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Associations of treated and untreated human papillomavirus infection with preterm delivery and neonatal mortality: A Swedish population-based study.

PLoS Med 2021 May 10;18(5):e1003641. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Background: Treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery (PTD) although the exact pathomechanism is not yet understood. Women with untreated CIN also seem to have an increased risk of PTD. It is unclear whether this is attributable to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection or other factors. Read More

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Trajectories of cognitive function in community-dwelling older adults: A longitudinal study of population heterogeneity.

Alzheimers Dement (Amst) 2021 2;13(1):e12180. Epub 2021 May 2.

School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine Monash University Melbourne Australia.

Introduction: This study aimed to investigate cognitive aging trajectories, the associated sociodemographic characteristics, and the association of these trajectories with dementia.

Methods: Generally healthy older adults (n = 19,114) were followed for up to 7 years, with regular cognitive assessments. Group-based trajectory modeling identified distinct cognitive trajectories. Read More

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Heart failure in adults with congenital heart disease: a narrative review.

Cardiovasc Diagn Ther 2021 Apr;11(2):529-537

Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.

The number of adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) has increased over the last decades due to advancements in medical care, including interventional and surgical therapies. We are therefore more frequently challenged by the long-term consequences of palliative or corrective surgery carried out during childhood. Although patients with ACHD may develop conditions related to general cardiovascular risk factors, such as coronary artery disease, the most common complications leading to morbidity and mortality are arrhythmias, heart failure and thromboembolic events. Read More

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The emergence of pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy as a palliative treatment option for patients with diffuse peritoneal metastases: a narrative review.

J Gastrointest Oncol 2021 Apr;12(Suppl 1):S259-S270

Department of Surgery, Catharina Hospital, Eindhoven, the Netherlands.

Pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy (PIPAC) is an emerging palliative treatment for patients with unresectable peritoneal metastases. Potential advantages of PIPAC over current treatment options are a homogeneous intraperitoneal distribution, low local and systemic toxicity, and enhanced tumour penetration. Given these possible benefits, PIPAC is increasingly implemented in many centres worldwide. Read More

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Clinical Features Observed in General Practice Associated With the Subsequent Diagnosis of Progressive Supranuclear Palsy.

Front Neurol 2021 22;12:637176. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Neurology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder that is difficult for primary care physicians to recognize due to its progressive nature and similarities to other neurologic disorders. This case-control study aimed to identify clinical features observed in general practice associated with a subsequent diagnosis of PSP. We analyzed a de-identified dataset of 152 PSP cases and 3,122 matched controls from electronic medical records of general practices in Germany. Read More

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Risk Factors for Complications and Revision Surgery after Anatomic and Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Exactech, 2320 NW 66(th) Court, Gainesville, FL 32653, USA.

Background: Complications and revisions following anatomic (aTSA) and reverse (rTSA) total shoulder arthroplasty have deleterious effects on patient function and satisfaction. The purpose of this study is to evaluate patient-specific, implant-specific and technique-specific risk factors for intra-operative complications, postoperative complications, and the occurrence of revisions after aTSA and rTSA.

Methods: A total of 2964 aTSA and 5616 rTSA patients were enrolled in an international database of primary shoulder arthroplasty. Read More

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Identification of distinct clinical subphenotypes in critically ill patients with COVID-19.

Chest 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Center for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA; Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Division, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

Background: Subphenotypes have been identified in patients with sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and are associated with different outcomes and response to therapies.

Research Question: Can unique subphenotypes be identified among critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

Study Design: & Methods: Using data from a multicenter cohort study that enrolled critically ill patients with COVID-19 from 67 hospitals across the United States, we randomly divided centers into Discovery and Replication cohorts. We utilized latent class analysis independently in each cohort to identify subphenotypes based on clinical and laboratory variables. Read More

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Immune adverse events (irAEs) with adjuvant ipilimumab in melanoma, use of immunosuppressants and association with outcome: ECOG-ACRIN E1609 study analysis.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 May;9(5)

UPMC Hillman Cancer Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Background: The impact of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) occurring from adjuvant use of immunotherapy and of their management on relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) outcomes is currently not well understood.

Patients And Methods: E1609 enrolled 1673 patients with resected high-risk melanoma and evaluated adjuvant ipilimumab 3 mg/kg (ipi3) and 10 mg/kg (ipi10) versus interferon-α. We investigated the association of irAEs and of use of immunosuppressants with RFS and OS for patients treated with ipilimumab (n=1034). Read More

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Metabolic syndrome and Growth Differentiation Factor 15 in older adults.

