1,168,870 results match your criteria rna

Immunopharmacological perspective on zinc in SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Apr 1;96:107630. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Solid Tumor Research Center, Cellular and Molecular Medicine Research Institute, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran. Electronic address:

The novel SARS-CoV-2 which was first reported in China is the cause of infection known as COVID-19. In comparison with other coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV and MERS, the mortality rate of SARS-CoV-2 is lower but the transmissibility is higher. Immune dysregulation is the most common feature of the immunopathogenesis of COVID-19 that leads to hyperinflammation. Read More

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LncRNA CRNDE promotes the progression and angiogenesis of pancreatic cancer via miR-451a/CDKN2D axis.

Transl Oncol 2021 Apr 18;14(7):101088. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Department of General Surgery, Suqian First Hospital, Suqian 223800, Jiangsu Province, China. Electronic address:

Background: The lncRNA colorectal neoplasia differentially expressed (lncRNA CRNDE) has been reported to play a pivotal role in various cancers. However, the expression and function of CRNDE in pancreatic cancer remain unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of CRNDE on pancreatic cancer and the underlying mechanisms. Read More

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Use of circular RNAs as markers of readthrough transcription to identify factors regulating cleavage/polyadenylation events.

Methods 2021 Apr 18. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Electronic address:

Circular RNAs with covalently linked ends are generated from many eukaryotic protein-coding genes when the pre-mRNA splicing machinery backsplices. These mature transcripts are resistant to digestion by exonucleases and typically have much longer half-lives than their associated linear mRNAs. Circular RNAs thus have great promise as sensitive biomarkers, including for detection of transcriptional activity. Read More

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Novel RT-ddPCR assays for measuring the levels of subgenomic and genomic SARS-CoV-2 transcripts.

Methods 2021 Apr 18. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), San Francisco, CA, United States; Department of Medicine, San Francisco VA Health Care System, San Francisco, CA, United States. Electronic address:

The replication of SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviruses depends on transcription of negative-sense RNA intermediates that serve as the templates for the synthesis of positive-sense genomic RNA (gRNA) and multiple different subgenomic mRNAs (sgRNAs) encompassing fragments arising from discontinuous transcription. Recent studies have aimed to characterize the expression of subgenomic SARS-CoV-2 transcripts in order to investigate their clinical significance. Here, we describe a novel panel of reverse transcription droplet digital PCR (RT-ddPCR) assays designed to specifically quantify multiple different subgenomic SARS-CoV-2 transcripts and distinguish them from transcripts that do not arise from discontinuous transcription at each locus. Read More

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iRNA-m5U: a sequence based predictor for identifying 5-methyluridine modification sites in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Methods 2021 Apr 18. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

School of Basic Medical Sciences, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu 611730, China; Innovative Institute of Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu 611730, China; School of Life Sciences, North China University of Science and Technology, Tangshan 063000, China. Electronic address:

The 5-methyluridine (mU)modification plays important roles in a series of biological processes. Accurate identification of mU sites will be helpful to decode its biological functions. Although experimental techniques have been proposed to detect mU, they are still expensive and time consuming. Read More

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First mitogenome of subfamily Langiinae (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) with its phylogenetic implications.

Gene 2021 Apr 18:145667. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Collaborative Innovation Center of Recovery and Reconstruction of Degraded Ecosystem in Wanjiang Basin Co-founded by Anhui Province and Ministry of Education, School of Ecology and Environment, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu, Anhui 241000, China. Electronic address:

To date, a relatively complete classification of Sphingidae (Lepidoptera) has been generated, but the phylogeny of the family remains need to be fully resolved. Some phylogenetic relationships within Sphingidae still remains uncertain, especially the taxonomic status of the subfamily Langiinae and its sole included genus and species, Langia zenzeroides. To begin to address this problem, we generated nine new complete mitochondrial genomes, including that of Langia, and together with that of Theretra oldenlandiae from our previous study and 25 other Sphingidae mitogenomes downloaded from GenBank, analyzed the phylogenetic relationships of Sphingidae and investigated the mitogenomic differences among members of the Langiinae, Sphinginae, Smerinthinae and Macroglossinae. Read More

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Contextual cues from cancer cells govern cancer-associated fibroblast heterogeneity.

Cell Rep 2021 Apr;35(3):109009

Departments of Thoracic/Head and Neck Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA. Electronic address:

Cancer cells function as primary architects of the tumor microenvironment. However, the molecular features of cancer cells that govern stromal cell phenotypes remain unclear. Here, we show that cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF) heterogeneity is driven by lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) cells at either end of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) spectrum. Read More

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High-content, targeted RNA-seq screening in organoids for drug discovery in colorectal cancer.

