173,974 results match your criteria role interaction

Topological spin crystals by itinerant frustration.

J Phys Condens Matter 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Applied Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Bunkyo-ku, 113-0033, JAPAN.

Spin textures with nontrivial topology, such as vortices and skyrmions, have attracted attention as a source of unconventional magnetic, transport, and optical phenomena. Recently, a new generation of topological spin textures has been extensively studied in itinerant magnets; in contrast to the conventional ones induced, e.g. Read More

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Structural significance of Neprylysin from Streptococcus suis GZ1 in the degradation of Aβ peptides, a causative agent in Alzheimer's disease.

Comput Biol Med 2021 Jul 27;136:104691. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Structural Bioinformatics Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur, 416004, M.S., India; Department of Microbiology, Shivaji University, Kolhapur, 416004, M.S., India. Electronic address:

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive brain disorder. The accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides in the human brain leads to AD. The cleavage of Aβ peptides by several enzymes is being considered as an essential aspect in the treatment of AD. Read More

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Selective MOR activity of DAPEA and Endomorphin-2 analogues containing a (R)-γ-Freidinger lactam in position two.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Jul 28;115:105219. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Pharmacy, University G. d'Annunzio Chieti, Via dei Vestini 31, 66100 Chieti, Italy.

The use of α-amino-γ lactam of Freidinger (Agl) may serve as an impressive method to increase the biological stability of peptides and an appropriate tool to elucidate their structure-activity relationships. The endomorphin-2 (EM-2) and [D-Ala, des-Leu] enkephalin amide (DAPEA) are two linear opioid tetrapeptides agonists of MOR and MOR/DOR respectively. Herein, we investigated the influence of the incorporation of (R/S)-Agl in position 2 and 3 on the biological profile of the aforementioned products in vitro and in vivo. Read More

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Comparative proteome profiling in exosomes derived from porcine colostrum versus mature milk reveals distinct functional proteomes.

J Proteomics 2021 Jul 31:104338. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Institute of Animal Science, Physiology Unit, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

Exosomes are membranous vesicles of endocytic origin, recently been considered as major players in cell-cell communication. Milk is highly complex, and diverse biocomponents provide adequate nutrition, transfer immunity, and promote adequate neonate development. Milk exosomes are suggested to have a key role in these processes, yet to be further explored, and the alteration of the exosomes' cargo in different stages of lactation stages is important for understanding the factors relevant in nursing and also for improving milk replacer products both for humans and animals. Read More

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Identification of a metallothionein gene and the role of biological thiols in stress induced by short-term Cd exposure in Ostrinia nubilalis.

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 Jul 31:109148. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Biology and Ecology, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 3, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia.

Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential metal that is highly toxic to all living forms, characterized by an extremely high affinity for thiol (SH) groups. The aim of this work was to identify and experimentally verify metallothionein gene and to analyze the role of biological thiols in stress induced by short-term Cd exposure in Ostrinia nubilalis, one of the most important corn pests. The coding region of a metallothionein (MT) gene in O. Read More

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Inhibition of ribosomal RNA processing 15 Homolog (RRP15), which is overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma, suppresses tumour growth via induction of senescence and apoptosis.

Cancer Lett 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Gastroenterology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China; Department of Gastroenterology, Gaochun People's Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China; Department of Gastroenterology, Yining People's Hospital, Yining, China. Electronic address:

Recent studies suggest that RRP15 (Ribosomal RNA Processing 15 Homolog) might be a potential target for cancer therapy. However, the role of RRP15 in hepatocarcinogenesis remains poorly delineated. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the expression and biological function of RRP15 in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Read More

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Telomere length and mortality risk among adults in the United States: The role of age and race/ethnicity.

Ann Epidemiol 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, CUNY Graduate School of Public Health & Health Policy. Electronic address:

Purpose: To examined whether there was an association of leucocyte telomere length (LTL) with all-cause, cardiovascular (CVD)- and cancer-specific mortality risks among US adults; and whether these associations vary with race/ethnicity and age.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort using data from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, 1999-2002 and the 2015 Linked Mortality File on adults 25 years or older (n= 6,526 and 1,753 deaths). Cox proportional hazards regression was used to quantify the association of LTL with each outcome adjusting for baseline sociodemographic and health-related characteristics. Read More

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Effects of tree canopy on psychological distress: A repeated cross-sectional study before and during the COVID-19 epidemic.

