14,426 results match your criteria role covid-19

Perception of stress and cognitive efficiency in older adults with mild and moderate dementia during the COVID-19-related lockdown.

J Psychosom Res 2021 Jul 27;149:110584. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Geriatrics Division, Department of Medicine - DIMED, University of Padua, Italy. Electronic address:

Aim: Many studies have been carried out with the aim of understanding the manifold effects of the novel coronavirus (Covid-19) on individuals' clinical and psychological states. This paper deals with perceived stress (PS) and cognitive efficiency (CE) in older adults with dementia during the first wave of the pandemic. The study also investigated the potential effects of PS and CE on participants' cognitive functioning. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Spurious undermining of the adjuvant role of vitamin D in COVID-19.

Diabetes Metab Syndr 2021 Jul 23;15(5):102230. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Endocrinology, Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research, Kolkata, 700020, India.

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Potential protective role of the anti-PD-1 blockade against SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jul 28;142:111957. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Lab of Chemical Biology and Molecular Drug Design, College of Pharmaceutical Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014, China; Institute of Drug Development & Chemical Biology, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014, China. Electronic address:

The outbreak of Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, and its global dissemination became the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic declared by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 11 March 2020. In patients undergoing immunotherapy, the effect and path of viral infection remain uncertain. In addition, viral-infected mice and humans show T-cell exhaustion, which is identified after infection with SARS-CoV-2. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Antimicrobial stewardship in the ICU in COVID times: the known unknowns.

Int J Antimicrob Agents 2021 Jul 30:106409. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Division of Infectious Diseases, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Lebanon.

Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been concern about the concomitant rise of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). While bacterial co-infections seem rare in COVID-19 patients admitted to hospital wards and ICUs, an increase in empirical antibiotic use has been described. In the ICU setting, where antibiotics are already abundantly -and often inappropriately- prescribed, the need for an ICU specific Antimicrobial Stewardship Program (ASP) is widely advocated. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

"Bucket brigade" using lysine residues in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of SARS-CoV-2.

Biophys J 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Institute for Molecular Science, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Okazaki, Aichi 444-8787, Japan; Exploratory Research Center on Life and Living Systems (ExCELLS), National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Okazaki, Aichi 444-8787, Japan; Department of Structural Molecular Science, SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), Okazaki, Aichi 444-8787, Japan. Electronic address:

The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a promising drug target for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) because it plays the most important role in the replication of the RNA genome. Nucleotide analogs such as remdesivir and favipiravir are thought to interfere with the RNA replication by RdRp. More specifically, they are expected to compete with nucleoside triphosphates, such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Role of Solitary Activity in Moderating the Association between Social Isolation and Perceived Loneliness among U.S. Older Adults.

Ke Li Fengyan Tang

J Gerontol Soc Work 2021 Aug 2:1-19. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

School of Social Work, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Social isolation has been recognized as a critical public health problem. As the most vulnerable population, older adults are disproportionately affected by social isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic. The purposes of this study were to examine the association between social isolation and loneliness among U. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Infectious Bronchitis Virus Prevalence, Characterization, and Strain Identification in California Backyard Chickens.

Avian Dis 2021 Mar;65(1):188-197

California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, University of California, Davis, CA 95616,

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes significant losses in the poultry industry throughout the world. Here we characterize the lesions of infectious bronchitis (IB) and IBV prevalence and identify the circulating strains in small flocks in California. Backyard chickens (BYCs) submitted to the Davis (Northern California; NorCal) and San Bernardino (Southern California; SoCal) branches of the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System from January through March 2019 were included in the study. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

SARS-CoV-2 spike protein: pathogenesis, vaccines, and potential therapies.

Infection 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

College of Pharmacy, University of Sharjah, P.O. Box 27272, Sharjah, UAE.

Purpose: COVID-19 pandemic has emerged as a result of infection by the deadly pathogenic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), causing enormous threats to humans. Coronaviruses are distinguished by a clove-like spike (S) protein, which plays a key role in viral pathogenesis, evolutions, and transmission. The objectives of this study are to investigate the distinctive structural features of SARS-CoV-2 S protein, its essential role in pathogenesis, and its use in the development of potential therapies and vaccines. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Role of ACE2 in pregnancy and potential implications for COVID-19 susceptibility.

