74,462 results match your criteria risk tool


EASY score (Eloquent, Age and baseline SYmptoms score) for outcome prediction in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2021 Apr 1;205:106626. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital of Southampton, Tremona Rd, Southampton, UK.

Objective: A pragmatic tool for the early and reliable prediction of recovery in patients with acute ischemic stroke is needed. We aimed to test the addition of brain eloquent areas involvement in variables predicting poor outcome, using a simple scoring system.

Methods: Retrospective study of patients with anterior circulation acute ischemic stroke treated with best medical treatment and/or endovascular reperfusion. Read More

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Smartphone applications to assess gait and postural control in people with multiple sclerosis: A systematic review.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 Apr 16;51:102943. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Kinesiology and Community Health, College of Applied Health Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, USA; Illinois Multiple Sclerosis Research Collaborative, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Methods to effectively assess gait and balance impairments are necessary to guide interventions among people with Multiple Sclerosis (PwMS). Smartphone-based evaluations are becoming popular due to the ubiquitous use of smartphones in society.

Objective: To determine the current state of smartphone applications that assess gait and balance among PwMS. Read More

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CT-based structural analyses of vertebral fractures with polymeric augmentation: A study of cadaveric three-level spine segments.

Comput Biol Med 2021 Apr 16;133:104395. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA. Electronic address:

Pathologic vertebral fractures due to metastasis can occur under normal physiologic activities, leading to pain and neurologic deficit. Prophylactic vertebroplasty is a technique used to augment vertebral strength and reduce the risk of fracture. Currently, no technique is available to objectively assess vertebral fracture risk in metastatically-involved vertebral bodies. Read More

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The 5-Factor Modified Frailty Index as a Predictor of 30-day Complications in Pressure Ulcer Repair.

J Surg Res 2021 Apr 16;265:21-26. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah. Electronic address:

Background: The 5-item modified frailty index (mFI-5) is a validated tool to assess postoperative risks in older surgical candidates. We sought to compare the predictive ability of mFI-5 to its individual components and other established risk factors for complications in flap reconstruction of late-stage pressure ulcer repair.

Methods: The 2012 to 2018 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Project (ACS-NSQIP) database was queried for pressure ulcer diagnosis and reconstructive flap repair procedures. Read More

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Knowledge, attitude, perception, and preventative practices towards COVID-19 in sub-Saharan Africa: A scoping review.

PLoS One 2021 19;16(4):e0249853. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Discipline of Public Health Medicine, School of Nursing and Public Health, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard Campus, Durban, South Africa.

Background: Knowledge, attitudes, perception, and preventative practices regarding coronavirus- 2019 (COVID-19) are crucial in its prevention and control. Several studies have noted that the majority of people in sub-Saharan African are noncompliant with proposed health and safety measures recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and respective country health departments. In most sub-Saharan African countries, noncompliance is attributable to ignorance and misinformation, thereby raising questions about people's knowledge, attitudes, perception, and practices towards COVID-19 in these settings. Read More

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Predicting poor outcomes in children aged 1-12 with respiratory tract infections: A systematic review.

PLoS One 2021 19;16(4):e0249533. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Background: Demand for NHS services is high and rising. In children respiratory tract infections (RTI) are the most common reason for consultation with primary care. Understanding which features are associated with good and poor prognosis with RTI will help develop interventions to support parents manage illness. Read More

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The methodological quality of 176,620 randomized controlled trials published between 1966 and 2018 reveals a positive trend but also an urgent need for improvement.

PLoS Biol 2021 Apr 19;19(4):e3001162. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Child Neurology, UMC Utrecht Brain Center, University Medical Center Utrecht, and Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Many randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are biased and difficult to reproduce due to methodological flaws and poor reporting. There is increasing attention for responsible research practices and implementation of reporting guidelines, but whether these efforts have improved the methodological quality of RCTs (e.g. Read More

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A Resilience-Building App to Support the Mental Health of Health Care Workers in the COVID-19 Era: Design Process, Distribution, and Evaluation.

JMIR Form Res 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, US.

