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The microbiota of healthy dogs demonstrates individualized responses to synbiotic supplementation in a randomized controlled trial.

Anim Microbiome 2021 May 10;3(1):36. Epub 2021 May 10.

NomNomNow Inc, Nashville, TN, 37207, USA.

Background: Probiotics have been demonstrated to ameliorate clinical signs of gastrointestinal diseases in dogs in various studies. However, the effect of probiotics in a healthy population, as well as factors contributing individualized responses, remain largely unknown. This trial examined gut microbiota (GM) and health outcomes in household dogs after synbiotic (SN) supplementation containing probiotics and inulin (a prebiotic). Read More

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Lipoprotein(a) is robustly associated with aortic valve calcium.

Heart 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

Objectives: To investigate the prevalence and quantity of aortic valve calcium (AVC) in two large cohorts, stratified according to age and lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)), and to assess the association between Lp(a) and AVC.

Methods: We included 2412 participants from the population-based Rotterdam Study (52% women, mean age=69.6±6. Read More

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IGFBP-2 partly mediates the early metabolic improvements caused by bariatric surgery.

Cell Rep Med 2021 Apr 20;2(4):100248. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Centre de recherche de l'Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Québec-Université Laval, Québec, QC, Canada.

Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP)-2 is a circulating biomarker of cardiometabolic health. Here, we report that circulating IGFBP-2 concentrations robustly increase after different bariatric procedures in humans, reaching higher levels after biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD-DS) than after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG). This increase is closely associated with insulin sensitization. Read More

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Targeting autocrine amphiregulin robustly and reproducibly inhibits ovarian cancer in a syngeneic model: roles for wildtype p53.

Oncogene 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Departments of Biological Regulation, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel.

Ovarian cancer (OvCA) remains one of the most devastating malignancies, but treatment options are still limited. We report that amphiregulin (AREG) can serve as an effective and safe pharmacological target in a syngeneic murine model. AREG is highly abundant in abdominal fluids of patients with advanced OvCa. Read More

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Relationship between Sport-Related Concussion and Sleep Based on Self-Report and Commercial Actigraph Measurement.

Neurotrauma Rep 2021 26;2(1):214-223. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Neurosurgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee Wisconsin, USA.

Sleep-wake disturbance (SWD) results from sport-related concussion (SRC) and may increase risk of protracted post-injury symptoms. However, methodological limitations in the extant literature limit our understanding of the role of SWD in SRC. This study examined the association between acute/subacute SRC and two sleep behaviors-sleep duration and efficiency-as measured by self-report and commercially available actigraphy (CA) in a sample of football players enrolled in a larger prospective longitudinal study of concussion. Read More

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Automated Quantitative Analysis of Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability Using Intellesis Machine-Learning.

Front Neurosci 2021 16;15:617221. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.

Background: An increase in blood brain barrier permeability commonly precedes neuro-inflammation and cognitive impairment in models of dementia. Common methods to estimate capillary permeability have potential confounders, or require laborious and subjective semi-manual analysis.

New Method: Here we used snap frozen mouse and rat brain sections that were double-immunofluorescent labeled for immunoglobulin G (IgG; plasma protein) and laminin-α4 (capillary basement membrane). Read More

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Childhood socioeconomic status is associated with psychometric intelligence and microstructural brain development.

Commun Biol 2021 Apr 29;4(1):470. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Division of Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan.

Childhood socioeconomic status is robustly associated with various children's cognitive factors and neural mechanisms. Here we show the association of childhood socioeconomic status with psychometric intelligence and mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy using diffusion tensor imaging at the baseline experiment (N = 285) and longitudinal changes in these metrics after 3.0 ± 0. Read More

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A Comparative Analysis of Erythropoietin and Carbamoylated Erythropoietin Proteome Profiles.

Life (Basel) 2021 Apr 19;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD 57069, USA.

In recent years, erythropoietin (EPO) has emerged as a useful neuroprotective and neurotrophic molecule that produces antidepressant and cognitive-enhancing effects in psychiatric disorders. However, EPO robustly induces erythropoiesis and elevates red blood cell counts. Chronic administration is therefore likely to increase blood viscosity and produce adverse effects in non-anemic populations. Read More

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An Improved Method for Stable Feature Points Selection in Structure-from-Motion Considering Image Semantic and Structural Characteristics.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Apr 1;21(7). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

College of Geodesy and Geomatics, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, China.