Environ Res 2021 Jul 31:111795. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Research Institute of Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing, 100091, China; Key Laboratory of Tree Breeding and Cultivation and Urban Forest Research Centre, National Forestry and Grassland Administration, Beijing, 10091, China. Electronic address:

Background: During the COVID-19 epidemic period, people showed a stronger connection to the environment within their communities. Although tree canopy in residential areas has been shown to positively affect psychological distress, it is not clear whether the COVID-19 epidemic played a role in this process. Elucidation of the relationship between tree canopy and the impact on psychological distress during the COVID-19 epidemic could provide valuable information as to the best methods to help individuals cope with urban mental stress events. Read More

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Apoptosis regulation at the mitochondria membrane level.

Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr 2021 Jul 31:183716. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Institute for Genetics, CECAD Research Center, University of Cologne, Germany. Electronic address:

Mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) is a key checkpoint in apoptosis that activates the caspase cascade and irreversibly causes the majority of cells to die. The proteins of the Bcl-2 family are master regulators of apoptosis that form a complex interaction network within the mitochondrial membrane that determines the induction of MOMP. This culminates in the activation of the effector members Bax and Bak, which permeabilize the mitochondrial outer membrane to mediate MOMP. Read More

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Air, Land and Sea: gene-environment interaction in chronic disease.

Am J Med 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Internal Medicine, Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, Sioux Falls, SD 57105.

Each of us reflects a unique convergence of DNA and the environment. Over the past two decades, huge biobanks linked to electronic medical records have positioned the clinical and scientific communities to understand the complex genetic architecture underlying many common diseases. Although these efforts are producing increasingly accurate gene-based risk prediction algorithms for use in routine clinical care, the algorithms often fail to include environmental factors. Read More

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Clinically depressed and typically developing mother-infant dyads: Domain base rates and correspondences, relationship contingencies and attunement.

Infancy 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

Maternal depression is associated with adverse outcomes in infants. Unfavorable parenting practices likely constitute one pathway of risk transmission from mother to infant, but definitional and methodological variation in the extant literature precludes a comprehensive or conclusive understanding of potential underlying mechanisms. This study aimed to illuminate the role of maternal clinical depression in mother-infant interaction by turning a microanalytic lens on four substantive relationship issues: base rates, correspondences, contingencies, and attunement. Read More

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Unveiling a key role of oxaloacetate-glutamate interaction in regulation of respiration and ROS generation in nonsynaptic brain mitochondria using a kinetic model.

PLoS One 2021 3;16(8):e0255164. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biomedicine, Faculty of Biology, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Glutamate plays diverse roles in neuronal cells, affecting cell energetics and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. These roles are especially vital for neuronal cells, which deal with high amounts of glutamate as a neurotransmitter. Our analysis explored neuronal glutamate implication in cellular energy metabolism and ROS generation, using a kinetic model that simulates electron transport details in respiratory complexes, linked ROS generation and metabolic reactions. Read More

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Nuclear Dbf2-related (NDR1) functions as tumor suppressor in glioblastoma by phosphorylation of Yes-associated protein (YAP).

Chin Med J (Engl) 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Neurosurgery, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191, China.

Background: The Nuclear Dbf2-related (NDR1) kinase is a member of the NDR/LATS family, which was a supplementary of Hippo pathway. However, whether NDR1 could inhibit glioblastoma (GBM) growth by phosphorylating Yes-associated protein (YAP) remains unknown. Meanwhile, the role of NDR1 in GBM was not clear. Read More

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Ser69 phosphorylation of TIMAP affects endothelial cell migration.

Exp Lung Res 2021 Aug 3:1-10. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Medical Chemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary.

Purpose/aim: TIMAP (TGF-β-inhibited membrane-associated protein) is a regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). The N-terminal region contains a binding motif for the catalytic subunit of PP1 (PP1c) and a nuclear localization signal (NLS). Phosphorylation of TIMAP on Ser331, Ser333 and Ser337 side chains was shown to regulate the activity of the TIMAP-PP1c complex. Read More

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Key Roles of RGD-Recognizing Integrins During Cardiac Development, on Cardiac Cells, and After Myocardial Infarction.

J Cardiovasc Transl Res 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Centre de Recherche Clinique, Grand Hôpital de l'Est Francilien, Meaux, France.