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in increased strain on health care systems and negative psychological effects on health care workers. This is anticipated to result in long term negative mental health effects on the population, with health care workers (HCWs) representing a particularly vulnerable group. The scope of the COVID-19 pandemic necessitates the development of a scalable mental health platform to provide services to large numbers of at risk or affected individuals. Read More

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Parent engagement with the New South Wales child health home-based record: A cross-sectional survey and a retrospective chart review.

Child Care Health Dev 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Background: In 2018, World Health Organisation endorsed universal use of home-based records to improve care for mothers, pregnant women, newborns and children. New South Wales (NSW), Australia has had universal use of a child health home-based record since 1988, with the first major update in 2013. Since the update, limited evidence has been collected about factors influencing parent use of the record. Read More

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Evidence-Based Decision-Making 1: Critical Appraisal.

Authors:
Laurie K Twells

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2249:389-404

Faculty of Medicine, School of Pharmacy, Memorial University, St. John's, NL, Canada.

This chapter provides an introduction to the concept of Evidence-based Medicine (EBM) including its history, rooted in Canada and its important role in modern medicine. The chapter introduces EBM and explains the process of conducting EBM . The chapter starts with a description of the traditional hierarchy of evidence that exists in research with reference to the critical appraisal tools often used to assess the quality or credibility of individual studies. Read More

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January 2021

Development and Validation of a Machine Learning Model to Estimate Bacterial Sepsis Among Immunocompromised Recipients of Stem Cell Transplant.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Apr 1;4(4):e214514. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle.

Importance: Sepsis disproportionately affects recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (allo-HCT), and timely detection is crucial. However, the atypical presentation of sepsis within this population makes detection challenging, and existing clinical sepsis tools have limited prognostic value among this high-risk population.

Objective: To develop a full risk factor (demographic, transplant, clinical, and laboratory factors) and clinical factor-specific automated bacterial sepsis decision support tool for recipients of allo-HCT with potential bloodstream infections (PBIs). Read More

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Decreasing Foot Traffic in the Orthopedic Operating Room: A Narrative Review of the Literature.

J Patient Saf 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

From the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas.

Introduction: Surgical site infections (SSIs) are implicated in poor outcomes in orthopedic surgical patients. Decreasing foot traffic in orthopedic surgical suites is correlated with the reduction of SSI risk. This review aims to understand the background and significance of the problem, isolate factors contributing to the movement in and out of operating rooms, and identify interventions that decrease traffic in procedure areas. Read More

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Applying Administrative Data-based Coding Algorithms for Frailty in Patients with Cirrhosis.

Liver Transpl 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Michigan.

Background: Frailty is a powerful prognostic tool in cirrhosis. Claims-based frailty scores estimate the presence of frailty without the need for in-person evaluation. These algorithms have not been validated in cirrhosis. Read More

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Topical oxygen therapy for diabetes-related foot ulcers: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Diabet Med 2021 Apr 19:e14585. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

The Queensland Research Centre for Peripheral Vascular Disease (QRC-PVD), College of Medicine and Dentistry, James Cook University, Queensland, Australia.

Introduction: Topical oxygen therapy (TOT) has been suggested as a treatment for diabetes- related foot ulcer (DFU) but no prior meta-analyses of randomised clinical trials (RCT) have been reported. This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the randomised evidence for the benefit of TOT in healing DFU.

Methods: Publicly available databases were searched for RCTs investigating the effect of TOT on wound healing in participants with a DFU. Read More

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Digital interventions for the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 Apr 19;4:CD013246. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Rural Health, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with dyspnoea, cough or sputum production (or both) and affects quality of life and functional status. More efficient approaches to alternative management that may include patients themselves managing their condition need further exploration in order to reduce the impact on both patients and healthcare services. Digital interventions may potentially impact on health behaviours and encourage patient engagement. Read More

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Exposure to Hurricane Sandy and Risk of Opioid Abuse.

Subst Use Misuse 2021 Apr 19:1-5. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Occupational Medicine, Epidemiology and Prevention, The Feinstein Institutes for Medical Research, Northwell Health, Manhasset, New York, USA.

Background: Given both the increased prevalence of natural disasters in recent years and the crippling opioid epidemic, identifying at-risk groups for substance abuse post-disaster is imperative to survivor mental health. The objective of this study was to examine the association between exposure to Hurricane Sandy and risk of opioid abusive behavior.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis using data from two cross-sectional studies that examined the impact of Hurricane Sandy on mental health from October 2013- August 2016. Read More

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A satellite-based mobile warning system to reduce interactions with an endangered species.

