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Opioid availability statistics from the International Narcotics Control Board do not reflect the medical use of opioids: comparison with sales data from Scandinavia.

Scand J Pain 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

The NEPI Foundation and Unit of Health Care Analysis, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.

Objectives: Opioid analgesics are essential in clinical practice, but their excessive use is associated with addiction risk. Increases in opioid prescription rates have fuelled an epidemic of opioid addiction in the USA, making statistics on medical opioid use a critical warning signal. A dramatic 150% increase in Swedish opioid access 2001-2013 was recently reported based on data from the International Narcotics Control Board (INCB; Berterame et al. Read More

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Second trimester prediction of gestational diabetes: maternal analytes as an additional screening tool.

J Perinat Med 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, USA.

Objectives: Early diagnosis of gestational diabetes can lead to greater optimization of glucose control. We evaluated associations between maternal serum analytes (alpha-fetoprotein [AFP], free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin [beta-hCG], inhibin, and estriol) and the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).

Methods: This retrospective cohort study identified single-ton pregnancies with available second trimester serum analytes between 2009 and 2017. Read More

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Cancer patient perspective in the arena of COVID-19 pandemic.

Psychooncology 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Clinical Oncology, Università Politecnica delle Marche, AOU Ospedali Riuniti di Ancona, Ancona, Italy.

Objective: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has been declared a global pandemic of unprecedented proportions. Italy is a country which has been heavily affected. Cancer patients are at a higher risk owing to their intrinsic fragility related to their underlying disease and oncologic treatment. Read More

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Love in the time of COVID-19: A brief report on relationship and individual functioning among committed couples in the United States while under shelter-in-place orders.

Fam Process 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

The COVID-19 pandemic in the United States has changed many aspects of people's daily life, including increased time at home in response to shelter-in-place orders, heightened stress about health effects of COVID-19, and shifts in other domains of life (e.g., employment). Read More

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Potential for optimizing management of obesity in the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease.

Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Medicine, Solna, Karolinska Institutet, FoU - Tema Hjärta och Kärl, S1:02, Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset/Solna, SE-171 76, Stockholm, Sweden.

Aims: Prevention guidelines have identified the management of obese patients as an important priority to reduce the burden of incident and recurrent cardiovascular disease. Still, studies have demonstrated that over 80% of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) fail to achieve their weight target. Here, we describe advice received and actions reported by overweight CHD patients since being discharged from hospital and how weight changes relate to their risk profile. Read More

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Outcomes after Acute Peritoneal Dialysis for Critical Cardiorenal Syndrome Type 1.

Cardiorenal Med 2021 Jul 27:1-9. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Medicine, Maharat Nakhon Ratchasima Hospital, Nakhonratchasima, Thailand.

Introduction: The aim of the study was to demonstrate the outcomes of peritoneal dialysis (PD) in critically ill cardiorenal syndrome type 1 (CRS1).

Methods: A cohort of 147 patients with CRS1 who received PD from 2011 to 2019 in a referral hospital in Thailand was analyzed. The primary outcome was 30-day in-hospital mortality. Read More

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Comparative Safety and Efficacy of Therapeutic Options in Resectable and Advanced/Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer: A Systematic Review and Indirect Comparison.

Oncol Res Treat 2021 Jul 27:1-9. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Pharmacotherapy, College of Pharmacy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.

Objectives: FOLFIRINOX, gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel (gem-nab/P), and gemcitabine-capecitabine (gem-cap) demonstrated superiority over gemcitabine monotherapy for pancreatic cancer (PC). It is still unclear which chemotherapy regimen is the most optimal. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review (SR) and indirect comparison to compare safety and efficacy of FOLFIRINOX versus gem-nab/P and gem-cap in PC. Read More

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The Risk Factors and Clinical Outcomes Associated with Acute Kidney Injury in Patients with COVID-19: Data from a Large Cohort in Iran.

