitis in mice.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Jul 23;17(7):e1009774. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun, China.

The intestinal microbiota has been associated with the occurrence and development of mastitis, which is one of the most serious diseases of lactating women and female animals, but the underlying mechanism has not yet been elucidated. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation by microbiota tryptophan metabolism-derived ligands is involved in maintaining host homeostasis and resisting diseases. We investigated whether AhR activation by microbiota-metabolic ligands could influence mastitis development in mice. Read More

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Association of eating out frequency and other factors with serum uric acid levels and hyperuricemia in Chinese population.

Eur J Nutr 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Clinical Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: A significant shift in meal pattern with frequent eating out was closely associated with multiple chronic outcomes, but with limited evidence on hyperuricemia. We aimed to explore the associations between eating out and serum uric acid (SUA) as well as hyperuricemia.

Methods: A total of 29,597 participants were recruited from the Henan Rural Cohort Study. Read More

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Association of maternal vitamin B and folate levels in early pregnancy with gestational diabetes: a prospective UK cohort study (PRiDE study).

Diabetologia 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.

Aims/hypothesis: The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing worldwide in all ethnic groups. Low vitamin B and low/high folate levels may contribute to GDM risk, but there is conflicting evidence. Our aim is to assess the relationships of early pregnancy vitamin B and folate levels with the risk of GDM status at 26-28 weeks of gestation. Read More

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VDR polymorphisms effect on bone mineral density in Polish postmenopausal women.

Homo 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Anthropology, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Łódź, 12/16 Banacha St., 90-237 Łódź, Poland.

Osteoporosis is the most widespread systemic disease of the skeleton. According to estimated data for Poland, it affects ca. 3 million people. Read More

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