543,747 results match your criteria role health


The role of mood states in cyberbullying and cybervictimization behaviors in adolescents.

Psychiatry Res 2021 Apr 1;300:113908. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Educational Sciences, University of Catania, Italy; Department of Education Science, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

Cyberbullying is an intentional aggressive behavior repeatedly perpetrated by a single person or a group against a peer who can not easily defend, characterized by the use of electronic forms of contact. This phenomenon is a public health concern with serious implications for adolescents' mental health. We aimed to investigate the role of gender, age, and subjective self perceived mood states in cyberbullying and victimization (being a victim of cyberbullying) behaviors. Read More

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Ataxia telangiectasia mutated germline pathogenic variant in adrenocortical carcinoma.

Cancer Genet 2021 Mar 24;256-257:21-25. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Pediatric Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States; Developmental Therapeutics Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy arising from the adrenal cortex. ACC carries a dismal prognosis and surgery offers the only chance for a cure. Germline pathogenic variants among certain oncogenes have been implicated in ACC. Read More

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Nursing students' awareness and perceptions of nurses' role in antimicrobial stewardship.

Nurse Educ Pract 2021 Mar 24;52:103036. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Deakin University Geelong, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Centre for Quality and Patient Safety Research in the Institute for Health Transformation, Australia; Deakin University Geelong, Centre for Quality and Patient Safety Research, Epworth Healthcare Partnership, Australia.

Antimicrobial resistance is a major threat to public health worldwide. Antimicrobial stewardship programs and interventions aiming to optimise the use of antibiotics, are increasingly used to ensure judicious use of antibiotics and limit the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. Nurses are pivotal in antimicrobial stewardship however nursing students' awareness of such programs has not been investigated. Read More

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Psychoeducation for caregivers of patients with bipolar disorder-Lessons learned from a feasibility study.

J Affect Disord 2021 Mar 31;287:367-371. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

McGovern Medical School, Faillace Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, United States.

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and potential efficacy of a 7-week psychoeducation intervention implemented in a group setting. The intervention was based on Miklowitz's (2008) psychoeducation component of Family-Focused Therapy.

Method: This was a feasibility randomized controlled trial study using a 2-group design (intervention and wait-list control). Read More

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"I didn't want to say something and them to go outside and tell everyone": The acceptability of a dissonance-based body image intervention among adolescent girls in the UK.

Body Image 2021 Apr 6;38:80-84. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Centre for Appearance Research, University of the West of England, Bristol, BS16 1QY, United Kingdom.

Cognitive dissonance-based interventions (CDIs) have been well established as effective programs for the prevention of eating disorders. However, limited research has qualitatively explored adolescent girls experience of such interventions. The present study examined the acceptability of a cognitive dissonance-based body image intervention among adolescent girls in UK secondary schools. Read More

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The European Union, economies and public health: not one without the other.

Public Health 2021 Apr 6;194:1-3. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Cardiovascular Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Objectives: In this article, we aim to discuss the historical and current challenges facing public health in the European Union (EU) and present opportunities for the EU and Member States to maintain national public health ownership, supported by more substantial EU-level approaches building on existing legislation and practice.

Study Design: This is a descriptive study design.

Methods: A narrative review of the literature was performed and described. Read More

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Focused Role of Nanoparticles Against COVID-19: Diagnosis and Treatment.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2021 Apr 6:102287. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Pulau, Pinang, Malaysia.

The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV; severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)) has witnessed a rapid and global proliferation since its early identification in patients with severe pneumonia in Wuhan, China. As of 27th May 2020, 2019-nCoV cases have risen to >5 million, with confirmed deaths of 350,000. However, Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) diagnostic and treatment measures are yet to be fully unraveled, given the novelty of this particular coronavirus. Read More

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Connections between endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated unfolded protein response, mitochondria, and autophagy in arsenic-induced carcinogenesis.

Semin Cancer Biol 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Eugene Applebaum College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Wayne State University, 259 Mack Avenue, Detroit, MI, 48201, USA. Electronic address:

Arsenic exposure in contaminated drinking water is a global health issue, as more than 200 million people are affected globally. Arsenic has been known to cause skin, liver, lung, bladder and prostate cancers. Accordingly, it has been categorized as a group I human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Read More

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The moderating effect of place attachment on the relationship between economic status and well-being among the older adults in Japan.