Cell Rep 2021 Apr;35(3):109026

Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research (ISREC), École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne-(EPFL-SV), 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Organoids allow the recapitulation of intestinal homeostasis and cancerogenesis in vitro; however, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq)-based methods for drug screens are missing. We develop targeted organoid sequencing (TORNADO-seq), a high-throughput, high-content drug discovery platform that uses targeted RNA-seq to monitor the expression of large gene signatures for the detailed evaluation of cellular phenotypes in organoids. TORNADO-seq is a fast, highly reproducible time- and cost-effective ($5 per sample) method that can probe cell mixtures and their differentiation state in the intestinal system. Read More

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Cytoplasmic polyadenylation by TENT5A is required for proper bone formation.

Cell Rep 2021 Apr;35(3):109015

Laboratory of RNA Biology, International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology in Warsaw, Trojdena 4, 02-109 Warsaw, Poland; Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Pawinskiego 5a, 02-106 Warsaw, Poland; Institute of Genetics and Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw, Pawinskiego 5a, 02-106 Warsaw, Poland. Electronic address:

Osteoblasts orchestrate bone formation through the secretion of type I collagen and other constituents of the matrix on which hydroxyapatite crystals mineralize. Here, we show that TENT5A, whose mutations were found in congenital bone disease osteogenesis imperfecta patients, is a cytoplasmic poly(A) polymerase playing a crucial role in regulating bone mineralization. Direct RNA sequencing revealed that TENT5A is induced during osteoblast differentiation and polyadenylates mRNAs encoding Col1α1, Col1α2, and other secreted proteins involved in osteogenesis, increasing their expression. Read More

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Reactivation of the Hedgehog pathway in esophageal progenitors turns on an embryonic-like program to initiate columnar metaplasia.

Cell Stem Cell 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

IRIBHM, ULB/Faculty of Medicine, 808 route de Lennik, 1070 Brussels, Belgium; WELBIO/FNRS Principal Investigator at IRIBHM, ULB/Faculty of Medicine, 808 route de Lennik, 1070 Brussels, Belgium. Electronic address:

Columnar metaplasia of the esophagus is the main risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma. There is a lack of evidence to demonstrate that esophageal progenitors can be the source of columnar metaplasia. In this study, using transgenic mouse models, lineage tracing, single-cell RNA sequencing, and transcriptomic and epigenetic profiling, we found that the activation of the Hedgehog pathway in esophageal cells modifies their differentiation status in vivo. Read More

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Transmission of the wMel Wolbachia strain is modulated by its titre and by immune genes in Drosophila melanogaster(Wolbachia density and transmission).

J Invertebr Pathol 2021 Apr 18:107591. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Department of Entomology and Key Laboratory of Pest Monitoring and Green Management, MOA, College of Plant Protection, China Agricultural University, 2 Yuanmingyuan West Road, Beijing 100193, China. Electronic address:

Wolbachia are common intracellular endosymbionts of arthropods, but the interactions between Wolbachia and arthropods are only partially understood. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is a model insect for understanding Wolbachia-host interactions. Here the native wMel strain of D. Read More

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Adenosine Deaminases Acting on RNA (ADARs) and Viral Infections.

Annu Rev Virol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA; email:

C6 deamination of adenosine (A) to inosine (I) in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is catalyzed by a family of enzymes known as ADARs (adenosine deaminases acting on RNA) encoded by three genes in mammals. Alternative promoters and splicing produce two ADAR1 proteins, an interferon-inducible cytoplasmic p150 and a constitutively expressed p110 that like ADAR2 is a nuclear enzyme. ADAR3 lacks deaminase activity. Read More

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MiR-30a-5p Regulates GLT-1 Function via a PKCα-Mediated Ubiquitin Degradation Pathway in a Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Neurology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510515, China.

Glutamate excitotoxicity is caused by dysfunctional glutamate transporters and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD); however, the mechanisms that underlie the regulation of glutamate transporters in PD are still not fully elucidated. MicroRNAs(miRNA), which are abundant in astrocytes and neurons, have been reported to play key roles in regulating the translation of glutamate-transporter mRNA. In this study, we hypothesized that the miR-30a-5p contributes to the pathogenesis of PD by regulating the ubiquitin-mediated degradation of glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1). Read More

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Preliminary Findings of mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine Safety in Pregnant Persons.

N Engl J Med 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

From the Immunization Safety Office, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion (T.T.S., T.R.M., P.L. Moro, L.P., P.L. Marquez, C.K.O., C.L., B.C.Z., J.M.G.), and the Arboviral Diseases Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases (S.W.M.), National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, the Division of Birth Defects and Infant Disorders, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (S.Y.K., V.K.B., C.J.G., D.M.M.-D.), the Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (T.O., K.T.C., S.R.E., A.N.S.), the World Trade Center Health Program, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (R.L.), and the Epidemic Intelligence Service (K.T.C.) - all at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta; and the Division of Epidemiology, Office of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD (M.A., A.M.-J.).