Cardiac cells interact with the extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins through integrin mechanoreceptors that control many cellular events such as cell survival, apoptosis, differentiation, migration, and proliferation. Integrins play a crucial role in cardiac development as well as in cardiac fibrosis and hypertrophy. Integrins recognize oligopeptides present on ECM proteins and are involved in three main types of interaction, namely with collagen, laminin, and the oligopeptide RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) present on vitronectin and fibronectin proteins. Read More

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The role of ventromedial prefrontal cortex in reward valuation and future thinking during intertemporal choice.

Elife 2021 Aug 3;10. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Psychology, York University, Toronto, Canada.

Intertemporal choices require trade-offs between short-term and long-term outcomes. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) damage causes steep discounting of future rewards (delay discounting [DD]) and impoverished episodic future thinking (EFT). The role of vmPFC in reward valuation, EFT, and their interaction during intertemporal choice is still unclear. Read More

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Time-Resolved Proteome Analysis of during Infection Reveals the Role of the AAA+ Chaperone ClpC for Host Cell Adaptation.

mSystems 2021 Aug 3:e0021521. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Max Planck Unit for the Science of Pathogens, Berlin, Germany.

The cellular proteome comprises all proteins expressed at a given time and defines an organism's phenotype under specific growth conditions. The proteome is shaped and remodeled by both protein synthesis and protein degradation. Here, we developed a new method which combines metabolic and chemical isobaric peptide labeling to simultaneously determine the time-resolved protein decay and synthesis in an intracellular human pathogen. Read More

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Grape polysaccharides: compositional changes in grapes and wines, possible effects on wine organoleptic properties, and practical control during winemaking.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Aug 3:1-24. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Ministry of Agriculture, Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Horticultural Crops (Nutrition and Physiology), Beijing, China.

Polysaccharides present in grapes interact with wine sensory-active compounds (polyphenols and volatile compounds) via different mechanisms and can affect wine organoleptic qualities such as astringency, color and aroma. Studies on the role that grape polysaccharides play in wines are reviewed in this paper. First, the composition of grape polysaccharides and their changes during grape ripening, winemaking and aging are introduced. Read More

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The association between social and spatial closeness with PrEP conversations among Latino men who have sex with men.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Division of Prevention Science and Community Health, Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA Department of Geography, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL, USA Department of Sociology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA Department of Medicine, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA indicates correspondong author.

Background: US Latino men who have sex with men (LMSM) are a group at highest risk for HIV. One driver of HIV among LMSM is inadequate access to pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) information. The social network theory of homophily suggests that sharing similar sociodemographic factors could influence PrEP conversations within networks. Read More

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Neuromechanobiology: An Expanding Field Driven by the Force of Greater Focus.

Adv Healthc Mater 2021 Aug 2:e2100102. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, 30332-0363, USA.

The brain processes information by transmitting signals through highly connected and dynamic networks of neurons. Neurons use specific cellular structures, including axons, dendrites and synapses, and specific molecules, including cell adhesion molecules, ion channels and chemical receptors to form, maintain and communicate among cells in the networks. These cellular and molecular processes take place in environments rich of mechanical cues, thus offering ample opportunities for mechanical regulation of neural development and function. Read More

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Are Heavy Pnictogen - π Interactions Really "π Interactions" ?

Chemistry 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Max-Planck-Institut für Kohlenforschung: Max-Planck-Institut fur Kohlenforschung, Molecular Theory and Spectroscopy, GERMANY.

Non-covalent interactions of heavy pnictogens with π-arenes play a fundamental role in fields like crystal engineering or catalysis. The strength of such bonds is based on an interplay between dispersion and donor/acceptor interactions, and is generally attributed to the presence of π-arenes. Computational studies of the interaction between the heavy pnictogens As, Sb and Bi and cyclohexane, in comparison with previous studies on the interaction between heavy pnictogens and benzene, show that this concept probably has to be revised. Read More

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The role of phonological and semantic representations in verbal short-term memory and delayed retention.

Mem Cognit 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

School of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.

It has been suggested that phonological representations play a central role in verbal short-term memory, but when semantic knowledge has been investigated, it has also been shown to influence verbal short-term memory. Explaining this interaction between verbal short-term memory and the linguistic system has produced different theoretical positions: whether semantic knowledge is used to redintegrate phonological traces or if there is direct activation of both phonological and semantic knowledge upon encountering a word. The present study employed a new paradigm to systematically examine phonological and semantic representations in verbal short-term memory as well as long-term impacts. Read More

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Extracellular GAPDH Promotes Alzheimer Disease Progression by Enhancing Amyloid-β Aggregation and Cytotoxicity.

