81,162 results match your criteria risk problem


Multistage allocation problem for Mexican pension funds.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(4):e0249857. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Departament of Physics and Mathematics, Universidad Iberoamericana CDMX, Ciudad de México, México.

The problem of multistage allocation is solved using the Target Date Fund (TDF) strategy subject to a set of restrictions which model the latest regulatory framework of the Mexican pension system. The investment trajectory or glide-path for a representative set of 14 assets of heterogeneous characteristics is studied during a 161 quarters long horizon. The expected returns are estimated by the GARCH(1,1), EGARCH(1,1), GJR-GARCH(1,1) models, and a stationary block bootstrap model is used as a benchmark for comparison. Read More

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Influenza vaccination uptake and factors influencing vaccination decision among patients with chronic kidney or liver disease.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(4):e0249785. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Introduction: Seasonal influenza is a major global health problem causing substantial morbidity and health care costs. Yet, in many countries, the rates of influenza vaccination remain low. Chronic kidney or liver diseases (CKLD) predispose patients to severe influenza infections, but data on vaccination acceptance and status is limited in this risk population. Read More

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Investigation of in elderly people: A preliminary study in Iran.

Trop Doct 2021 Apr 13:49475521999221. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Professor, Department of Microbiology, 41616Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

Elderly people are at increased risk for infections such as with . This can colonize their gut and cause various gastro-intestinal manifestations. Our survey investigated its prevalence in a nursing home in Iran. Read More

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Occupational position and alcohol use disorders in Poland.

Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw, Poland (Department of Studies on Alcoholism and Drug Dependencies).

Objectives: The following analysis covers the role of the occupational structure in the prevalence of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). The authors investigated whether the occupational position affected the prevalence of AUDs among men and women, and how this relationship varied in lifetime and past year periods.

Material And Methods: Data were taken from the General Population Survey on Mental Health in Poland (EZOP) utilizing the questionnaire (N = 2806). Read More

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Liver Abscess in Children-experience From a Single Tertiary Care Center of North India: Etiology, Clinical Profile and Predictors of Complications.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2021 May;40(5):e179-e184

Department of Medical Parasitology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

Background: Liver abscess (LA), a common problem in children in the tropics, is believed to be mostly pyogenic (PLA), sometimes amebic (ALA). We aimed to analyze the clinical profile, etiology, risk factors for complications, management and outcomes of LA in children.

Methods: The details of 81 children with LA managed in a tertiary set up over a period of 3 years were analyzed. Read More

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The mediating role of daytime sleepiness between problematic smartphone use and post-traumatic symptoms in COVID-19 home-refined adolescents.

Child Youth Serv Rev 2021 Apr 8:106012. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Centre for Educational and Health Psychology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Background: COVID-19 was first recognized in late 2019 in China, at which time school closures forced most students to isolate at home or maintain social distance, both of which increased smartphone use, daytime sleepiness and post traumatic disorder (PTSD) risks. However, to date, no research has fully explored these behavioral risks or the consequences.

Methods: Two thousand and ninety home-confined students from two Chinese high schools participated in an online-based questionnaire battery that assessed their sociodemographic characteristics, COVID-19 related exposures, daytime sleepiness, problematic smartphone use, and PTSD. Read More

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Prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in South Asians in the US: A clinical perspective from the National Lipid Association.

J Clin Lipidol 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Advocate Lutheran General Hospital, Park Ridge, IL, United States.

It is now well recognized that South Asians living in the US (SAUS) have a higher prevalence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) that begins earlier and is more aggressive than age-matched people of other ethnicities. SA ancestry is now recognized as a risk enhancer in the US cholesterol treatment guidelines. The pathophysiology of this is not fully understood but may relate to insulin resistance, genetic and dietary factors, lack of physical exercise, visceral adiposity and other, yet undiscovered biologic mechanisms. Read More

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[Impact of an elective course in evidence-based clinical decision-making on competencies and attitudes of medical students: A pilot study].

Z Evid Fortbild Qual Gesundhwes 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Allgemeinmedizinisches Institut, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Erlangen, Deutschland.

Background: Evidence-based medicine (EbM) as a teaching subject is increasingly taken into account in the Master Plan 2020. To date, neither theoretical requirements nor practical applications of EbM have been consistently implemented in the clinical curriculum. To fill this gap, a digital and tutor-based EbM course has been developed. Read More

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Understanding the effects of personal factors and situational factors for adolescent cyberbullying perpetration: The roles of internal states and parental mediation.