Kidney Blood Press Res 2021 Jul 27:1-9. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Nephrology Diseases, Sina Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Kidney involvement, ranging from mild hematuria and proteinuria to acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), is a recent finding with various incidence rates reported among hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Given the various AKI rates and their associated risk factors, lack of AKI recovery in the majority of patients hospitalized with COVID-19, and limited data regarding AKI in patients with COVID-19 in Iran, we aim to investigate the potential risk factors for AKI development and its incidence in patients hospitalized with COVID-19.

Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, we enrolled adult patients referred to the Sina Hospital, Iran, from February 20 to May 14, 2020, with either a positive PCR test or a highly susceptible chest computed tomography features consistent with COVID-19 diagnosis. Read More

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Sarcopenia Is Associated with Mortality in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Gerontology 2021 Jul 27:1-16. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Medicine and Aged Care, @AgeMelbourne, The Royal Melbourne Hospital, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

Background: Sarcopenia can predispose individuals to falls, fractures, hospitalization, and mortality. The prevalence of sarcopenia depends on the population studied and the definition used for the diagnosis.

Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate the association between sarcopenia and mortality and if it is dependent on the population and sarcopenia definition. Read More

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Quantitative Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging for the Analysis of Microvascular Permeability in Peritumor Brain Edema of Fibrous Meningiomas.

Eur Neurol 2021 Jul 27;84(5):361-367. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

Introduction: This study aims to analyze the permeability of intra- and peri-meningiomas regions and compare the microvascular permeability between peritumoral brain edema (PTBE) and non-PTBE using DCE-MRI.

Methods: This was a retrospective of patients with meningioma who underwent surgery. The patients were grouped as PTBE and non-PTBE. Read More

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Nephrologist Interventions to Avoid Kidney Replacement Therapy in Acute Kidney Injury.

Kidney Blood Press Res 2021 Jul 27:1-10. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Nephrology Service, Civil Hospital of Guadalajara Fray Antonio Alcalde, Guadalajara, Mexico.

Background: Based on the pathophysiology of acute kidney injury (AKI), it is plausible that certain early interventions by the nephrologist could influence its trajectory. In this study, we investigated the impact of 5 early nephrology interventions on starting kidney replacement therapy (KRT), AKI progression, and death.

Methods: In a prospective cohort at the Hospital Civil of Guadalajara, we followed up for 10 days AKI patients in whom a nephrology consultation was requested. Read More

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Dietary Patterns for Promoting Kidney Health.

Contrib Nephrol 2021 Jul 27;199:1-9. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

State University of Ceará (UECE), Fortaleza, Brazil.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is considered a public health problem and part of the growing burden of noncommunicable diseases. Many studies have searched for ways to reduce the risk of complications and death. One possible approach to modify the course of this disease is the adoption of healthy dietary habits. Read More

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Re-examining the gap: A critical realist analysis of eye health inequity among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians.

Soc Sci Med 2021 Jul 16;284:114230. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

School of Social Sciences, UNSW, Australia.

The prevalence of diabetes among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (hereafter 'Aboriginal') Australians is three times greater than non-Aboriginal Australians, contributing to a greater risk of blindness from treatable and preventable ocular conditions, most prominently cataract and diabetic retinopathy. In rural and remote Aboriginal communities, blindness prevalence is higher, and ocular treatment coverage and uptake are lower. In collaboration with Aboriginal Community Based Researchers (CBRs), this study explored complex contingent factors that shape access to eye health services among rural and remote Aboriginal Australians living with diabetes. Read More

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CCL5 via GPX1 activation protects hippocampal memory function after mild traumatic brain injury.

Redox Biol 2021 Jul 17;46:102067. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Ph.D. Program for Neural Regenerative Medicine, College of Medical Science and Technology, Taipei Medical University and National Health Research, Taiwan; Graduate Institute of Neural Regenerative Medicine, College of Medical Science and Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a prevalent head injury worldwide which increases the risk of neurodegenerative diseases. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory chemokines after TBI induces secondary effects which damage neurons. Targeting NADPH oxidase or increasing redox systems are ways to reduce ROS and damage. Read More

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Stepped care for the treatment of depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Affect Disord 2021 Jul 18;294:391-409. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Health Services Research on Chronic Patients Network (REDISSEC). Tenerife, Spain; Evaluation Unit (SESCS), Canary Islands Health Service (SCS), Tenerife, Spain.

Background: The Stepped Care Model (SCM) proposes a sequential approach in the treatment of depression, applying interventions of increasing intensity according to the level of severity of the individual.

Methods: A systematic review was carried out until January 2020 in eight electronic databases. We included randomized (RCT) and non-randomized controlled trials comparing the SCM to usual non-sequential care. Read More

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Highly efficient removal of DEET by UV-LED irradiation in the presence of iron-containing coagulant.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 20;286(Pt 1):131613. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou, 215009, China.

N,N-Diethyl-3-methyl benzoyl amide (DEET) has been detected as an emerging pollutant in various water bodies because of its widespread use as an insect repellent. In this study, the combination of UV-LED and iron-containing coagulant (FeCl) was used for the elimination of DEET in water. It was found that UV-LED/FeCl (98 %) system presented a favorable removal of DEET compared with UV/FeCl (59 %) and UV-LED/Fe(SO) (81 %) processes at initial pH 3. Read More

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Psychophysiological stress-reactivity in clinical and non-clinical voice-hearers.

Schizophr Res 2021 Jul 24;235:52-59. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, Department of Psychology, London, UK; South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Background: Psychosis is associated with dysregulation of psychophysiological stress-reactivity, including in subjective, autonomic nervous system (ANS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) parameters.

Aims: This study investigated whether dysregulated psychophysiological stress-reactivity is specifically associated with auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) or psychosis more generally by comparing voice-hearers with and without a need for care.

Method: Clinical (n = 20) and non-clinical voice-hearers (n = 23), as well as a healthy control group with no voices (n = 23), were compared on HPA and ANS responses, and subjective reactivity, to a psychophysiological stress paradigm, the socially evaluative cold pressor test. Read More

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On the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease: Control the promoters and look beyond the brain.

Med Hypotheses 2021 Jul 19;154:110645. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Harvard Medical School Multi-Campus Geriatric Fellowship, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Electronic address:

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive incurable neurodegenerative disease of the brain afflicting a third of the population aged 85 and older. Pathologic hallmarks include extracellular plaques of amyloid-beta (Aß), intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles of hyperphosphorylated tau protein, synaptic destruction, neuronal death, and brain atrophy. Neuroinflammation, mediated by microglia, is a central component of the disease, and is intricately connected with peripheral inflammation. Read More

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Predictors of having naloxone in urban and rural Oregon findings from NHBS and the OR-HOPE study.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2021 Jul 21;227:108912. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Public Health Division, Oregon Health Authority, 800 NE Oregon Street, Portland, OR, 97232, USA; Department of Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR, 97239, USA. Electronic address:

Purpose: Naloxone is an opioid antagonist that can be effectively administered by bystanders to prevent overdose. We determined the proportion of people who had naloxone and identified predictors of naloxone ownership among two samples of people who inject drugs (PWID) who use opioids in Portland and rural Western Oregon.

Basic Procedures: We used data from participants in Portland's National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS, N = 477) and the Oregon HIV/Hepatitis and Opioid Prevention and Engagement Study (OR-HOPE, N = 133). Read More

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Corrigendum to "A multicenter study of radiation doses to the eye lenses of medical staff performing non-vascular imaging and interventional radiology procedures in Japan" [Physica Medica 74 (2020) 83-91].

Phys Med 2021 Jul 24;88:262-263. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Human Resources Development Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555, Japan.

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Polyethylenimine (PEI)-modified poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles conjugated with tumor-homing bacteria facilitate high intensity focused ultrasound-mediated tumor ablation.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Jul 24;571:104-109. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

State Key Laboratory of Ultrasound in Medicine and Engineering, College of Biomedical Engineering, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016, People's Republic of China; Chongqing Key Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

The acoustic propagation characteristic of ultrasound determines that the energy of ultrasound beam will decrease with the increase of its propagation depth in the body. Similarly, the energy of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) will be attenuated with the increase of HIFU propagation depth in the body. Ensuring sufficient ultrasound energy deposition in the HIFU ablation region for tumor ablation is usually achieved by increasing the ultrasound irradiation power or prolonging the ultrasound ablation time. Read More

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Experiential avoidance is associated with medical and mental health diagnoses in a national sample of deployed Gulf War veterans.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 Jul 22;142:17-24. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Durham VA Health Care System, 508 Fulton Street, Durham, NC, 27705, USA; VA Mid-Atlantic Mental Illness Research, Education and Clinical Center, 3022 Croasdaile Dr., Durham, NC, 27705, USA; Duke University School of Medicine Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, DUMC 3625, Durham, NC, 27710, USA. Electronic address:

A substantial minority of deployed Gulf War veterans developed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and several chronic illnesses. Although military combat and exposure to certain nuclear, biological, and chemical agents (NBCs) increase risk for post-deployment health problems, they do not fully explain many Gulf War veteran health diagnoses and are not viable treatment targets. Experiential avoidance (EA; one's unwillingness to remain in contact with unpleasant internal experiences) is a modifiable psychosocial risk factor associated with PTSD and depression in veterans as well as pain and gastrointestinal diseases in the general population. Read More

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Mild cognitive impairment and abnormal brain metabolic expression in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder.

Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2021 Jul 22;90:1-7. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Neurology and Movement Disorder Center, Parkinson Study Group, Neuroscience Research Institute, College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, 03080, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a common feature of isolated rapid-eye-movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD). Here, we assessed cognitive functions and MCI in a prospective iRBD cohort and investigated their association with disease-specific brain metabolic patterns.

Methods: Forty-four patients with polysomnography-confirmed iRBD performed a standardized battery of neuropsychological examinations every two years. Read More

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Genetically determined selenium concentrations and risk for autoimmune diseases.

Nutrition 2021 Jun 24;91-92:111391. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Epidemiology, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University School of Public Health, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Observational epidemiologic studies have reported a relationship between selenium status and risk for autoimmune diseases. However, the associations are susceptible to confounding or reverse causality. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential causal associations of selenium concentrations with the risk for common autoimmune diseases using a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) design. Read More

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Comorbidity in Stroke-Survivors: Prevalence and Associations with Functional Outcomes and Health.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Jul 24;30(10):106000. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

University Health Care Research Center, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and impact of stroke-related comorbidity in a community-based sample of stroke survivors. We sought to find out which types of comorbidity that were most important with respect to the patients' functional outcomes and general health.

Materials And Methods: All stroke survivors (n = 330) living in a medium-sized Swedish municipality were included. Read More

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Release, transformation, and risk factors of polybrominated diphenyl ethers from landfills to the surrounding environments: A review.

Environ Int 2021 Jul 24;157:106780. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China.

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) serve as brominated flame retardants when added to various products. When these products reach their end of life, a large amount of domestic waste containing PBDEs enters the landfills. Given their weak chemical bonds, they are easily affected by physical, chemical, and biological processes. Read More

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Associations between endocrine-disrupting heavy metals in maternal hair and gestational diabetes mellitus: A nested case-control study in China.

Environ Int 2021 Jul 24;157:106770. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Institute of Reproductive and Child Health, Peking University/ Key Laboratory of Reproductive Health, National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China, Beijing 100191, PR China; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing 100191, PR China.

Background: Exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors (EDCs) may lead to abnormal glucose metabolism and, potentially, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).

Objective: We investigated the association between five endocrine-disrupting heavy metals (EDHMs), i.e. Read More

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