Feature matching plays a crucial role in the process of 3D reconstruction based on the structure from motion (SfM) technique. For a large collection of oblique images, feature matching is one of the most time-consuming steps, and the matching result directly affects the accuracy of subsequent tasks. Therefore, how to extract the reasonable feature points robustly and efficiently to improve the matching speed and quality has received extensive attention from scholars worldwide. Read More

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Sirtuin 1 is not required for contraction-stimulated glucose uptake in mouse skeletal muscle.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California, San Diego, United States.

While it has long been known that contraction robustly stimulates skeletal muscle glucose uptake, the molecular steps regulating this increase remain incompletely defined. The mammalian ortholog of Sir2, sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), is an NAD-dependent protein deacetylase that is thought to link perturbations in energy flux associated with exercise to subsequent cellular adaptations. Nevertheless, its role in contraction-stimulated glucose uptake has not been described. Read More

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How is epigenetics predicted to contribute to climate change adaptation? What evidence do we need?

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2021 Jun 19;376(1826):20200119. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne 3800, Australia.

Transgenerational effects that are interpreted in terms of epigenetics have become an important research focus at a time when rapid environmental changes are occurring. These effects are usually interpreted as enhancing fitness extremely rapidly, without depending on the slower process of natural selection changing DNA-encoded (fixed) genetic variants in populations. Supporting evidence comes from a variety of sources, including environmental associations with epialleles, cross-generation responses of clonal material exposed to different environmental conditions, and altered patterns of methylation or frequency changes in epialleles across time. Read More

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Provider communication and HPV vaccine uptake: A meta-analysis and systematic review.

Prev Med 2021 Apr 20;148:106554. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Health Behavior, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, United States of America; Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, United States of America. Electronic address:

Provider communication can be critically important to families as they consider HPV vaccination. We sought to characterize the association of provider communication and HPV vaccine uptake, and when communication better motivates vaccination. We searched four databases for studies published between 2006 and 2019. Read More

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Nucleosome composition regulates the histone H3 tail conformational ensemble and accessibility.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 May;49(8):4750-4767

Department of Biochemistry, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA.

Hexasomes and tetrasomes are intermediates in nucleosome assembly and disassembly. Their formation is promoted by histone chaperones, ATP-dependent remodelers, and RNA polymerase II. In addition, hexasomes are maintained in transcribed genes and could be an important regulatory factor. Read More

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Inflammatory profile in a canine model of hypothermic circulatory arrest.

J Surg Res 2021 Apr 8;264:260-273. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Hugo W. Moser Research Institute at Kennedy Krieger, Baltimore, Maryland; Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Background: Hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA) is a technique used for complex repair of the aorta, but it can be associated with neurologic morbidity. To better understand the molecular changes that underlie ischemic brain injury, we assessed gene expression and cytokine/chemokine polypeptide concentration in brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of canines that underwent two hours of HCA.

Materials And Methods: Adult male canines were cannulated peripherally for cardiopulmonary bypass, cooled to 18°C, and arrested for two hours. Read More

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Airborne Benzo[a]Pyrene may contribute to divergent Pheno-Endotypes in children.

Environ Health 2021 Apr 9;20(1):40. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Genetic Toxicology and Nanotoxicology, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic.

Background: Asthma represents a syndrome for which our understanding of the molecular processes underlying discrete sub-diseases (i.e., endotypes), beyond atopic asthma, is limited. Read More

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Randomised controlled feasibility trial of an active communication education programme plus hearing aid provision versus hearing aid provision alone (ACE To HEAR).

BMJ Open 2021 Apr 7;11(4):e043364. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Leeds Institute of Cardiovascular & Metabolic Medicine, Univerity of Leeds, Leeds, UK.

Objective: To establish the acceptability and feasibility of delivering the Active Communication Education (ACE) programme to increase quality of life through improving communication and hearing aid use in the UK National Health Service.

Design: Randomised controlled, open feasibility trial with embedded economic and process evaluations.