J Adolesc 2021 Apr 9;89:28-40. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Social Work, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong. Electronic address:

Introduction: The risk and protective factors of cyberbullying perpetration have been widely investigated. Less attention is paid to explore the effects of personal and situational factors, internal states, and external states in an integrated framework. This study aims to fill this void by developing an integrated framework to investigate the effects of power imbalance, the online disinhibition effect, internal states, and parental mediation on cyberbullying among Chinese adolescents. Read More

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Candidate symptomatic markers for predicting violence in schizophrenia: A cross-sectional study of 7711 patients in a Chinese population.

Asian J Psychiatr 2021 Apr 5;59:102645. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Bio-X Institutes, Key Laboratory for the Genetics of Developmental and Neuropsychiatric Disorders (Ministry of Education), Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic Disorders, Shanghai Mental Health Centre, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200030, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Violent behaviour is an alarming problem among schizophrenia patients. The effects of historical, clinical, and pathological risk factors for violence have been investigated by multiple studies, but consensus has not been achieved. As psychotic symptoms are more direct and intuitive indicators for violence, identifying robustly associated symptoms is a crucial part of the future prediction and precise management of violent patients in clinics. Read More

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Reassessing the Inclusion of Race in Diagnosing Kidney Diseases: An Interim Report from the NKF-ASN Task Force.

Am J Kidney Dis 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Medicine, Priscilla Chan and Mark Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California. Electronic address:

For almost two decades, equations that use serum creatinine, age, sex, and race to eGFR have included "race" as Black or non-Black. Given considerable evidence of disparities in health and healthcare delivery in African American communities, some regard keeping a race term in GFR equations as a practice that differentially influences access to care and kidney transplantation. Others assert that race captures important GFR determinants and its removal from the calculation may perpetuate other disparities. Read More

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[Acute hepatitis C. Report of seven cases].

Rev Med Chil 2020 Dec;148(12):1813-1818

Servicio de Medicina Interna, Hospital Clínico, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Hepatitis C virus infection is a major global public health problem. Treatment with direct-acting antivirals is intended to eradicate the chronic form of this infection by 2030. Although uncommon, the acute form of presentation is increasingly recognized, especially in some high-risk populations, such as men who have sex with men without protection. Read More

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December 2020

MODERN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE PROBLEM OF UROGENITAL MYCOPLASMIS AMONG THE FEMALE POPULATION OF UKRAINE.

Wiad Lek 2021 ;74(3 cz 2):665-668

BOGOMOLETS NATIONAL MEDICAL UNIVERSITY, KYIV, UKRAINE.

Objective: The aim: To study and analyze the dynamics, age, and regional characteristics of the incidence of urogenital mycoplasmosis in Ukraine during 2014-2019 and to substantiate medical and organizational approaches to improving the prevention of urogenital mycoplasmosis among women.

Patients And Methods: Materials and methods: To study the dynamics, age, and regional characteristics of the prevalence and incidence of urogenital mycoplasmosis in women, reference and statistical materials of the State Statistics Service of Ukraine, reference materials and data from reporting forms No. 9, 34, 35 of the Center for Medical Statistics for 2014-2019 were used. Read More

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January 2021

What is a mental disorder? An exemplar-focused approach.

Psychol Med 2021 Apr 12:1-8. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Virginia Institute of Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics and Departments of Psychiatry, and Human and Molecular Genetics, School of Medicine/Virginia Commonwealth University, VA, USA.

The question of 'what is a mental disorder?' is central to the philosophy of psychiatry, and has crucial practical implications for psychiatric nosology. Rather than approaching the problem in terms of abstractions, we review a series of exemplars - real-world examples of problematic cases that emerged during work on and immediately after DSM-5, with the aim of developing practical guidelines for addressing future proposals. We consider cases where (1) there is harm but no clear dysfunction, (2) there is dysfunction but no clear harm, and (3) there is possible dysfunction and/or harm, but this is controversial for various reasons. Read More

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Netarsudil: A new ophthalmic drug in the treatment of chronic primary open angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension.

Eur J Ophthalmol 2021 Apr 10:11206721211008783. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

College of Clinical Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Vision impairment remains a major health problem worldwide. Elevated intraocular pressure is a prime risk factor for blindness in the elderly. Netarsudil is a Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, which also inhibits norepinephrine transport. Read More

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Municipal health promotion programs: is childhood obesity a concern at local level in Portugal?