Geroscience 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid/Idipaz, Calle del Arzobispo Morcillo 4, 28029, Madrid, Spain.

Growth Differentiation Factor 15 (GDF-15) is a cytokine produced in response to tissue injury and inflammatory states that may capture distinct pathways between the risk factors aggregated within metabolic syndrome (MS) and the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This work aims to study the association of MS and its components with GDF-15 among older adults, examining the roles of body fat distribution, glucose metabolism, and inflammation. Data were taken from the Seniors-ENRICA-2 study in Spain, which included 1938 non-institutionalized individuals aged ≥65 years free of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Read More

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Progesterone promotes immunomodulation and tumor development in the murine mammary gland.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 May;9(5)

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas, USA

Background: Clinical studies have linked usage of progestins (synthetic progesterone [P4]) to breast cancer risk. However, little is understood regarding the role of native P4, signaling through the progesterone receptor (PR), in breast tumor formation. Recently, we reported a link between PR and immune signaling pathways, showing that P4/PR can repress type I interferon signaling pathways. Read More

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Drug Metab Dispos 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Genentech, A Member of the Roche Group, United States

Accurately predicting the pharmacokinetics of compounds that are transporter substrates has been notoriously challenging using traditional in vitro systems and physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. The objective of this study was to use PBPK modeling to understand the translational accuracy of data generated with human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cells overexpressing the hepatic uptake transporters OATP1B1/3 with and without plasma, while accounting for transporter expression. Models of four OATP substrates, two with low protein binding (pravastatin and rosuvastatin) and two with high protein binding (repaglinide and pitavastatin) were explored, and the OATP in vitro data generated in plasma incubations were utilized for a plasma model, and in buffer incubations for a buffer model. Read More

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Progesterone levels on the human chorionic gonadotropin trigger day affect the pregnancy rates for embryos transferred at different stages of development in both general and selected IVF/ICSI populations.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2021 May 6;21(1):363. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Gynecology, Obstetrics and Reproductive Medicine, Brest University Hospital, 2 avenue Foch, F-29200, Brest, France.

Background: Two meta-analyses have shown that pregnancy and birth rates are significantly higher after blastocyst transfer than after cleaved embryo transfer. Other studies have revealed that a serum progesterone level > 1.5 ng/ml on the trigger day is responsible for premature luteinization and is associated with a low pregnancy rate. Read More

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Impact of different SARS-CoV-2 assays on laboratory turnaround time.

J Med Microbiol 2021 May;70(5)

Institute of Microbiology, University Hospital Center and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Clinical microbiology laboratories have had to cope with an increase in the volume of tests due to the emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Short turnaround times (TATs) are important for case tracing and to help clinicians in patient management. In such a context, high-throughput systems are essential to process the bulk of the tests. Read More

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Multigene tests for breast cancer: the physician's perspective.

Oncotarget 2021 Apr 27;12(9):936-947. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Emeritus, Department of Oncology, ASST Bergamo Ovest, Treviglio, Bergamo, Italy.

Breast cancer is the most common tumour in women and the first cause of death for cancer in the female population. Preserving the quality of life has therefore become an important objective in the management of the disease. The benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with HR+ HER2- early breast cancer should always be balanced against its potential short and long-term adverse effects, and identifying the appropriate patients for whom chemotherapy can offer the highest clinical benefit is critical. Read More

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Off-Patent Biological and Biosimilar Medicines in Belgium: A Market Landscape Analysis.

Front Pharmacol 2021 19;12:644187. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Best-value biological medicines may generate competition in the off-patent biologicals market, resulting in having more resources available to provide patients with access to necessary medicines while maintaining high-quality care. Belgium is a country known to have low biosimilar market shares, suggesting a malfunctioning market for off-patent biologicals. This study aims to gain an in-depth understanding of the Belgian off-patent biologicals market, by looking at the evolution in volumes and costs of the relevant products in the market. Read More

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New developments in locally advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer.

Eur Respir Rev 2021 Jun 5;30(160). Epub 2021 May 5.

Dept of Radiation Oncology and Palliative Medicine, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.

Locally advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer, due to its varying prognosis, is grouped according to TNM stage IIIA, IIIB and IIIC. Developments over the last 3 years have been focused on the integration of immunotherapy into the combination treatment of a locally definitive therapy (surgery or radiotherapy) and chemotherapy. For concurrent chemoradiotherapy, consolidation therapy with durvalumab was established. Read More

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Progress and trends in publication of oral and video presentations at the society of gynecologic oncology annual meeting from 2006 to 2016.