Ecol Appl 2021 Apr 18:e2358. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Environmental Research Division, NOAA Southwest Fisheries Science Center, Monterey, CA, USA.

Earth observing satellites are a major research tool for spatially explicit ecosystem nowcasting and forecasting. However, there are practical challenges when integrating satellite data into usable real-time products for stakeholders. The need of forecast immediacy and accuracy means that forecast systems must account for missing data and data latency while delivering a timely, accurate and actionable product to stakeholders. Read More

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A new hemodynamic index to predict late right failure in patients implanted with last generation centrifugal pump.

J Card Surg 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Cardiac Surgery and Heart Transplantation, San Camillo Hospital, Rome, Italy.

Background: Right ventricular failure (RVF) is a severe event that increases perioperative mortality after left ventricle assist device (LVAD) implantation. Right ventricular (RV) function is particularly affected by the LVAD speed by altering RV preload and afterload as well as the position of the interventricular septum. However, there are no studies focusing on the relationship between pump speed optimization and risk factors for the development of late RVF. Read More

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Improving Transitions of Care between the Intensive Care Unit and General Internal Medicine Ward. A Demonstration Study.

ATS Sch 2020 Jul 16;1(3):288-300. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Interdepartmental Division of Critical Care and.

In-hospital transfers such as from the intensive care unit (ICU) to the general internal medicine (GIM) ward place patients at risk of adverse events. A structured handover tool may improve transitions from the ICU to the GIM ward. To develop, implement, and evaluate a customized user-designed transfer tool to improve transitions from the ICU to the GIM ward. Read More

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Echocardiographic Abnormalities as Independent Prognostic Factors of In-Hospital Mortality among COVID-19 Patients.

Arch Acad Emerg Med 2021 24;9(1):e21. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Physiology Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Direct and indirect sequels of COVID-19 in the cardiovascular system are unclear. The present study aims to investigate the echocardiography findings in COVID-19 patients and possible correlations between the findings and the disease outcome.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, baseline characteristics and echocardiographic findings of hospitalized COVID-19 cases, and their correlation with mortality were evaluated. Read More

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February 2021

Stratified care to prevent chronic low back pain in high-risk patients: The TARGET trial. A multi-site pragmatic cluster randomized trial.

EClinicalMedicine 2021 Apr 30;34:100795. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Family Medicine, Boston Medical Center, 1 Boston Medical Center Place, Dowling 5 South, Boston, MA 02118 USA.

Background: Many patients with acute low back pain (LBP) first seek care from primary care physicians. Evidence is lacking for interventions to prevent transition to chronic LBP in this setting. We aimed to test if implementation of a risk-stratified approach to care would result in lower rates of chronic LBP and improved self-reported disability. Read More

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Drinking water contaminants in California and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy.

Environ Epidemiol 2021 Apr 2;5(2):e149. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management & School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California.

Environmental pollutants have been associated with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy including gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, and eclampsia, though few have focused on drinking water contamination. Water pollution can be an important source of exposures that may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes.

Methods: We linked water quality data on 13 contaminants and two violations from the California Communities Environmental Health Screening Tool to birth records from vital statistics and hospital discharge records (2007-2012) to examine the relationship between drinking water contamination and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. Read More

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Strategic options for syphilis control in Papua New Guinea- impact and cost-effectiveness projections using the model.

Infect Dis Model 2021 20;6:584-597. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Avenir Health, Modelling, Planning and Policy Analysis Dept., 150 Route de Ferney, PO box 2100, CH-1211 Geneva 2, Switzerland.

Objectives: Papua New Guinea (PNG) has among the highest rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) globally and is committed to reducing their incidence. The Syphilis Interventions Towards Elimination (SITE) model was used to explore the expected impact and cost of alternative syphilis intervention scale-up scenarios.

Methods: SITE is a dynamical model of syphilis transmission among adults 15-49 years. Read More

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Identification of a Gene Prognostic Signature for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma by RNA Sequencing and Bioinformatics.