Aging Dis 2021 Aug 1;12(5):1223-1237. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

6Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Neuronal cell death at late stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) causes the release of cytosolic proteins. One of the most abundant such proteins, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), forms stable aggregates with extracellular amyloid-β (Aβ). We detect these aggregates in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from AD patients at levels directly proportional to the progressive stages of AD. Read More

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The influence of gain-loss framing and its interaction with political ideology on social distancing and mask wearing compliance during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Curr Psychol 2021 Jul 29:1-11. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Psychology, University of Northern Iowa, Bartlett 2068, W 23rd St, Cedar Falls, IA 50614 USA.

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused millions of cases and over half a million deaths in the United States. While health experts urge citizens to adopt preventative measures such as social distancing and wearing a mask, these recommended behaviors are not always followed by the public. To find a way to promote preventative measures, the present study examined the role of gain-loss framing of COVID-19 related messages on social distancing and mask wearing compliance. Read More

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Downregulation of lncRNA SBF2-AS1 inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma proliferation and migration by regulating the miR-361-5p/TGF-β1 signaling pathway.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Aug 2;13(undefined). Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Anesthesiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China.

SBF2-AS1 is an oncogenic long non-coding RNA (lncRNA). However, its role and mechanism in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still not completely clear. The HepG2, Hep3B, Bel-7402 and HL-7702 cell lines were used in our experiments. Read More

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THADA drives Golgi residency and upregulation of PD-L1 in cancer cells and provides promising target for immunotherapy.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 Aug;9(8)

Zhongshan-Xuhui Hospital, Shanghai Xuhui Central Hospital, Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Medical Epigenetics, International Co-laboratory of Medical Epigenetics and Metabolism (Ministry of Science and Technology), Fudan University, Shanghai, China

Background: The abnormal upregulation of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in cancer cells inhibits T cell-mediated cytotoxicity, but the molecular mechanisms that drive and maintain PD-L1 expression are still incompletely understood.

Methods: Combined analyses of genomes and proteomics were applied to find potential regulators of PD-L1. In vitro experiments were performed to investigate the regulatory mechanism of PD-L1 by thyroid adenoma associated gene (THADA) using human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Read More

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A systemic approach to explore the mechanisms of drug resistance and altered signaling cascades in extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis.

Adv Protein Chem Struct Biol 2021 24;127:343-364. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

School of Biosciences and Technology, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:

Background And Aim: The persistence of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) continue to pose a significant challenge to the treatment and control of tuberculosis infections worldwide. XDR-MTB strains exhibit resistance against first-line anti-TB drugs, fluoroquinolones, and second-line injectable drugs. The mechanisms of drug resistance of MTB remains poorly understood. Read More

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CsrA Enhances Cyclic-di-GMP Biosynthesis and Yersinia pestis Biofilm Blockage of the Flea Foregut by Alleviating Hfq-Dependent Repression of the mRNA.

mBio 2021 Aug 3:e0135821. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Paul G. Allen School for Global Health, Washington State Universitygrid.30064.31, Pullman, Washington, USA.

Plague-causing Yersinia pestis is transmitted through regurgitation when it forms a biofilm-mediated blockage in the foregut of its flea vector. This biofilm is composed of an extracellular polysaccharide substance (EPS) produced when cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) levels are elevated. The Y. Read More

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The dCache Chemoreceptor TlpA of Helicobacter pylori Binds Multiple Attractant and Antagonistic Ligands via Distinct Sites.

mBio 2021 Aug 3:e0181921. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Santa Cruzgrid.205975.c, California, USA.

The Helicobacter pylori chemoreceptor TlpA plays a role in dampening host inflammation during chronic stomach colonization. TlpA has a periplasmic dCache_1 domain, a structure that is capable of sensing many ligands; however, the only characterized TlpA signals are arginine, bicarbonate, and acid. To increase our understanding of TlpA's sensing profile, we screened for diverse TlpA ligands using ligand binding arrays. Read More

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The trapping of methane on Ir(111): A first-principles quantum study.

Bret Jackson

J Chem Phys 2021 Jul;155(4):044705

Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003, USA.

We implement a fully quantum mechanical study of methane trapping on Ir(111), where the phonons, the molecule-surface interaction, and the molecule-phonon coupling are all computed from first-principles. We find that both the surface corrugation and the phonon coupling vary strongly with molecular orientation and that there is a "chemical" aspect to this due to the catalytic nature of the metal. For example, molecules with reactive orientations can approach close to surface sites with low barriers to dissociation. Read More

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