Geriatr Nurs 2021 Apr 6;42(3):721-726. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan. Electronic address:

IKIGAI is culturally defined as a subjective evaluation of well-being in Japan and is believed to be an important factor in achieving a better life. This study determined the association between economic status and well-being using IKIGAI and the moderating effect of place attachment on their association among 499 older adults people over 65 years of age in Japan. The result of hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that lower economic status significantly decreased well-being. Read More

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Excess Mortality in Greece during 2020; the role of COVID-19 and Cardiovascular disease.

Hellenic J Cardiol 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Health Science and Education, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece.

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The role of monoamine oxidase enzymes in the pathophysiology of neurological disorders.

J Chem Neuroanat 2021 Apr 6:101957. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Anthropology and School of Biomedical Sciences, Kent State University, Kent, OH, USA; Brain Health Research Institute, Kent State University, Kent, OH, USA.

Although it has been nearly 100 years since the first description of monoamine oxidase, we are still learning about its role in the healthy brain and how it is altered in various disease states. The present review provides a survey of our current understanding of monoamine oxidases, with a focus on their contributions to neuropsychiatric, neurodevelopmental, and neurodegenerative disease. Important species differences in monoamine oxidase function and development in the brain are highlighted. Read More

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Serotonergic inhibition of responding for conditioned but not primary reinforcers.

Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2021 Apr 6:173186. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Global Institutes on Addictions, Miami, FL, United States of America.

Serotonin is widely implicated as a modulator of brain reward function. However, laboratory studies have not yielded a consensus on which specific reward-related processes are influenced by serotonin and in what manner. Here we explored the role of serotonin in cue-reward learning in mice. Read More

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Efficacy and safety of pembrolizumab in patients with advanced mesothelioma in the open-label, single-arm, phase 2 KEYNOTE-158 study.

Lancet Respir Med 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Background: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) has few treatment options. Pembrolizumab showed preliminary clinical benefit in programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1)-positive MPM. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of pembrolizumab monotherapy in patients with previously treated MPM irrespective of PD-L1 status in the KEYNOTE-158 study. Read More

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FGF-MAPK signaling regulates human deep-layer corticogenesis.

Stem Cell Reports 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

The Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia.

Despite heterogeneity across the six layers of the mammalian cortex, all excitatory neurons are generated from a single founder population of neuroepithelial stem cells. However, how these progenitors alter their layer competence over time remains unknown. Here, we used human embryonic stem cell-derived cortical progenitors to examine the role of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and Notch signaling in influencing cell fate, assessing their impact on progenitor phenotype, cell-cycle kinetics, and layer specificity. Read More

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Ablation of Mto1 in zebrafish exhibited hypertrophic cardiomyopathy manifested by mitochondrion RNA maturation deficiency.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Division of Medical Genetics and Genomics, The Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine and National Clinical Research Center for Child Health, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058, China.

Deficient maturations of mitochondrial transcripts are linked to clinical abnormalities but their pathophysiology remains elusive. Previous investigations showed that pathogenic variants in MTO1 for the biosynthesis of τm5U of tRNAGlu, tRNAGln, tRNALys, tRNATrp and tRNALeu(UUR) were associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Using mto1 knock-out(KO) zebrafish generated by CRISPR/Cas9 system, we demonstrated the pleiotropic effects of Mto1 deficiency on mitochondrial RNA maturations. Read More

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Faecalibacterium prausnitzii increases following fecal microbiota transplantation in recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection.

PLoS One 2021 9;16(4):e0249861. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Division of Clinical Microbiology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.

Objective: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a highly effective treatment for Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). However, the fecal transplant's causal components translating into clearance of the CDI are yet to be identified. The commensal bacteria Faecalibacterium prausnitzii may be of great interest in this context, since it is one of the most common species of the healthy gut microbiota and produces metabolites with anti-inflammatory properties. Read More

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Immune cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of Ugandan adults who resist versus those who develop latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

PLoS One 2021 9;16(4):e0249477. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Tuberculosis Research Unit and Division of Infectious Diseases, Case Western Reserve University and University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America.