Gynecol Oncol Rep 2021 May 16;36:100758. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, United States.

Previous research has identified factors associated with publication of plenary presentations at the Society of Gynecologic Oncology annual meeting. However, there are no detailed comprehensive trends analyses on the publications of these oral and video presentations over time. In this analysis of 11 annual meetings, we found an increase in clinical rather than translational science publications over time. Read More

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Predictors of Cognitive Performance Among Infants Treated for Brain Tumors: Findings From a Multisite, Prospective, Longitudinal Trial.

J Clin Oncol 2021 May 4:JCO2001687. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Psychology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN.

Purpose: Infants treated for CNS malignancies experience a significantly poorer response to treatment and are particularly at risk for neuropsychological deficits. The literature is limited and inconsistent regarding cognitive outcomes among this group. We investigated predictors of cognitive outcomes in children treated for brain tumors during infancy as part of a large, prospective, multisite, longitudinal trial. Read More

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Drastic reduction of orthopaedic services at an urban tertiary hospital in South Africa during COVID-19: Lessons for the future response to the pandemic.

S Afr Med J 2021 03 2;111(3):240-244. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Orthopaedic Research Unit, Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa; Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa; Wellcome Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Africa (CIDRI-Africa), Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted on the global surgery landscape.

Objectives: To analyse and describe the initial impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on orthopaedic surgery at Groote Schuur Hospital, a tertiary academic hospital in South Africa.

Methods: The number of orthopaedic surgical cases, emergency theatre patient waiting times, and numbers of outpatient clinic visits, ward admissions, bed occupancies and total inpatient days for January - April 2019 (pre-COVID-19) were compared with the same time frame in 2020 (COVID-19). Read More

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Rare lymphomas in routine practice - Treatment and outcome in marginal zone lymphoma in the prospective German Tumour Registry Lymphatic Neoplasms.

Hematol Oncol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Praxis für interdisziplinäre Onkologie & Hämatologie, Freiburg, Germany.

Owing to its heterogeneity and rarity, management of disseminated marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (MZL) remains largely understudied. We present prospective data on choice of systemic treatment and survival of patients with MZL treated in German routine practice. Of 175 patients with MZL who had been documented in the prospective clinical cohort study Tumour Registry Lymphatic Neoplasms (NCT00889798) collecting data on systemic treatment, 58 were classified as extranodal MZL of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) and 117 as non-MALT MZL. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases: the Euro-COVIMID multicentre cross-sectional study.

Lancet Rheumatol 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Sorbonne Université, Pierre Louis Institute of Epidemiology and Public Health, Inserm UMR 1136, Paris, France.

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has raised numerous questions among patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases regarding potential reciprocal effects of COVID-19 and their underlying disease, and potential effects of immunomodulatory therapy on outcomes related to COVID-19. The seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 and factors associated with symptomatic COVID-19 in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases are still unclear. The Euro-COVIMID study aimed to determine the serological and clinical prevalence of COVID-19 among patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, as well as factors associated with COVID-19 occurrence and the impact of the pandemic in its management. Read More

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Fatigue in newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia: general population comparison and predictive factors.

BMJ Support Palliat Care 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Medical Social Sciences, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA

Objectives: This study compared the burden of fatigue between treatment-naïve patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and the general population and investigated patient factors associated with fatigue severity.

Methods: Pretreatment patient-reported fatigue was assessed with the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue questionnaire in a sample of 463 newly diagnosed patients with AML who were enrolled in a clinical trial. Multivariable linear regression models were used to estimate the adjusted mean differences in fatigue between patients with AML and adults from the general population (n=847) by AML disease risk categories. Read More

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Inappropriate intensification of glucose-lowering treatment in older patients with type 2 diabetes: the global DISCOVER study.

BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care 2021 May;9(1)

Institute for Biometrics and Epidemiology, German Diabetes Center Leibniz Institute for Diabetes Research at Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Dusseldorf, Germany.

Introduction: Although individualized target glycated hemoglobin (HbA) levels are recommended in older people with type 2 diabetes, studies report high levels of potential overtreatment. We aimed to investigate the proportion of older patients (aged ≥65 years) who potentially received an inappropriately intensive treatment (HbA level <7.0% (53. Read More

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Fruit and vegetable intake is inversely associated with perceived stress across the adult lifespan.