Setting: Audiology departments in two hospitals in two UK cities. Read More

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Inhibition of PTEN Ameliorates Secondary Hippocampal Injury and Cognitive Deficits after Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Involvement of AKT/FoxO3a/ATG-Mediated Autophagy.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 18;2021:5472605. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Department of Neurosurgery, Tangshan Gongren Hospital, Tangshan 063000, China.

Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) commonly causes secondary hippocampal damage and delayed cognitive impairments, but the mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we sought to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying these hemorrhagic outcomes in a rat autologous blood model of ICH. First, a significant increase in phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression was observed in nonhemorrhagic ipsilateral hippocampus. Read More

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January 2021

Novel methodology to assess the effect of contouring variation on treatment outcome.

Med Phys 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Division of Cancer Studies - School of Medical Sciences - Faculty of Biology- Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, M20 4BX, UK.

Purpose: Contouring variation is one of the largest systematic uncertainties in radiotherapy, yet its effect on clinical outcome has never been analyzed quantitatively. We propose a novel, robust methodology to locally quantify target contour variation in a large patient cohort and find where this variation correlates with treatment outcome. We demonstrate its use on biochemical recurrence for prostate cancer patients. Read More

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Longitudinal Lung Volume Changes by Ultrastructure and Genotype in Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia.

Ann Am Thorac Soc 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Pisa University Hospital, 9257, Pediatrics, Pisa, Italy.

Rationale: Genotype-phenotype relationships are emerging in primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), but little is known about lung volume changes over time.

Objectives: To investigate evolution of static lung volumes with ultrastructural defects, gene mutations, BMI, and specific infections in PCD.

Methods: Prospective, longitudinal, single-center study in children and adults evaluated twice yearly for up to 10 years. Read More

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Influence of RFC1 c.80A>G Polymorphism on Methotrexate-Mediated Toxicity and Therapeutic Efficacy in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Meta-analysis.

Ann Pharmacother 2021 Mar 22:10600280211002053. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Research Chair for Biomedical Application of Nanomaterials, Biochemistry Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Methotrexate (MTX) is an antirheumatic drug, transported by reduced folate carrier-1 (RFC1). The most common RFC1 gene variant, c.80 A>G (rs1051266) is ambiguously linked to adverse effects of MTX therapy in some rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Read More

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Cardiac response to adrenergic stress differs by sex and across the lifespan.

Geroscience 2021 Mar 2. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Division of Kinesiology and Health, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY, USA.

The aging heart is well-characterized by a diminished responsiveness to adrenergic activation. However, the precise mechanisms by which age and sex impact adrenergic-mediated cardiac function remain poorly described. In the current investigation, we compared the cardiac response to adrenergic stress to gain mechanistic understanding of how the response to an adrenergic challenge differs by sex and age. Read More

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PKA-RIIβ autophosphorylation modulates PKA activity and seizure phenotypes in mice.

Commun Biol 2021 Mar 1;4(1):263. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, China.

Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is one of the most common and intractable neurological disorders in adults. Dysfunctional PKA signaling is causally linked to the TLE. However, the mechanism underlying PKA involves in epileptogenesis is still poorly understood. Read More

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The Paradoxical Behavior of microRNA-211 in Melanomas and Other Human Cancers.

Front Oncol 2020 8;10:628367. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Cancer & Blood Disorder Institute, Johns Hopkins All Children's Hospital, South, St. Petersburg, FL, United States.

Cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis leverage many regulatory agents, such as signaling molecules, transcription factors, and regulatory RNA molecules. Among these, regulatory non-coding RNAs have emerged as molecules that control multiple cancer types and their pathologic properties. The human microRNA-211 (MIR211) is one such molecule, which affects several cancer types, including melanoma, glioblastoma, lung adenocarcinomas, breast, ovarian, prostate, and colorectal carcinoma. Read More

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February 2021

Is speech and language therapy effective at improving the communication of adults with intellectual disabilities?: A systematic review.

Int J Lang Commun Disord 2021 Mar 23;56(2):435-450. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Division of Rehabilitation and Ageing, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.

Background: A significant proportion of adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) experience speech, language and communication difficulties which are associated with poor physical and mental health outcomes. Speech and language therapy (SLT) interventions are an important way to address these communication difficulties, yet there is limited available evidence to provide information about the effectiveness of the different approaches used for this heterogeneous group.