Background: Many pregnant persons in the United States are receiving messenger RNA (mRNA) coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) vaccines, but data are limited on their safety in pregnancy.

Methods: From December 14, 2020, to February 28, 2021, we used data from the "v-safe after vaccination health checker" surveillance system, the v-safe pregnancy registry, and the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) to characterize the initial safety of mRNA Covid-19 vaccines in pregnant persons.

Results: A total of 35,691 v-safe participants 16 to 54 years of age identified as pregnant. Read More

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Multivalent Aptamer-Functionalized Single-Strand RNA Origami as Effective, Target-Specific Anticoagulants with Corresponding Reversal Agents.

Adv Healthc Mater 2021 Apr 21:e2001826. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, 27695, USA.

Anticoagulants are commonly utilized during surgeries and to treat thrombotic diseases like stroke and deep vein thrombosis. However, conventional anticoagulants have serious side-effects, narrow therapeutic windows, and lack safe reversal agents (antidotes). Here, an alternative RNA origami displaying RNA aptamers as target-specific anticoagulant is described. Read More

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Development of a CRISPR-Cas9 based luciferase turn-on system as non-homologous end joining pathway reporter.

Chembiochem 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Department of Breast Cancer Pathology and Research Laboratory, Huanhuxi Road, Nankai, Tianjin, 300030, Tianjin, CHINA.

There is a need of a non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway reporter system that facilitates screening and discovery of NHEJ chemical inhibitors. In this study, we developed a CRISPR-Cas9 based luciferase turn-on system as a NHEJ pathway reporter. By substituting nucleotide 205C with ATC, we introduced a reading-frame shift and a pre-stop codon into the luciferase coding region and thereby generated a bioluminescent signal mute HEK293T reporter cell line. Read More

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A prospective clinical and transcriptomic feasibility study of oral-only hormonal therapy with radiation for unfavorable prostate cancer in men 70 years of age and older or with comorbidity.

Cancer 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Medicine, Chicago, Illinois.

Background: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) improves outcomes in unfavorable-risk prostate cancer (PCa) treated with radiation therapy (RT). It was hypothesized that replacing luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists with a 5-α-reductase inhibitor (5-ARI) would improve hormonal health-related quality of life (HRQOL) without differentially suppressing androgen-responsive (AR) gene expression.

Methods: Patients with localized unfavorable-risk PCa, aged ≥70 years or Charlson Comorbidity Index score ≥2 were treated with oral ADT (oADT), consisting of 4 months of bicalutamide, a 5-ARI, and RT at 78 Gy. Read More

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An annotated draft genome for the Andean bear, Tremarctos ornatus.

J Hered 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA, USA.

The Andean bear is the only extant member of the Tremarctine subfamily and the only extant ursid species to inhabit South America. Here, we present an annotated de novo assembly of a nuclear genome from a captive-born female Andean bear, Mischief, generated using a combination of short and long DNA and RNA reads. Our final assembly has a length of 2. Read More

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Safe and effective two-in-one replicon-and-VLP minispike vaccine for COVID-19: Protection of mice after a single immunization.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Apr 21;17(4):e1009064. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Max von Pettenkofer Institute Virology, and Gene Center, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany.

Vaccines of outstanding efficiency, safety, and public acceptance are needed to halt the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Concerns include potential side effects caused by the antigen itself and safety of viral DNA and RNA delivery vectors. The large SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein is the main target of current COVID-19 vaccine candidates but can induce non-neutralizing antibodies, which might cause vaccination-induced complications or enhancement of COVID-19 disease. Read More

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Iron enhances the binding rates and translational efficiency of iron responsive elements (IREs) mRNA with initiation factor eIF4F.

PLoS One 2021 21;16(4):e0250374. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Sciences, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, The City University of New York, New York, NY, United States of America.

Interaction of iron responsive elements (IRE) mRNA with the translational machinery is an early step critical in the initiation of protein synthesis. To investigate the binding specificity of IRE mRNA for eIF4F, kinetic rates for the eIF4F·IRE RNA interactions were determined and correlated with the translational efficiency. The observed rate of eIF4F·FRT IRE RNA interactions was 2-fold greater as compared to eIF4F·ACO2 IRE RNA binding. Read More

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LncRNA MNX1-AS1 drives aggressive laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma progression and serves as a ceRNA to target FoxM1 by sponging microRNA-370.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Mar 19;13(7):9900-9910. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China.

Long non-coding RNA (LncRNA) MNX1 antisense RNA 1(MNX1-AS1) is associated with the pathology of numerous cancers. But, the role and underlying pathways of MNX1-AS1 in the regulation of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) is not known. We demonstrated remarkably elevated levels of MNX1-AS1 in the LSCC tissues, which was correlated with poor disease prognosis. Read More

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siRNAs and viruses: The good, the bad and the way forward.