Health Promot Int 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Department of Life Sciences, Research Centre for Anthropology and Health, University of Coimbra, Calçada Martim de Freitas, Edifício de São Bento, 3000-456 Coimbra, Portugal.

Health promotion programs, targeted at distinct health outcomes such as childhood obesity, at local level are increasingly used worldwide. Therefore, there is a need to better understand the role of local governments (municipalities) as key public health promoters namely in the prevention of obesity in children. We aimed to provide some input regarding this issue in Portugal. Read More

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Respiratory Tract Infections and Antibiotic Resistance: A Protective Role for Vitamin D?

Front Nutr 2021 25;8:652469. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Faculty of Medicine, School of Human Development and Health, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom.

Upper and lower respiratory tract infections are among the most common infections globally, and in the United Kingdom, they account for about half of all oral antibiotics prescribed. Antibiotic overuse and the emergence of "superbugs" that are resistant to their effects is a global problem that is becoming a serious concern. Considering this, the potential role of immunonutrition as a "prehabilitation" in helping to tackle bacterial infections and reduce over-reliance on antibiotic usage is gaining interest. Read More

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Development and Evaluation of Active Case Detection Methods to Support Visceral Leishmaniasis Elimination in India.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 24;11:648903. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Bihar Technical Support Program, CARE-India Solutions for Sustainable Development, Patna, India.

As India moves toward the elimination of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) as a public health problem, comprehensive timely case detection has become increasingly important, in order to reduce the period of infectivity and control outbreaks. During the 2000s, localized research studies suggested that a large percentage of VL cases were never reported in government data. However, assessments conducted from 2013 to 2015 indicated that 85% or more of confirmed cases were eventually captured and reported in surveillance data, albeit with significant delays before diagnosis. Read More

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College Students' Perceptions About Prescription Drug Misuse Among Peers.

Am Health Drug Benefits 2021 Mar;14(1):29-38

Associate Professor, Department of Pharmaceutical Systems and Policy, School of Pharmacy, West Virginia University, Morgantown.

Background: Prescription drug misuse is an escalating public health problem that is prevalent among college students. Various factors, such as sex, age, race, mental health conditions, and fraternity and sorority membership, increase the risk for prescription drug misuse. Peer influences may also pose significant risks for starting prescription drug misuse, because peers are the primary source of misused prescription drugs among college students. Read More

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CXCL13 and CXCL9 CSF Levels in Central Nervous System Lymphoma-Diagnostic, Therapeutic, and Prognostic Relevance.

Front Neurol 2021 26;12:654543. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Neurology, University Hospital, Ludwig Maximilian University, Munich, Germany.

Diagnostic delay and neurologic deterioration are still a problem for the treatment of rapidly progressing CNS lymphoma (CNSL); there is an unmet need for a diagnostic test with a high diagnostic yield and limited risk, minimizing the time to the initiation of effective treatment. In this prospective monocentric study, we analyzed the utility of CXCL13 and CXCL9 as diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic biomarkers for CNSL. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 155 consecutive patients admitted with brain lesions of various origins was collected. Read More

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Bioprosthetic versus mechanical mitral valve replacements in patients with rheumatic heart disease.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Division of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, Linkou Medical Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan City, Taiwan; Center for Big Data Analytics and Statistics, Linkou Medical Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan City, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Background: Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remains a critical problem in developed countries. Few studies have compared the long-term outcomes of bioprosthetic valves and mechanical valves in patients with RHD who have received mitral valve (MV) replacement.

Methods: Patients with RHD who received MV replacement with bioprosthetic or mechanical valves were identified between 2000 and 2013 from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. Read More

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The association between depression and chronic lower back pain from disc degeneration and herniation of the lumbar spine.

Int J Psychiatry Med 2021 Apr 11:912174211003760. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Department of medical education, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei.

Objective: Chronic lower back pain induced by lumbar disc degeneration or herniation exerts a great impact on patients' daily lives. Depression and anxiety often exist among patients with lower back pain. Some studies mentioned about mechanisms, such as inflammatory biomarkers, which are commonly seen in herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). Read More

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An integer programming model to assign patients based on mental health impact for tele-psychotherapy intervention during the Covid-19 emergency.

Health Care Manag Sci 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Human Cognitive Neuroscience, Psychology, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

The Covid-19 pandemic challenges healthcare systems worldwide while severely impacting mental health. As a result, the rising demand for psychological assistance during crisis times requires early and effective intervention. This contributes to the well-being of the public and front-line workers and prevents mental health disorders. Read More

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Substance use among refugees in three Lebanese camps: A cross-sectional study.