Background: The search for immune correlates of protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection in humans is limited by the focus on peripheral blood measures. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) can safely be done and provides insight into cellular function in the lung where infection is first established. In this study, blood and lung samples were assayed to determine if heavily MTB exposed persons who resist development of latent MTB infection (RSTR) vs those who develop latent MTB infection (LTBI), differ in the make-up of resident BAL innate and adaptive immune cells. Read More

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Effects of TNFα receptor TNF-Rp55- or TNF-Rp75- deficiency on corneal neovascularization and lymphangiogenesis in the mouse.

PLoS One 2021 9;16(4):e0245143. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Ophthalmology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt- Universität zu Berlin and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany.

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α is an inflammatory cytokine likely to be involved in the process of corneal inflammation and neovascularization. In the present study we evaluate the role of the two receptors, TNF-receptor (TNF-R)p55 and TNF-Rp75, in the mouse model of suture-induced corneal neovascularization and lymphangiogenesis. Corneal neovascularization and lymphangiogenesis were induced by three 11-0 intrastromal corneal sutures in wild-type (WT) C57BL/6J mice and TNF-Rp55-deficient (TNF-Rp55d) and TNF-Rp75-deficient (TNF-Rp75d) mice. Read More

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The Role of Perioperative Chemotherapy in the Management of Colloid Carcinoma of the Pancreas.

Pancreas 2021 Mar;50(3):306-312

From the Division of Surgical Oncology, DeWitt Daughtry Family Department of Surgery.

Objectives: Colloid carcinoma (CC) of the pancreas is associated with an improved prognosis compared with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), yet studies on the optimal management of these rare lesions are lacking.

Methods: Patients with CC or PDAC treated from 2004 to 2014 were identified in the National Cancer Database. Clinicopathologic characteristics were compared between groups and stratified by disease stage. Read More

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Novel Predictors of Coronavirus Protective Behaviors among US adults: The role of trait reactance, conspiracy beliefs, and belief in the apocalypse.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Center for Health Communications Research, Rogel Cancer Center, University of Michigan, North Campus Research Complex, Building 162800 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, US.

Background: A central component of the public health strategy to control the 2019 Sars-CoV-2 (COVID-19) virus involves encouraging mask wearing and social distancing to protect individuals from acquiring and transmitting the virus.

Objective: Understanding the psychologic factors that drive adoption or rejection of these protective behaviors can inform public health interventions to control the pandemic.

Methods: We conducted an online survey of a representative sample of 1,074 U. Read More

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Atypical Pneumonia: Definition, Causes, and Imaging Features.

Radiographics 2021 Apr 9:200131. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

From the Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging (N.P.D., S.E., J.B.) and Department of Infectious Diseases and International Health (C.C.M.), University of Virginia Medical Center, 1215 Lee St, PO Box 800170, Charlottesville, VA 22908; and Department of Radiology, Hospital de Sant Pau-Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain (T.F.).

Pneumonia is among the most common causes of death worldwide. The epidemiologic and clinical heterogeneity of pneumonia results in challenges in diagnosis and treatment. There is inconsistency in the definition of the group of microorganisms that cause "atypical pneumonia. Read More

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Inhibition of Autophagy Does Not Affect Innate Cytokine Production in Human Lung Epithelial Cells During Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection.

Viral Immunol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia.

Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the major causes of childhood acute lower respiratory tract infection worldwide. Autophagy is an intracellular pathway involved in nutrient recycling. Recently, autophagy has been reported to play a role in regulating host cytokine response to several viruses, including vesicular stomatitis virus and human immunodeficiency virus. Read More

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Effectiveness of Fluoroquinolones with Difluoropyridine Derivatives as R1 Groups on the DNA Gyrase in the Presence and Absence of Plasmid-Encoded Quinolone Resistance Protein QnrB19.

Microb Drug Resist 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Division of Bioresources, Research Center for Zoonosis Control, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.