Clin Sci (Lond) 2021 Aug;135(15):1805-1824

Research Center of the Hospital Sacré-Coeur, CIUSSS Nord-de-l'Île-de-Montréal, Montréal, Canada.

In times of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-coronavirus (CoV)-2 infection on pregnancy is still unclear. The presence of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 2 (ACE2), the main receptor for SARS-CoV-2, in human placentas indicates that this organ can be vulnerable for viral infection during pregnancy. However, for this to happen, additional molecular processes are critical to allow viral entry in cells, its replication and disease manifestation, particularly in the placenta and/or feto-maternal circulation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Distance learning during the COVID-19 lockdown in Italy: The role of family, school, and individual factors.

Sch Psychol 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Developmental and Social Psychology.

School closure and distance learning during the COVID-19 pandemic have posed several challenges to children. Drawing upon the social-ecological framework, in this preliminary study, we tested what factors may help to explain students' difficulties with distance learning during COVID-19 lockdown, by analyzing family, school, and individual variables. The final sample included 183 Italian middle-school students (97 girls and 86 boys; = 11 years, 9 months; = 8 months; range: 11-14 years), who completed online surveys before the pandemic (November 2019) and during lockdown (May 2020). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

HLA genetic polymorphism in patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Midwestern United States.

HLA 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Division of Laboratory and Genomic Medicine, Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.

The experience of individuals with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) ranges from asymptomatic to life threatening multi-organ dysfunction. Specific HLA alleles may affect the predisposition to severe COVID-19 due to their role in presenting viral peptides to launch the adaptive immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In this population-based case-control study in the midwestern United States, we performed high-resolution HLA typing of 234 cases hospitalized for COVID-19 in the St. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Role of repeating quarantine instructions and healthy practices on COVID-19 patients and contacted persons to raise their awareness and adherence to quarantine instructions.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 Aug 2:e14694. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Clinical Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt.

Objective: This study aimed to develop a model evaluating the role of repeating quarantine instructions and healthy practices among COVID-19 patients and contact persons at-home quarantine and to evaluate the instructions' adequacy in decreasing the rate of disease spread with better clinical outcomes.

Methods: A structured questionnaire was distributed to COVID-19 patients (mild and moderate cases isolated at home) and contacting persons during May and June 2020. Data were collected using a structured online survey collected every five days for three times from each participant. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Plasma convalescent decrease mortality in COVID-19 patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2021 Jul;25(14):4841-4853

Division of Pulmonology and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran, Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung, Indonesia.

Objective: To investigate the role of Convalescent Plasma (CP) in reducing mortality of COVID-19 patients.

Materials And Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted from PubMed, Embase, Medrxiv, and Google Scholar from April and finalized in December 2020 using the following terms: covid-19, convalescent plasma, cp, ccp, copla. The studies were screened, extracted, and evaluated by two authors independently. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[The Legal Risks Faced in Nursing and Smart Healthcare].

Chia-Hsiu Chang

Hu Li Za Zhi 2021 Aug;68(4):23-31

PhD, RN, Assistant Professor, Department of Nursing, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Chiayi Campus, Taiwan, ROC.

Smart healthcare and telemedicine are shortening the gap in the quality of medical and healthcare available to urban and rural communities and allowing care to be provided free of space and time limitations. The COVID-19 pandemic has hastened the general adoption of telemedicine as a protocol in hospitals and healthcare and led to a rapid paradigm shift from medical expertise to telemedicine eHealth. Because nurses play a significant role as members of interdisciplinary teams, we are expected to quickly adapt to and use artificial intelligence and other new technology innovations. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Blockchain technologies to mitigate COVID-19 challenges: A scoping review.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed Update 2021 14;1:100001. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Division of Information and Computing Technology, College of Science and Engineering, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Qatar Foundation, Doha, Qatar.

As public health strategists and policymakers explore different approaches to lessen the devastating effects of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), blockchain technology has emerged as a resource that can be utilized in numerous ways. Many blockchain technologies have been proposed or implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic; however, to the best of our knowledge, no comprehensive reviews have been conducted to uncover and summarise the main feature of these technologies. This study aims to explore proposed or implemented blockchain technologies used to mitigate the COVID-19 challenges as reported in the literature. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

Genomic surveillance to combat COVID-19: challenges and opportunities.