Curr Mol Pharmacol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Virology, University of KwaZulu Natal/ National Health Laboratory Services, Durban, South Africa.

There are no available antivirals for many viruses or strains, while current antivirals are limited by toxicity and drug resistance. Therefore, alternative strategies, such as RNA interference (RNAi) are required. RNAi suppresses gene expression of any mRNA, making it an attractive candidate for antiviral therapeutics. Read More

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Coenzyme Q10 supplement rescues postovulatory oocyte aging by regulating SIRT4 expression.

Curr Mol Pharmacol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China.

Background: High-quality of the oocyte is crucial for embryo development and the success of human assisted reproduction. The postovulatory aged oocytes lose the developmental competence with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is widely distributed in the membranes of cells, and has an important role in the mitochondrial respiration chain, against oxidative stress and modulation of gene expression. Read More

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Expression Analysis of Same-Patient Metachronous and Synchronous Upper-Tract and Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma.

J Urol 2021 Apr 21:101097JU0000000000001788. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Urology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.

Purpose: To compare upper-tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) and bladder urothelial carcinoma (BUC) in same-patient metachronous-(m) and synchronous-(s) UTUC and BUC using next generation sequencing.

Materials And Methods: Consecutive untreated same-patient samples of UTUC and BUC were macrodissected from unstained formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded slides after quality control. Samples were divided into 4 groups: 1) UTUC-mBUC, 2) BUC-mUTUC, 3) sUTUC-BUC, 4) UTUC without BUC. Read More

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Immunomodulation of Tumor Microenvironment by Arginine-Loaded Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Gaseous Immunotherapy.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Laboratory of Chemical Biology, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, 130022 Jilin, China.

Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) of M2 phenotype have mediated the immunosuppression in a tumor microenvironment, facilitating the escape of tumor cells from immunosurveillance. Reprograming the immunosuppressive M2 TAMs to immunostimulatory M1 phenotype can activate the antitumor immune responses for cancer immunotherapy. Herein, hollow iron oxide (FeO) nanoparticles (NPs) were employed to reprogram M2 TAMs toward M1 TAMs, aiming to release proinflammatory cytokines and recruit T cells to kill tumor cells. Read More

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Pyridazine Nucleobase in Triplex-Forming PNA Improves Recognition of Cytosine Interruptions of Polypurine Tracts in RNA.

ACS Chem Biol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Chemistry, Binghamton University, The State University of New York, Binghamton, New York 13902, United States.

Sequence specific recognition of regulatory noncoding RNAs would open new possibilities for fundamental science and medicine. However, molecular recognition of such complex double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) structures remains a formidable problem. Recently, we discovered that peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) form an unusually stable and sequence-specific triple helix with dsRNA. Read More

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Hormesis-Inducing Essential Oil Nanodelivery System Protects Plants against Broad Host-Range Necrotrophs.

ACS Nano 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, United States.

, a broad host-range necrotrophic (BHN) phytopathogen, establishes compatible interactions with hosts by deploying multigene infection strategies, rendering simply inherited resistance ineffective to fight off this pathogen. Since essential oils (EOs) serve as intermediators during phytobiome communication, we hypothesize that they have the potential to enhance the quantitative disease resistance against BHN by eliciting the adaptive stress response (hormesis) in plants. However, using EOs is challenging due to their poor solubility in water. Read More

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The occurrence order and cross-talk of different tRNA modifications.

Sci China Life Sci 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

School of Life Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai, 201210, China.

Chemical modifications expand the composition of RNA molecules from four standard nucleosides to over 160 modified nucleosides, which greatly increase the complexity and utility of RNAs. Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are the most heavily modified cellular RNA molecules and contain the largest variety of modifications. Modification of tRNAs is pivotal for protein synthesis and also precisely regulates the noncanonical functions of tRNAs. Read More

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Copper and Selenium stimulates CYP19A1 expression in caprine ovarian granulosa cells: possible involvement of AKT and WNT signalling pathways.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Animal Biotechnology Lab, ICAR-National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology (NIANP), Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

The role of copper and selenium on activation of estradiol synthesis pathways viz. PKA/AKT/WNT is not clearly elucidated. On this background we attempt to elcuiated the role of copper and selenium on mRNA expression of genes associated with estradiol synthesis in caprine ovarian granulose cell models. Read More

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Emerging role of non-coding RNA in health and disease.

Metab Brain Dis 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Human Genetics and Molecular Medicine, School of Health Sciences, Central University of Punjab, Bathinda, India.

Human diseases have always been a significant turf of concern since the origin of mankind. It is cardinal to know the cause, treatment, and cure for every disease condition. With the advent and advancement in technology, the molecular arena at the microscopic level to study the mechanism, progression, and therapy is more rational and authentic pave than a macroscopic approach. Read More

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