Aims: To review the evidence available for the effectiveness of SLT interventions aimed at improving communication for adults with ID. Read More

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Strategically overconfident (to a fault): How self-promotion motivates advisor confidence.

Authors:
Alex B Van Zant

J Appl Psychol 2021 Feb 22. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Management & Global Business, Rutgers Business School-Newark and New Brunswick, Rutgers University.

Unlike judgments made in private, advice contexts invoke strategic social concerns that might increase overconfidence in advice. Many scholars have assumed that overconfident advice emerges as an adaptive response to advice seekers' preference for confident advice and failure to punish overconfidence. However, another possibility is that advisors robustly display overconfidence as a self-promotion tactic-even when it is punished by others. Read More

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February 2021

Alzheimer's Risk Gene TREM2 Determines Functional Properties of New Type of Human iPSC-Derived Microglia.

Front Immunol 2020 3;11:617860. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Roche Pharma Research and Early Development, Neuroscience and Rare Diseases Discovery and Translational Area, Roche Innovation Center Basel, F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Basel, Switzerland.

Microglia are key in the homeostatic well-being of the brain and microglial dysfunction has been implicated in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Due to the many limitations to study microglia or isolated for large scale drug discovery applications, there is a high need to develop robust and scalable human cellular models of microglia with reliable translatability to the disease. Here, we describe the generation of microglia-like cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) with distinct phenotypes for mechanistic studies in AD. Read More

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February 2021

Development of genome-wide polygenic risk scores for lipid traits and clinical applications for dyslipidemia, subclinical atherosclerosis, and diabetes cardiovascular complications among East Asians.

Genome Med 2021 Feb 19;13(1):29. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Background: The clinical utility of personal genomic information in identifying individuals at increased risks for dyslipidemia and cardiovascular diseases remains unclear.

Methods: We used data from Biobank Japan (n = 70,657-128,305) and developed novel East Asian-specific genome-wide polygenic risk scores (PRSs) for four lipid traits. We validated (n = 4271) and subsequently tested associations of these scores with 3-year lipid changes in adolescents (n = 620), carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in adult women (n = 781), dyslipidemia (n = 7723), and coronary heart disease (CHD) (n = 2374 cases and 6246 controls) in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. Read More

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February 2021

Metabolic signatures of genetically elevated vitamin D among Chinese: observational and Mendelian randomization study.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Feb 17. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, China.

Background: Observational studies have suggested that higher circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels were associated with favorable serum lipids and related metabolites. However, if such observations reflect causality remains unclear.

Objective: We aimed to investigate the causal effect of elevated 25(OH)D with the detailed systemic metabolite profile in Chinese adults. Read More

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February 2021

Robustly High Hippocampal BDNF levels under Acute Stress in Mice Lacking the Full-length p75 Neurotrophin Receptor.

Pharmacopsychiatry 2021 Feb 16. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Background: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) exerts its effects on neural plasticity via 2 distinct receptor types, the tyrosine kinase TrkB and the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR). The latter can promote inflammation and cell death while TrkB is critically involved in plasticity and memory, particularly in the hippocampus. Acute and chronic stress have been associated with suppression of hippocampal BDNF expression and impaired hippocampal plasticity. Read More

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February 2021

Using mitochondrial respiration inhibitors to design a novel model of bipolar disorder-like phenotype with construct, face and predictive validity.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 Feb 12;11(1):123. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Pharmacology and Psychiatry Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev and Mental Health Center, Beer-Sheva, Israel.

We mimicked mild mitochondrial-distress robustly reported in bipolar-disorder (BD) by chronic exposure to uniquely low doses of inhibitors of mitochondrial-respiration complexes in vitro and in vivo. Exposure of the neuronal-originating SH-SY5Y cells to very low dose (10 pM) rotenone, a mitochondrial-respiration complex (Co)I inhibitor, for 72 or 96 h did not affect cell viability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Yet, it induced a dual effect on mitochondrial-respiration: overshooting statistically significant several-fold increase of most oxygen-consumption-rate (OCR) parameters vs. Read More

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February 2021