Int J Drug Policy 2021 Apr 8;94:103204. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Montpellier University, INSERM U 1058, Pathogenesis and Control of Chronic Infections (PCCI), Montpellier-France; Medical Pharmacology, and toxicology department Montpellier University, School of Pharmacy Montpellier- France. Electronic address:

Background: There is a strong link between conflict exposure and ill health, including substance use. However, this widely acknowledged problem has not been studied yet in refugee camps in Lebanon.

Aim: To investigate substance use among civilians following war or displacement, and to assess its association with socio-demographic characteristics. Read More

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Pesticides in honey bee colonies: Establishing a baseline for real world exposure over seven years in the USA.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jan 23;279:116566. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Department of Entomology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 20742, USA. Electronic address:

Honey bees Apis mellifera forage in a wide radius around their colony, bringing back contaminated food resources that can function as terrestrial bioindicators of environmental pesticide exposure. Evaluating pesticide exposure risk to pollinators is an ongoing problem. Here we apply five metrics for pesticide exposure risk (prevalence, diversity, concentration, significant pesticide prevalence, and hazard quotient (HQ)) to a nation-wide field study of honey bees, Apis mellifera in the United States. Read More

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January 2021

Psychometric properties of the ASQ-3 in a nationally representative sample of Uruguay.

Early Hum Dev 2021 Apr 1;157:105367. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Institute of Fundamentals and Methods in Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, University of the Republic, Uruguay. Electronic address:

Background: The Ages & Stages Questionnaires Third Version (ASQ-3) identifies the risk of developmental delay in children aged 2 to 66 months. The ASQ-3 is available in many languages. However, there is little evidence of the psychometric properties of the Spanish version and using nationally-representative samples. Read More

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Aqueous picloram degradation by hydroxyl radicals: Unveiling mechanism, kinetics, and ecotoxicity through experimental and theoretical approaches.

Chemosphere 2021 Mar 30;278:130401. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Instituto de Química, Universidade de Brasília, Caixa Postal 4478, 70904-970, Brasília, Brazil; Modeling of Physical and Chemical Transformations Division, Theoretical and Structural Chemistry Group, Research and Postgraduate Center, Goiás State University, 75132-903, Anápolis, Brazil. Electronic address:

Pesticides are chemical compounds widely used to combat pests in crops, and they thus play a key role in agricultural production. However, due to their persistence in aquatic environments, even at low concentrations, their use has been considered an environmental problem and caused concern regarding the adverse effects on human health. This paper reports, for the first time, the mechanisms, kinetics, and an evaluation of the toxicity of picloram degradation initiated by OH radicals in the aqueous environment using quantum chemistry and computational toxicology calculations. Read More

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Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in long-term follow-up after curative gastric resection with D2 lymphadenectomy: A cross-sectional study.

Pancreatology 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Medical Biochemistry, Haydarpasa Numune Training and Research Hospital, University of Health Sciences, Istanbul, Turkey.

Background: Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) can be a problem following gastrectomies. This study aimed to reveal the EPI prevalence and its possible causes in gastric cancer patients that underwent subtotal or total gastrectomy, with completed oncological treatments, and with long-term disease-free survival success. Additionally, we also sought to determine whether there were any relations between EPI and blood biomarkers, weight change, malnutrition parameters, and quality of life after gastrectomy. Read More

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Internalizing and externalizing problems across childhood and psychotic-like experiences in young-adulthood: The role of developmental period.

Schizophr Res 2021 Apr 7;231:108-114. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Psychology and Human Development, University College London, London WC1H 0AA, United Kingdom.

Background: Psychopathology in childhood and adolescence, commonly indexed by co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors, has been found to predict psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) in adults. However, studies to date have rarely examined internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors simultaneously or identified in which developmental period do these problem behaviors predict PLEs in adults. This study tests to what extent internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors in childhood (4-9 years) or adolescence (11-16 years) predict PLEs in young-adulthood (18 years). Read More

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Risk factors for incorrect surgical count during surgery: An observational study.

Int J Nurs Pract 2021 Apr 10:e12942. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou City, China.

Background: Incorrect surgical counts are closely related to retained surgical items, which pose a threat to patients. However, the risk factors for incorrect surgical counts have not been identified yet.

Aim: To identify the risk factors associated with incorrect surgical counts during surgery in a tertiary hospital. Read More

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