WQ-3810 has strong inhibitory activity against and other fluoroquinolone-resistant pathogens. The unique potentiality of this is attributed to 6-amino-3,5-difluoropyridine-2-yl at R1 group. The aim of this study was to examine WQ-3810 and its derivatives WQ-3334 and WQ-4065 as the new drug candidate for wild-type and that carrying QnrB19. Read More

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Impact of Previously Unrecognized HLA Mismatches Using Ultrahigh Resolution Typing in Unrelated Donor Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Apr 9:JCO2003643. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Anthony Nolan Research Institute, Royal Free Hospital, London, UK.

Purpose: Ultrahigh resolution (UHR) HLA matching is reported to result in better outcomes following unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation, improving survival and reducing post-transplant complications. However, most studies included relatively small numbers of patients. Here we report the findings from a large, multicenter validation study. Read More

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Health-Related Quality of Life With Trastuzumab Monotherapy Versus Trastuzumab Plus Standard Chemotherapy as Adjuvant Therapy in Older Patients With HER2-Positive Breast Cancer.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Apr 9:JCO2002751. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Biostatistics Division, Clinical Research Support Center, The University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Purpose: We report findings on quality of life (QoL) in the RESPECT trial, which compared adjuvant trastuzumab monotherapy with trastuzumab plus chemotherapy in older patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer (BC).

Patients And Methods: Patients age 70-80 years with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive surgically treated breast cancer were randomly assigned to receive trastuzumab (T) or trastuzumab plus chemotherapy (T + C). QoL was assessed using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G), Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Patient Neurotoxicity Questionnaire, and Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence at baseline and after 2, 12, and 36 months. Read More

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Tackling Diversity in Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials: A Report From the Diversity Working Group of the IRONMAN Registry.

JCO Glob Oncol 2021 Apr;7:495-505

Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL.

Prostate cancer disproportionately affects racial and ethnic minority populations. Reasons for disparate outcomes among minority patients are multifaceted and complex, involving factors at the patient, provider, and system levels. Although advancements in our understanding of disease biology have led to novel therapeutics for men with advanced prostate cancer, including the introduction of biomarker-driven therapeutics, pivotal translational studies and clinical trials are underrepresented by minority populations. Read More

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Impact of a Genomic Test on Treatment Decision in a Predominantly African American Population With Favorable-Risk Prostate Cancer: A Randomized Trial.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Apr 9:JCO2002997. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Pathology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL.

Purpose: The Genomic Prostate Score (GPS), performed on biopsy tissue, predicts adverse outcome in prostate cancer (PCa) and has shown promise for improving patient selection for active surveillance (AS). However, its impact on treatment choice in high-risk populations of African Americans is largely unknown and, in general, the effect of the GPS on this difficult decision has not been evaluated in randomized trials.

Methods: Two hundred men with National Comprehensive Cancer Network very low to low-intermediate PCa from three Chicago hospitals (70% Black, 16% college graduates) were randomly assigned at diagnosis to standard counseling with or without a 12-gene GPS assay. Read More

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Tryptophan Probes of TDP-43 C-Terminal Domain Amyloid Formation.

J Phys Chem B 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Laboratory of Protein Conformation and Dynamics, Biochemistry and Biophysics Center, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, United States.

Aggregated TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) forms the cytoplasmic hallmarks associated with patients suffering from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin. Under normal conditions, TDP-43 is a 414-amino acid protein; however, aggregates are enriched with N-terminal truncations which contain residues 267-414, known as the C-terminal domain of TDP-43 (TDP-43). To gain residue-specific information on the aggregation process of TDP-43, we created three single-Trp containing mutants (W385F/W412F, W334F/W412F, and W334F/W385F) by substituting two of the three native Trp residues with Phe, yielding fluorescent probes at W334, W385, and W412, respectively. Read More

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High phosphate impairs arterial endothelial function through AMPK-related pathways in mouse resistance arteries.

Acta Physiol (Oxf) 2021 Apr 20;231(4):e13595. Epub 2020 Dec 20.

Department of Physiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Aims: In patients with renal disease, high serum phosphate shows a relationship with cardiovascular risk. We speculate that high phosphate (HP) impairs arterial vasodilation via the endothelium and explore potential underlying mechanisms.

Methods: Isolated vessel relaxation, endothelial function, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), oxidative stress status and protein expression were assessed in HP diet mice. Read More

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