Lancet Microbe 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Integrated Medical Science, Charles E. Schmidt College of Medicine, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL, USA.

Although the development and increasingly widespread availability of effective and safe vaccines provides the greatest hope for the future recovery from the increasingly devastating COVID-19 pandemic, there are other preventive efforts that offer an immediate route to decreasing morbidity and mortality. Genomic surveillance is emerging as a vital necessity to achieve effective mitigation and containment. Since SARS-CoV-2 variants have already been detected, it is crucial to obtain reliable evidence about whether they are more contagious, virulent, or more resistant to the available COVID-19 vaccines well before they spread throughout the world. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Utilising an Accelerated Delphi Process to Develop Guidance and Protocols for Telepresence Applications in Remote Robotic Surgery Training.

Eur Urol Open Sci 2020 Dec 6;22:23-33. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, Research Department of Targeted Intervention, University College London, London, UK.

Context: The role of robot-assisted surgery continues to expand at a time when trainers and proctors have travel restrictions during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.

Objective: To provide guidance on setting up and running an optimised telementoring service that can be integrated into current validated curricula. We define a standardised approach to training candidates in skill acquisition via telepresence technologies. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

Foundational Telemedicine Workshop for First-Year Medical Students Developed During a Pandemic.

MedEdPORTAL 2021 16;17:11171. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Associate Professor, Division of Palliative Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine.

Introduction: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic and the need for social distancing, medical education curricula across the country had to be quickly transitioned from in-person experiences to remote sessions. Simultaneously, use of telemedicine in clinical practice skyrocketed. Despite telemedicine expansion and the opportunity afforded to teach these skills virtually, many institutions lacked telemedicine curricula. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Emerging mutations in envelope protein of SARS-CoV-2 and their effect on thermodynamic properties.

Inform Med Unlocked 2021 27;25:100675. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Chongqing Medical and Pharmaceutical College, Chongqing, China.

Structural proteins of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are potential drug targets due to their role in the virus life cycle. The envelope (E) protein is one of the structural proteins; plays a critical role in virulency. However, the emergence of mutations oftenly leads to drug resistance and may also play a vital role in virus stabilization and evolution. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Hospital-Acquired Bloodstream Infections in Patients Hospitalized With Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Infection (Coronavirus Disease 2019): Association With Immunosuppressive Therapies.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2021 Jul 30;8(7):ofab339. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell Health, Manhasset, New York, USA.

Background: Immunosuppressive therapies proposed for Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) management may predispose to secondary infections. We evaluated the association of immunosuppressive therapies with bloodstream-infections (BSIs) in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.

Methods: This was an institutional review board-approved retrospective, multicenter, cohort study of adults hospitalized with COVID-19 over a 5-month period. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Missing Professional Perspective: Medical, Veterinary, and Dual Degree Public Health Student Perceptions of One Health.

Front Public Health 2021 15;9:704791. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

The Centre for Higher Education Studies, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom.

One Health (OH) is an important concept to design appropriate public health responses to emerging diseases such as COVID-19. How trainee health professionals understand this concept is important to its implementation. In this study, we explored how medical (MD), veterinary (DVM), and dual degree MD and DVM Master of Public Health (MPH) students define OH and its relevance to practice. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Family Cohesion and Stress Consequences Among Chinese College Students During COVID-19 Pandemic: A Moderated Mediation Model.

Front Public Health 2021 15;9:703899. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Center of Preschool Education, School of Education, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang, China.

Family plays a pivotal role in individuals' mental health. During the COVID-19 epidemic, people were being quarantined at home to prevent the further spread of the virus. Therefore, the influence of family on individuals is more significant than usual. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Case for Health Reparations.

Front Public Health 2021 8;9:664783. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States.

The disproportionate impact of COVID-19 on racially marginalized communities has again raised the issue of what justice in healthcare looks like. Indeed, it is impossible to analyze the meaning of the word justice in the medical context without first discussing the central role of racism in the American scientific and healthcare systems. In summary, we argue that physicians and scientists were the architects and imagination of the racial taxonomy and oppressive machinations upon which this country was founded. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Considerations for Monitoring School Health and Nutrition Programs.