Clin Nutr 2021 Apr 15;40(5):2860-2867. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Institute for Nutrition Research, School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia; Medical School, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia; Centre for Kidney Research, Children's Hospital at Westmead, School of Public Health, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Background & Aims: Poor nutritional habits are linked to higher perceived stress, but the relationship between fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and stress is uncertain. The primary aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the relationship between FV intake and perceived stress in a population-based cohort of men and women aged ≥25 years from the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (AusDiab) Study. A secondary aim was to investigate the relationship between serum carotenoids, biomarkers of FV intake, and perceived stress. Read More

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Impact of completeness of adjuvant gemcitabine, relapse pattern, and subsequent therapy on outcome of patients with resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma - A pooled analysis of CONKO-001, CONKO-005, and CONKO-006 trials.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Apr 29;150:250-259. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Charité University Medicine Berlin, Department of Hematology, Oncology, and Tumorimmunology, CVK, Berlin, Germany; University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Hematology and Oncology, Hamburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) represents one of the most fatal malignancies worldwide. It is suggested that survival in PDAC depends, among other things, on pattern of disease recurrence.

Patients And Methods: We performed a pooled analysis of the adjuvant therapy studies CONKO-001, CONKO-005, and CONKO-006, including a total of 912 patients with regard to prognostic factors in patients with recurrent disease. Read More

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Mortality and AIDS-defining events among young people following transition from paediatric to adult HIV care in the UK.

HIV Med 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

MRC Clinical Trials Unit at UCL, University College London (UCL), London, UK.

Objectives: To investigate risk of AIDS and mortality after transition from paediatric to adult care in a UK cohort of young people with perinatally acquired HIV.

Methods: Records of people aged ≥ 13 years on 31 December 2015 in the UK paediatric HIV cohort (Collaborative HIV Paediatric Study) were linked to those of adults in the UK Collaborative HIV Cohort (CHIC) cohort. We calculated time from transition to a new AIDS event/death, with follow-up censored at the last visit or 31 December 2015, whichever was the earliest. Read More

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Appropriate Systemic Therapy Dosing for Obese Adult Patients With Cancer: ASCO Guideline Update.

J Clin Oncol 2021 May 3:JCO2100471. Epub 2021 May 3.

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and University of Washington, Seattle, WA.

Purpose: To provide recommendations for appropriate dosing of systemic antineoplastic agents in obese adults with cancer.

Methods: A systematic review of the literature collected evidence regarding dosing of chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapies in obese adults with cancer. PubMed and the Cochrane Library were searched for randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, or cohort studies published from November 1, 2010, through March 27, 2020. Read More

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Locus of Control and Negative Cognitive Styles in Adolescence as Risk Factors for Depression Onset in Young Adulthood: Findings From a Prospective Birth Cohort Study.

Front Psychol 2021 25;12:599240. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Centre for Academic Mental Health at the University of Bristol, Oakfield House, Bristol, United Kingdom.

Whilst previous observational studies have linked negative thought processes such as an external locus of control and holding negative cognitive styles with depression, the directionality of these associations and the potential role that these factors play in the transition to adulthood and parenthood has not yet been investigated. This study examined the association between locus of control and negative cognitive styles in adolescence and probable depression in young adulthood and whether parenthood moderated these associations. Using a UK prospective population-based birth cohort study: the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), we examined the association between external locus of control and negative cognitive styles in adolescence with odds of depression in 4,301 young adults using logistic regression models unadjusted and adjusted for potential confounding factors. Read More

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Bone marrow toxicity and immune reconstitution in melanoma and non-melanoma solid cancer patients after non-myeloablative conditioning with chemotherapy and checkpoint inhibition.

Cytotherapy 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

National Center for Cancer Immune Therapy, Department of Oncology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, Denmark. Electronic address:

Background Aims: Lymphodepletion with non-myeloablative (NMA) chemotherapy is currently a prerequisite for adoptive cell therapy (ACT). ACT based on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes has long been used in malignant melanoma (MM), but with the advance of ACT into new cancer diagnoses, the patient predisposition will change. The authors here evaluate the bone marrow (BM) toxicity of NMA in combination with checkpoint inhibition and a priori risk factors in a wide range of cancer diagnoses. Read More

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Determinants of enhanced vulnerability to coronavirus disease 2019 in UK patients with cancer: a European study.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Apr 6;150:190-202. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Policlinico Universitario Campus Bio-Medico, Rome, Italy.

Background: Despite high contagiousness and rapid spread, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to heterogeneous outcomes across affected nations. Within Europe (EU), the United Kingdom (UK) is the most severely affected country, with a death toll in excess of 100,000 as of January 2021. We aimed to compare the national impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on the risk of death in UK patients with cancer versus those in continental EU. Read More

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