Biomed Res Int 2021 1;2021:6657767. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Beijing Stomatological Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100050, China.

Objectives: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common oral cancer and has a poor prognosis. We aimed to identify new biomarkers or potential therapeutic targets for OSCC.

Materials And Methods: Four pairs of tumor and adjacent normal tissues were collected from OSCC patients, and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened via high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Read More

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Development and Evaluation of a Digital Health Intervention for Substance Use Reduction in Young Refugees With Problematic Use of Alcohol and/or Cannabis-Study Protocol for a Single-Armed Feasibility Trial.

Front Public Health 2021 31;9:557431. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

German Institute on Addiction and Prevention Research (DISuP), Catholic University of Applied Sciences of North Rhine-Westphalia, Cologne, Germany.

Refugee populations are at substantial risk of developing substance use disorder (SUD) and other mental health disorders. At the same time, refugee populations face numerous barriers to accessing mental health services. Digital interventions can address some of these issues, as emerging evidence indicates that digital interventions offer an effective, low-cost alternative with high accessibility and similar efficacy as standard SUD prevention programs. Read More

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Radiomics Analysis Based on Contrast-Enhanced MRI for Prediction of Therapeutic Response to Transarterial Chemoembolization in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Front Oncol 2021 31;11:582788. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, China.

Purpose: To investigate the role of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) radiomics for pretherapeutic prediction of the response to transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

Methods: One hundred and twenty-two HCC patients (objective response, = 63; non-response, = 59) who received CE-MRI examination before initial TACE were retrospectively recruited and randomly divided into a training cohort ( = 85) and a validation cohort ( = 37). All HCCs were manually segmented on arterial, venous and delayed phases of CE-MRI, and total 2367 radiomics features were extracted. Read More

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Barriers to the Initiation of Home Modifications for Older Adults for Fall Prevention.

Geriatr Orthop Surg Rehabil 2021 30;12:21514593211002161. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Division of Trauma, Department of Orthopaedics, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH, USA.

Introduction: Home modifications are associated with decreased risk for falls and facilitate safe aging in place. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers to procurement of home modifications for older adults.

Materials And Methods: Cross-sectional interviews by 2 separate (1 male and 1 female) researchers in a Midwestern city of home repair ("handyman") and construction businesses within 15 miles of the areas of interest (neighborhood with a high socioeconomic status and neighborhood with low socioeconomic status) with a publicly listed phone number (n = 98). Read More

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Loss of Ambulatory Level and Activities of Daily Living at 1 Year Following Hip Fracture: Can We Identify Patients at Risk?

Geriatr Orthop Surg Rehabil 2021 31;12:21514593211002158. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Division of Orthopedic Trauma Surgery, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, NYU Langone Health, NYU Langone Orthopedic Hospital, New York, NY, USA.

Introduction: Operative hip fractures are known to cause a loss in functional status in the elderly. While several studies exist demonstrating the association between age, pre-injury functioning, and comorbidities related to this loss of function, no studies have predicted this using a validated risk stratification tool. We attempt to use the Score for Trauma Triage for Geriatric and Middle-Aged (STTGMA) tool to predict loss of ambulatory function and need for assistive device use. Read More

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Cloning of human ene in . required the removal of an intragenic Pribnow-Schaller Box before it's Insertion into genomic safe harbor AAVS1 site using CRISPR-Cas9.

F1000Res 2020 23;9:1498. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Department of Hepatology, Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, New Delhi, Delhi, 110070, India.

Genomic safe harbors are sites in the genome which are safe for gene insertion such that the inserted gene will function properly, and the disruption of the genomic location doesn't cause any foreseeable risk to the host. The AAVS1 site is the genetic location which is disrupted upon integration of adeno associated virus (AAV) and is considered a 'safe-harbor' in human genome because about one-third of humans are infected with AAV and so far there is no apodictic evidence that AAV is pathogenic or disruption of AAVS1 causes any disease in man.  Therefore, we chose to target the AAVS1 site for the insertion of , a bile acid transporter which is defective in progressive familial intra hepatic cholestasis type-2 (PFIC-2), a lethal disease of children where cytotoxic bile salts accumulate inside hepatocytes killing them and eventually the patient. Read More

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December 2020