Front Public Health 2021 16;9:645711. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Global Financing Facility, Health, Nutrition and Population Global Practice, World Bank, Washington, DC, United States.

School health and nutrition (SHN) interventions are among the most ubiquitous public health investments and comprise a key mechanism for reaching populations that are otherwise difficult to reach through the health system. Despite the critical role of monitoring these multisectoral programs to enable data-informed adaptive programming, information to guide program implementers is scant. This manuscript provides an overview of how monitoring indicators can be selected across a SHN program's logical framework, with specific examples across five SHN implementation models. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Pulmonary Embolism and Cardiac Tamponade in Critical Care Patients with COVID-19; Telemedicine's Role in Developing Countries: Case Reports and Literature Review.

Anesth Pain Med 2021 Apr 7;11(2):e113752. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Anesthesia Department, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Introduction: In this study, two cases that demonstrate the importance of bedside echocardiography and hands-off telemedicine technology for diagnosis and intervention in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are discussed.

Case Presentation: We report two cases of cardiac emergency associated with COVID-19. Case 1 is a 50-year-old female patient with chronic hypertension and chronic renal failure. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

On fractional approaches to the dynamics of a SARS-CoV-2 infection model including singular and non-singular kernels.

Behzad Ghanbari

Results Phys 2021 Sep 28;28:104600. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Basic Science, Kermanshah University of Technology, Kermanshah, Iran.

Covid-19 (2019-nCoV) disease has been spreading in China since late 2019 and has spread to various countries around the world. With the spread of the disease around the world, much attention has been paid to epidemiological knowledge. This knowledge plays a key role in understanding the pattern of disease transmission and how to prevent a larger population from contracting it. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Arabic Translation and Validation of Olfactory-Specific Quality of Life Assessment Questionnaire.

Cureus 2021 Jun 28;13(6):e16000. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, SAU.

Background:  Olfaction plays a critical role in our health, emotions, social life and safety, which is why olfactory dysfunction has a great impact on a person's life. This has been highlighted with the recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Despite Arabic being the fifth most commonly spoken language and one of the six official languages of the United Nations, there is no Arabic version for an olfactory-specific quality of life assessment tool. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Role of Information Technology in COVID-19 Vaccination Drive: An Analysis of the COVID-19 Global Beliefs, Behaviors, and Norms Survey.

Cureus 2021 Jun 25;13(6):e15922. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies at St. Augustine, St. Augustine, TTO.

With the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, information technology has played a critical role in healthcare. A broad spectrum of information technology tools and applications played an essential role to create awareness of the COVID-19 vaccination drive and its health benefits. Research conducted by Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in collaboration with information technology platforms like Facebook with inputs from World Health Organization (WHO), John Hopkins University (JHU), and Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network (GOARN) shows that 65. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A Review on Expression, Pathological Roles, and Inhibition of TMPRSS2, the Serine Protease Responsible for SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Activation.

Scientifica (Cairo) 2021 24;2021:2706789. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Pharmacy, Jagannath University, Dhaka 1100, Bangladesh.

SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, uses the host cell membrane receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) for anchoring its spike protein, and the subsequent membrane fusion process is facilitated by host membrane proteases. Recent studies have shown that transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), a protease known for similar role in previous coronavirus infections, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), is responsible for the proteolytic cleavage of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, enabling host cell fusion of the virus. TMPRSS2 is known to be expressed in the epithelial cells of different sites including gastrointestinal, respiratory, and genitourinary system. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The forgotten oral microbial transplantation for improving the outcomes of COVID-19.

New Microbes New Infect 2021 Jul 24:100923. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Clinical and Chemical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.

Ever since the uncovering of the severe discrepancy of COVID-19 manifestations, irrespective of viral load, scientists have raced to locate and manage factors contributing to the genesis of a critical state. Recent evidence delineates the role of oral dysbiosis in the development of low-grade inflammation, characterized by the increase of inflammatory cytokines common to those fundamental to the development of severe COVID. Furthermore, high periodontopathic bacteria were recorded in severe acute respiratory syndrome in COVID patients as well as its common provoking comorbidities such as diabetes and hypertension. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF