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Clinicopathological Characteristics and Surgical Outcomes of Crohn Disease-Associated Colorectal Malignancy.

Ann Coloproctol 2021 Apr 30;37(2):101-108. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: Carcinoma arising from Crohn disease (CD) is rare, and there is no clear guidance on how to properly screen for at-risk patients and choose appropriate care. This study aimed to evaluate the clinicopathological characteristics, treatment, and oncologic outcomes of CD patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC).

Methods: Using medical records, we retrospectively enrolled a single-center cohort of 823 patients who underwent abdominal surgery for CD between January 2006 and December 2015. Read More

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Birthweight, Childhood Body Mass Index, Height and Growth, and Risk of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

Obes Facts 2021 May 12:1-8. Epub 2021 May 12.

Center for Clinical Research and Prevention, Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg Hospital, The Capital Region, Frederiksberg, Denmark.

Introduction: Adult obesity is linked with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), but the importance of body size at ages before PCOS is diagnosed is unknown.

Objective: To investigate associations between a woman's own birthweight, childhood body mass index (BMI), height and growth patterns in relation to her risk of PCOS.

Methods: We included 65,665 girls from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, born in the period 1960-1996, with information on birthweight and measured weight and height at the ages of 7-13 years. Read More

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Risk factors for presence of cystoid macular edema following rhegmatogenous retinal detachment surgery.

Curr Eye Res 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Wills Eye Hospital, Mid Atlantic Retina, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA.

Purpose: Cystoid macular edema (CME) following cataract surgery is a well-known entity. Less is known regarding the risk factors of developing CME following repair of rhegmatogenous retinal detachments (RRD).

Methods: This was a multi-institutional study of primary RRD surgeries from 1/1/2015 through 12/31/2015. Read More

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Determinants of pregnancy-induced hypertension on maternal and foetal outcomes in Hossana town administration, Hadiya zone, Southern Ethiopia: Unmatched case-control study.

PLoS One 2021 12;16(5):e0250548. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Health Management and Economics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Globally, 292,982 women die due to the complications of pregnancy and childbirth per year, out of those deaths 85% occurs in Sub Saharan Africa. In Ethiopia, pre-eclampsia accounts for 11% of direct maternal deaths.

Objective: To determine maternal and foetal outcomes of pregnancy-induced hypertension among women who gave birth at health facilities in Hossana town administration. Read More

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Renal Normothermic Machine Perfusion: The Road Toward Clinical Implementation of a Promising Pretransplant Organ Assessment Tool.

Transplantation 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Surgery - Organ Donation and Transplantation, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands Laboratory of Abdominal Transplantation, Transplantation Research Group, Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Transplantation, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium Department of Abdominal Transplant Surgery, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

The increased utilization of high-risk renal grafts for transplantation requires optimization of pretransplant organ assessment strategies. Current decision-making methods to accept an organ for transplantation lack overall predictive power and always contain an element of subjectivity. Normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) creates near-physiological conditions, which might facilitate a more objective assessment of organ quality prior to transplantation. Read More

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Identification of a Novel Genetic Marker for Risk of Degenerative Rotator Cuff Disease Surgery in the UK Biobank.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Departments of Orthopaedic Surgery (E.L.Y., J.D.K., and R.W.W.), Surgery (E.L.Y. and G.A.C.), Genetics (S.J.L. and N.L.S.), and General Medical Studies (B.A.E.), Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri.

Background: While evidence indicates that familial predisposition influences the risk of developing degenerative rotator cuff disease (RCD), knowledge of specific genetic markers is limited. We conducted a genome-wide association study of RCD surgery using the UK Biobank, a prospective cohort of 500,000 people (40 to 69 years of age at enrollment) with genotype data.

Methods: Cases with surgery for degenerative RCD were identified using linked hospital records. Read More

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Racial/Ethnic Disparities In COVID-19 Exposure Risk, Testing, And Cases At The Subcounty Level In California.

Health Aff (Millwood) 2021 May 12:101377hlthaff202100098. Epub 2021 May 12.

Jeremy D. Goldhaber-Fiebert is an associate professor in the Centers for Health Policy and Primary Care and Outcomes Research, Stanford Health Policy, Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies and the Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford University.

With a population of forty million and substantial geographic variation in sociodemographics and health services, California is an important setting in which to study disparities. Its population (37.5 percent White, 39. Read More

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Universal and Selective Interventions to Prevent Poor Mental Health Outcomes in Young People: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Harv Rev Psychiatry 2021 May-Jun 01;29(3):196-215

From the Early Psychosis: Interventions and Clinical-Detection (EPIC) Laboratory, Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London (Drs. Salazar de Pablo, De Micheli, Catalan, Verdino, Di Maggio, Radua, Provenzani, Montealegre, Signorini, and Fusar-Poli, and Mr. Oliver); Departments of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (Dr. Salazar de Pablo) and of Psychosis Studies (Drs. Bonoldi and Baccaredda Boy), Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London; Institute of Psychiatry and Mental Health. Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón School of Medicine, Universidad Complutense, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón (IiSGM), CIBERSAM, Madrid (Drs. Salazar de Pablo and Arango); National Institute for Health Research, Maudsley Biomedical Research Centre, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London (Drs. De Micheli and Fusar-Poli); Department of Brain and Behavioral Sciences, University of Pavia (Drs. Di Maggio, Provenzani, Ruzzi, Calorio, Nosari, Di Marco, Famularo, Molteni, Filosi, Mensi, Balottin, Politi, and Fusar-Poli); Neurosciences Department, University of Padova (Dr. Solmi); Mental Health Department, Biocruces Bizkaia Health Research Institute, Basurto University Hospital, Facultad de Medicina y Odontología, Campus de Leioa, University of the Basque Country, UPV/EHU, Barakaldo, Bizkaia, Spain (Dr. Catalan); Department of Molecular and Developmental Medicine, Division of Psychiatry, University of Siena (Dr. Verdino); Imaging of Mood- and Anxiety-Related Disorders (IMARD) group, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), CIBERSAM, Barcelona (Dr. Radua); Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatric Research and Education, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Dr. Radua); Scientific Institute for Research, Hospitalization and Healthcare (IRCCS) Mondino Foundation, Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatric Unit (Dr. Mensi); Department of Paediatrics, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Dr. Shin); Zucker Hillside Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Northwell Health, Glen Oaks, NY (Dr. Correll); Department of Psychiatry and Molecular Medicine, Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell, Hempstead, NY (Dr. Correll); Center for Psychiatric Neuroscience, Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, NY (Dr. Correll); Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Dr. Correll); OASIS service, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London (Dr. Fusar-Poli).

Background: Much is not known about the efficacy of interventions to prevent poor mental health outcomes in young people by targeting either the general population (universal prevention) or asymptomatic individuals with high risk of developing a mental disorder (selective prevention).

Methods: We conducted a PRISMA/MOOSE-compliant systematic review and meta-analysis of Web of Science to identify studies comparing post-test efficacy (effect size [ES]; Hedges' g) of universal or selective interventions for poor mental health outcomes versus control groups, in samples with mean age <35 years (PROSPERO: CRD42018102143). Measurements included random-effects models, I2 statistics, publication bias, meta-regression, sensitivity analyses, quality assessments, number needed to treat, and population impact number. Read More

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Intuitive eating: associations with body weight status and eating attitudes in dietetic majors.

Eat Weight Disord 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Erciyes University, Melikgazi, Kayseri, 38039, Turkey.

Purpose: Intuitive eating (IE), an adaptive eating pattern characterized by eating in response to physiological hunger and satiety cues, has been associated with positive psychosocial and physical health outcomes. This study aimed to determine associations between IE behavior with body weight status and eating attitudes in dietetic students and dietitians, who are a risky population for disordered eating and body dissatisfaction.

Methods: Participants (n = 785) completed a self-administered questionnaire which featured socio-demographic characteristics, the eating attitudes test 26, the three-factor eating questionnaire, and the intuitive eating scale-2 with four facets unconditional permission to eat (UPE), eating for physical rather than emotional reasons (EPR), reliance on hunger and satiety cues (RHSC) and body-food choice congruence (B-FCC). Read More

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Development and Implementation of Preoperative Optimization for High-Risk Patients With Abdominal Wall Hernia.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 May 3;4(5):e216836. Epub 2021 May 3.

Division of Minimally Invasive Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

Importance: Real-world surgical practice often lags behind the best scientific evidence. For example, although optimizing comorbidities such as smoking and morbid obesity before ventral and incisional hernia repair improves outcomes, as many as 25% of these patients have a high-risk characteristic at the time of surgery. Implementation strategies may effectively increase use of evidence-based practice. Read More

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Pharmaceutical contaminants in shallow groundwater and their implication to poor sanitation facilities in low-income countries.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Faculty of Engineering, University of Ruhuna, Hapugala, Galle, Sri Lanka.

Rudimentary onsite sanitation systems (OSSs) are extensively used in low-income countries despite the risk of groundwater contamination. The present study investigated the potential impact of community soak pits on sandy shallow aquifers in a rural area in Sri Lanka. Thirty-two groundwater samples were collected and measured for traditional indicators, i. Read More

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Identifying UK travellers at increased risk of developing pneumococcal infection: a novel algorithm.

J Travel Med 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

School of Medicine & Dentistry, Gfiffith University Gold Coast campus, Queensland 4222, Australia.

Background: In 2016, the travel subcommittee of the UK Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation (JCVI) recommended that 13-valent PCV (PCV13) could be offered to travellers aged over 65 years, visiting countries without infant PCV immunization programmes. This study aimed to identify, collate and review the available evidence to identify specific countries where UK travellers might be at an increased risk of developing pneumococcal infection. The data were then used to develop an algorithm, which could be used to facilitate implementation of the JCVI recommendation. Read More

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Implications of the germline variants of DNA damage response genes detected by cancer precision medicine for radiological risk communication and cancer therapy decisions.

J Radiat Res 2021 May;62(Supplement_1):i44-i52

Laboratory of Molecular Radiology, Center for Disease Biology and Integrative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Large-scale cancer-associated gene testing is now being rapidly incorporated into clinical settings, and is leading to incidental identification of the germline variants present in cancer patients. Because many cancer susceptibility genes are related to DNA damage response and repair, the variants may reflect not only the susceptibility to cancer but also the genetically defined radiation sensitivity of the patients and their relatives. When the presence of a certain germline variant increases the risk for developing radiation toxicity or radiation-induced secondary cancers, it will greatly influence the clinical decision-making. Read More

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Dietary choline and betaine intake and risk of hypertension development: a 7.4-year follow-up.

Food Funct 2021 May;12(9):4072-4078

Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The evidence for a linkage between dietary intake of choline and betaine, a choline metabolism product, and the risk of hypertension (HTN) is limited. The current population-based cohort study was designed to investigate the possible association between dietary intake of choline and betaine with the risk of HTN in adults. This cohort study was conducted on the participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS). Read More

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Proton-pump inhibitors are associated with increased risk of prosthetic joint infection in patients with total hip arthroplasty: a case-cohort study.

Acta Orthop 2021 May 12:1-5. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, HagaZiekenhuis, Den Haag.

Background and purpose - Proton-pump inhibitors (PPI) have previously been associated with an increased risk of infections such as community-acquired pneumonia, gastrointestinal infections and central nervous system infection. Therefore, we evaluated a possible association between proton-pump inhibitor use and prosthetic joint infection (PJI) in patients with total hip arthroplasty (THA), because they can be stopped perioperatively or switched to a less harmful alternative.Patients and methods - A cohort of 5,512 primary THAs provided the base for a case-cohort design; cases were identified as patients with early-onset PJI. Read More

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Worldwide aflatoxin contamination of agricultural products and foods: From occurrence to control.

Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2021 May;20(3):2332-2381

Oil Crops Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science (CAAS), Xudong, Wuhan, Hubei, 430062, China.

Aflatoxins represent a global public health and economic concern as they are responsible for significant adverse health and economic issues affecting consumers and farmers worldwide. Produced by fungal species from the Aspergillus genus, aflatoxins are a toxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic group of fungal metabolites that routinely contaminate food and agricultural products. Climate and diet are essential factors in the aflatoxin contamination of food and subsequent human exposure process. Read More

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Weight Loss and Maintenance Related to the Mechanism of Action of Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Receptor Agonists.

Adv Ther 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Doctor of Medical Science Program, University of Lynchburg, Lynchburg, VA, USA.

Obesity is a chronic disease associated with many complications. Weight loss of 5-15% can improve many obesity-related complications. Despite the benefits of weight reduction, there are many challenges in losing weight and maintaining long-term weight loss. Read More

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Proximal Tibia Bone Stiffness and Strength in HR-pQCT- and QCT-Based Finite Element Models.

Ann Biomed Eng 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Radiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.

Injury to the ACL significantly increases the risk of developing post-traumatic osteoarthritis. Following injury, considerable focus is placed on visualizing soft tissue changes using MRI, but there is less emphasis on the alterations to the underlying bone. It has recently been shown using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) that significant reductions in bone quality occur in the knee post ACL-injury. Read More

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Adults Hospitalized with COVID-19 -United States, March-June and October-December 2020: Implications for the Potential Effects of COVID-19 Tier-1 Vaccination on Future Hospitalizations and Outcomes.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

CDC COVID-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Background: Because of the increased risk for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) initially prioritized COVID-19 vaccination for persons in long-term care facilities (LTCF), persons aged ≥65 years, and persons aged 16-64 years with high-risk medical conditions when there is limited vaccine supply. We compared characteristics and severe outcomes of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in the United States between early and later in the pandemic categorized by groups at higher risk of severe COVID-19.

Methods: Observational study of sampled patients aged ≥18 years who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and admitted to one of 14 academic hospitals in the United States during March-June and October-December 2020. Read More

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Implications of Vitamin D Research in Chickens can Advance Human Nutrition and Perspectives for the Future.

Curr Dev Nutr 2021 May 25;5(5):nzab018. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Prestage Department of Poultry Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA.

The risk of vitamin D insufficiency in humans is a global problem that requires improving ways to increase vitamin D intake. Supplements are a primary means for increasing vitamin D intake, but without a clear consensus on what constitutes vitamin D sufficiency, there is toxicity risk with taking supplements. Chickens have been used in many vitamin-D-related research studies, especially studies involving vitamin D supplementation. Read More

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NAFLD and Infection, a Nuanced Relationship.

Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 15;2021:5556354. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Division of Hospital Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic Health System, Eau Claire, WI, USA.

The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has increased significantly over the last few decades mirroring the increase in obesity and type II diabetes mellitus. NAFLD has become one of the most common indications for liver transplantation. The deleterious effects of NAFLD are not isolated to the liver only, for it has been recognized as a systemic disease affecting multiple organs through protracted low-grade inflammation mediated by the metabolic activity of excessive fat tissue. Read More

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Implant Prosthodontic Rehabilitation after Surgical Treatment for an Oropharyngeal Malignant Tumour Using Tantalum Dental Implants.

Case Rep Dent 2021 22;2021:5585181. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Oral Surgery, School of Dental Medicine, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.

Oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) represents a significant portion of head and neck cancers. In most cases, it is localised in the soft palate, lingual and palatine tonsils, base of the tongue, and the surrounding tissues. Alcohol and tobacco exposure are well-known evidence-based risk factors for developing OPC; however, over the last decade, there has been a rapid increase in OPC linked to human papillomavirus (HPV). Read More

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Traits explain invasion of alien plants into tropical rainforests.

Ecol Evol 2021 May 25;11(9):3808-3819. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

School of Biosciences The University of Melbourne Melbourne VIC Australia.

1. The establishment of new botanic gardens in tropical regions highlights a need for weed risk assessment tools suitable for tropical ecosystems. The relevance of plant traits for invasion into tropical rainforests has not been well studied. Read More

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Identification of an apoptosis-related prognostic gene signature and molecular subtypes of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC).

J Cancer 2021 2;12(11):3265-3276. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

The Fifth Hospital of Xiamen, Xiamen 361101, Fujian Province, China.

Previously studies have shown that apoptosis-related genes play an essential role in normal cell turnover, maintaining the immune system function, and inducing cell death. However, their prognostic roles in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) have not been thoroughly investigated. In the present study, apoptosis-related genes expression profiles from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) database were used as training dataset and external validation dataset, respectively. Read More

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Serum metabolomics analysis for the progression of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

J Cancer 2021 2;12(11):3190-3197. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan 250012, China.

Previous metabolomics studies have found differences in metabolic characteristics between the healthy and ESCC patients. However, few of these studies concerned the whole process of the progression of ESCC. This study aims to explore serum metabolites associated with the progression of ESCC. Read More

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Drug Resistance Pattern of Complex in Oromia Region of Ethiopia.

Infect Drug Resist 2021 4;14:1679-1689. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Health Studies, University of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa.

Purpose: Multidrug resistant tuberculosis is an emerging problem in many parts of the world. The aim of this study was to determine the drug resistance pattern of complex in Oromia Region of Ethiopia.

Patients And Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from Jan 2017 to June 2018 on 450 pulmonary tuberculosis patients who visited health facilities in nine administrative zones of Oromia Region. Read More

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Targeting Impaired Antimicrobial Immunity in the Brain for the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2021 4;17:1311-1339. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Pathophysiology, Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and aging is the most common risk factor for developing the disease. The etiology of AD is not known but AD may be considered as a clinical syndrome with multiple causal pathways contributing to it. The amyloid cascade hypothesis, claiming that excess production or reduced clearance of amyloid-beta (Aβ) and its aggregation into amyloid plaques, was accepted for a long time as the main cause of AD. Read More

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Treatment of COPD with Long-Acting Bronchodilators: Association Between Early and Longer-Term Clinically Important Improvement.

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2021 3;16:1215-1226. Epub 2021 May 3.

Global Specialty & Primary Care, GSK, Brentford, Middlesex, UK.

Introduction: This post hoc analysis of the "Early MAXimization of bronchodilation for improving COPD stability" (EMAX) trial investigated whether patients achieving early clinically important improvement (CII) sustained longer-term improvements and lower risk of clinically important deterioration (CID).

Methods: Patients were randomized to umeclidinium/vilanterol, umeclidinium, or salmeterol for 24 weeks. The patient-reported outcomes (PROs) Transition Dyspnea Index (TDI), Evaluating Respiratory Symptoms, St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and COPD Assessment Test (CAT) were assessed. Read More

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Diagnostics for COVID-19: A case for field-deployable, rapid molecular tests for community surveillance.

Ghana Med J 2020 Dec;54(4 Suppl):71-76

Kumasi Centre for Collaborative Research, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.

Across the globe, the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic is causing distress with governments doing everything in their power to contain the spread of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) to prevent morbidity and mortality. Actions are being implemented to keep health care systems from being overstretched and to curb the outbreak. Any policy responses aimed at slowing down the spread of the virus and mitigating its immediate effects on health care systems require a firm basis of information about the absolute number of currently infected people, growth rates, and locations/hotspots of infections. Read More

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December 2020